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Full text of "Boston journal almanac"

S2LS 

£157 
IMS' 



glint an a; 

THE. UiRARY Of THfc 

AUG 26 1944 

1895* ® tw,N P i8 



INDEX TO NEW ENGLAND MATTER. 



Boston as a Live Stock Market 

" Fire Department 

" Gas Consumption 

Harbor 

Journal 

National Banks 

" Park Statistics 

M Police Force 

" Side.valkLaw 

Boston's Actual Expenditures 

Fire Record 

" Grain Exports , 

" Valuation and Taxation 

College Physical Statistics 

Commerce of Boston 

Composition of United States Money 
Cotton Manufacturing at Fall River. 
Democratic Economic Belief in Massa 

chusetts 

Extra Sessions of Massachusetts Leg 

islature 

Facts About Boston 

Fifty Associates, The 

Ingot Copper 

Jury Duty in Massachusetts 

License Position of Massachusetti 
Cities 



Page. 
17 
18 
16 
18 
3 
19 
16 
18 

15 
18 
17 
15 
24 
17 
27 



Tage. 

Massachusetts Industries and the 

Panic 21 

Massachusetts Official Vote 5 

Republican Platform.. 7 

New England Coast 24 

Colleges 25 

" " Cotton Manufacture... 28 

Fisheries 28 

Granite Industry 22 

Legislatures 15 

Militia 23 

Vital Statistics 24 

Wool Manufacture 28 

Northern New England Game Laws. . 23 
Oldest New England College Grad- 
uates 25 

Population of New England by Coun- 
ties 29 

State Central Committees 9 

Telephone Business 26 

Trees on Boston Common 18 

Vaccination and Small-Pox 2 ( .) 

Voting Strength of Foreign Born in 

New England 27 

What Property may be Taxed for in 

New England 26 



For full Alphabetical Index see page 349, 



3 



BOSTON JOURNAL. 

DAILY. 1833. SUNDAY, 1893. 

To its regular readers the Journal has need to say little, in this introduc- 
tion to its Almanac, regarding its constant progress and vigorous development 
in all that constitutes a newspaper. The paper from day to day has been its 
own best witness. But, while readers recognize results, not all of them are 
familiar enough with the constituent elements of a newspaper establishment 
to know in just what directions enterprise, sagacity and capital have to be 
applied to produce them. A word in that line, therefore, may not be without 
interest. 

A newspaper establishment consists, in a general way, of three great de- 
partments—the business, the editorial and the mechanical. These are all di- 
vided and sub-divided until the result is an exceedingly complex organization. 
Now, in all of these, in mechanical equipment, in facilities for gathering news 
throughout the country, and especially throughout New England— the Jour- 
nal's chosen field— in a trained corps of editorial, reportorial and special writ- 
ers, the Journal will take odds from none of its competitors. It stands dis- 
tinctively with the foremost. Glance into its composing room and you will 
find there the most improved typesetting machines for the conversion of 
i'legible manuscript into clear, fresh type, new every day; machines which in 
marvelous ingenuity rival even the wonderful machinery of our boasted cotton 
or silk factories. Step into its stereotyping department, and you will see the 
test devices that are known for hastening that work, rendering the casting 
of a plate in the short space of five minutes the common thing. Descend into 
its pressroom, and you will be confronted with a Hoe quadruple press that is 
capable of printing, pasting, cutting, folding and counting 48,000 eight-page 
Journals per hour, or 24,000 ten, twelve or sixteen -age Journals per hour. 
You will see also a second press of almost equal capacity. More, too, you 
will find preparations being made there for two new presses of the most 
recent pattern, one capable of turning out 72,000 eight-page Journals per hour 
> *^and .ae other 48.000, all made necessary by recent growth. 

Or, if you will ascend again to its news floor, you will find there special 
telegraph wires connecting with New York, Washington and Chicago, with 



4 BOSTON JOURNAL.-Continued. 

special operators for the Journal's own service, besides connections with all 
the various news services. These are the lines of development that have 
joined to the production of the Journal and that have been warranted by its 
steady and accelerating growth. 

Though established for more than sixty years, the changes in the manage- 
ment of the Journal have been relatively few, and the paper has always been 
in the hands of those who have been long identified with its interests and 
upbuilding. 

The history of the Journal has always been marked by enterprise and 
endeavor to keep in close touch with all progressive movements. During the 
excitement connected with the California gold fever in 1849 a California edi- 
tion of the Journal was issued and had a large circulation. So great was the 
interest of the New Englanders on the Pacific coast for news from the East 
that fabulous prices for single copies of the Journal were often paid by 
them. The Journal used to send thither 10,000 copies of this edition per 
month, a greater number than was issued by any other New England or New 
York paper. During the Civil War, too, the Journal was the foremost New 
England paoer both in circulation and the fullness and trustworthiness of its 
news from the front. An ardent advocate of the Administration and of the 
vigorous prosecution of the war, its influence was felt and recognized through- 
out the North. 

In more recent years its course is familiar to all its readers. Its aim has 
been to be a New England newspaper for the home and the office or the 
counting-room. All matters of general interest that were clean and wholesome 
it has presented in accurate and entertaining form. Its political forecasts and 
canvasses have been surpassed by no other paper in the country for complete- 
ness and discriminating accuracy. Its attention to all manly sports, its au- 
thoritative reviews of the musical and dramatic fields, and its full market 
reports are likewise recognized features. 

The Sunday issue of the Journal was started Oct. 1, 1893. For ten years 
the Republicans of New England, and especially of Massachusetts, had been 
urging the management to do this. The result was that the Sunday Journal 
had not to find itself a constituency, as most new papers have to do, but it 
had one readv at hand. Within a month it had attained a position that usually 
is gotten only after years, and its growth since has been constant. 



MASSACHUSETTS OFFICIAL VOTE. 



5 



Massachusetts Official Vote. 



FOR GOVERNOR. 

1894. 1893. 

Greenhalge, Rep 189,307 192,613 

Russell, Dem 123,930 156,916 

Richardson, Prohib 9,037 8,556 

, P. P 4,885 

Taylor, Socialist Lab.. 3,104 2,033 

All others 11 9 

FOR LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR. 

Wolcott, Rep 178,821 194,243 

Stratton, Dem 118,149 151,229 

Shapleigh, Prohib 20,375 8,584 

Dwinell, P. P 9,290 5,680 

Ruth-r, Social. Lab... 3,439 1,788 

All others 15 7 

FOR SECRETARY. 

Olin, Rep 185,459 192,751 

De Courcy, Dem 113,837 144,014 

Skinner, P. P 9,257 6,184 

Farnham, Prohib 8,016 9,019 

Moloney, Social. Lab.. 8,016 2,429 

All others 6 14 



FOR TREASURER AND RECEIVER 
GENERAL. 

1894. 1893. 

Phillips, Rep 184,890 190,088 

Grinnell, Dem 117,890 143,632 

Moran, P. P 9,710 6,462 

Fisher, Prohib 7,953 9,058 

Auerbach, Social Lab. 3,413 2,790 

All others 8 5 

FOR AUDITOR 

Kimball, Rep 186,254 188,767 

Whitney, Dem 115,454 145.46S 

Landers, P. P 8,892 5,802 

Purrington, Prohib 8,274 8,924 

Wentworth, Soc. Lab.. 4,220 2,039 

All others 8 11 

FOR ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

Knowlton, Rep 186,940 192,193 

Hurlburt, Dem 115,971 143,214 

Sumner, P. P 8,767 5,309 

Forbush, Prohib 7,997 8,664 

Nagler, Social. Lab.... 3,419 2,937 

All others 9 9 



FOR EXECUTIVE COUNCILORS. 

First District— Keith (Rep.), 23,432; Palmer (Dem.), 10,484; all others, 17. 
Second District— Savage (Rep.), 27,400; Morse (Dem.), 17,690; all others, 8. 
Third District— Raymond (Rep.), 25,104; Tindall (Dem.), 15,398; all others, 2. 
Fourth District— Sullivan (Dem.), 18,725; Lattimore (Rep.), 14,834; all 
others, 4. 

Fifth District— Southwick (Rep.), 20,952; Lord (Dem.), 10,470; Blaney (P. P.), 
2,661; all others, 3. 

Sixth District— Harlow (Rep.), 27,598; Simonds (Dem.), 18,125; Carr (P. P.), 
1,776; all others, 1. 

Seventh District— Stevens (Rep.), 25,773; McLaughlin (Dem.), 13,802; Adams 
(Pro.), 1,441. 

Eighth District— Barrus (Rep.), 24,467; Kellogg (Dem.), 15,750; Nash (Pro.), 
1,454; Haradan (P. P.), 1,451; all others, 1. 

FOR SENATORS. 

First Suffolk District— Maccabe (Rep.), 5,544; Woolley (Dem.), 2,786; Wes- 
ton (Pro.), 330; Sullivan (P. P.), 245; all others, 9. 

Second Suffolk District— Corbett (Dem.), 3,926; Swallow (Rep.), 2,499. 

Third Suffolk District— Gilbride (Dem.), 3,868; Coffey (Rep.), 1,340. 

Fourth Suffolk District— Quinn (Dem.), 3,499; Emerson (Rep.), 1,732; all 
others, 1. 

Fifth Suffolk District— Sanger (Rep.), 4,129; Fowler (Dem.), 1,791; all 
others, 1. 

Sixth Suffolk District— McMorrow (Dem.), 3,588; Eager (Rep.), 3,025; Casey 
(Dem. Cit.), 2,292; all others, 2. 



MASSACHUSETTS OFFICIAL VOTE.— Continued. 



Seventh Suffolk District— Hutchinson (Rep.), 4,608; Golding (Dem.), 4,121. 

Eighth Suffolk District— Fuller (Rep.), 2,722; Cronan (Dem.), 2,485; Coakley 
(Dem. Cit.). 2.325: Baker (Rep.), 622; all others, 2. 

Ninth Suffolk District— Sprague (Rep.) 8,664; Merritt (Dem.), 4,964; all 
others, 2. 

First Essex District— Bessom (Rep.), 3,873; Young (Dem.), 1,723; Conway 
(P. P.). 624; Wiley (Pro.), 215; Wolf son (S. L.), 176. 

Second Essex District— Galloupe (Rep.), 3,851; Rantoul (Dem.), 3,144; San- 
born (P. P.), 404; Lovett (Pro.), 319; all others, L 

Third Essex District— Smith (Rep.), 3,362; Blatchford (Dem.), 1,186; Perkins 
(Pro.), 767; Foster (P. P.), 394; all others, 1. 

Fourth Essex District— Frothingham (Rep.), 4,447; Adams (Dem.), 1,879; 
Bradley (P. P.), 674; all others, 2. 

Fifth Essex District— Atherton (Rep.), 4,605; Sullivan (Dem.), 2,421; Tyler 
(P. P.), 571; Lewis (S. L.), 118. 

Sixth Essex District— Gage (Rep.), 4,948; Brooks (Dem.), 3,808; Beal (P. P.), 
425; Searle (Pro.), 189. 

First Middlesex District— Perkins (Rep.), 6,437; Poor (Dem.), 2,861; Walsh 
(Pro.), 274; all others. 1. 

Second Middlesex District— Shaw (Rep.), 5,696; Hall (Dem.), 2,803; Wheaton 
(P. P.), 308: all others. 2. 

Third Middlesex District— Durant (Rep.), 4,321; Weston-Smith (Dem.), 2,184; 
Bird (P. P.), 1,159; Page (Pro.), 159. 

Fourth Middlesex District— Reed (Rep.), 4,594; Walsh (Dem.), 3,484; Hoven- 
don (P. P.), 321. 

Fifth Middlesex District— Burns (Rep.), 4,601; Crane (Dem.), 2,622; Beers 
(P. P.), 202; all others, 1. 

Sixth Middlesex District— Wellman (Rep.), 7,069; Hesseltine (Dem.), 3,213; 
all others, 2. 

Seventh Middlesex District— Foss (Rep.), 6,293; Brady (Dem.), 5 955- Con- 
nolly (P. P.). 256. 

First Worcester District— Salisbury (Rep.), 7,586; Blake (P, P) 504- Hewitt 
(Pro.), 302; all others, 3. 

Second Worcester District— Harvey (Rep.), 4,816; Dame (Dem.) 3 288- Leon- 
ard (Pro.), 287; all others, 1. 

Third Worcester District— Bill of Paxton (Rep.), 4,431- Howard mem ^ 
2,907; Hamilton (P. P.), 223. 1 ' ; ' 

Fourth Worcester District— Miller (Rep.), 5,943; Kendall (Dem ^ 9«qq. 
Leach (Pro.). 227; all others. 4. AOtw ' 

Worcester and Hampshire District— Blodgett (Rep.), 4 229- Green mum \ 
2,028; Magill (Pro.). 352: all others, 6. ' v era ''' 

First HamDden District— Bradford (Rep.), 4,708; Stebbins (Dem) 4 014- 
Jones (P. P.). 403; Rogers (Pro.), 355; all others, 3. ^ ** 

Second Hampden District— Whitcomb (Rep.), 5,191; Smith (Dem ^ 4 fts*. 
Hart (P. P.). 294; all others, 2. ,D0 °' 

Franklin District— Malone (Rep.), 4,576; Kimball (Dem.), 2,086; Perry (Pro ) 

473. 

Berkshire District— Lawrence (Rep.), 5,380; Bourne (Dem.), 3 033- Cnmmm«,a 
(P. P.). 2S7; Smith (Pro.), 259; Ripley (Rep.). 4.493; Gross (Dem ) 3 016- Cav 
lord (Pro.). 385. ' ' * 

Berkshire and Hampshire District— John B. Ripley (Rep ) 4 493- Wm w 
Gross (Dem.), 3,016; Martin L. Gaylord (Pro.), 385. ' ' 1 ' **« 

First Norfolk District— Darling (Rep.), 5,490; Peck (Dem.) 5490- 
(P. P.). 396; all others, 4. ' ' * llCn 



MASSACHUSETTS OFFICIAL VOTE.— Continued. 



Second Norfolk District— Gray (Rep.), 5,597; Warren (Dem.), 2,875; Han- 
ners (Pro.), 226; all others, 1. 

First Plymouth District— Atwood (Rep.), 3,849; Peterson (Dem.), 1,373; Nash 
(P. P.), 544; Thompson (Pro.), 212; all others, 1. 

Second Plymouth District— Leach (Rep.), 4,386; Holmes (Dem.), 3,616; all 
others, 8. 

First Bristol District— Southard (Rep.), 4,318; Drake (Dem.), 1,922. 
Second Bristol District— O'Neill (Rep.), 5,773; O'Hearn (Dem.), 4,391. 
Third Bristol District— Butler (Rep.), 4,874; Davis (Dem.), 1,178. 
Cape District— Morse (Rep.), 3,919; Crosby (Dem.), 842; Woodwell (Pro.), 232. 

CONGRESSIONAL VOTE. 



Districts. 



1894. 



Rep. 



First | 14,018 | 

Second | 15,480 | 

Third | 13,788 | 

Fourth | 16,992 | 

Fifth | 14,372 | 

Sixth | 16,206 | 

Seventh | 16,453 | 

Eighth | 15,188 | 

Ninth | 11,459 | 

Tenth | 9,833 | 

Eleventh | 16,905 | 

Twelfth | 15,865 | 

Thirteenth | 13,497 | 



Dem. 

9,961 
7,924 
8,251 
8,432 
12,341 
5,747 
9,601 
8,747 
9,545 
7,113 
9,456 
6,359 
8,548 



Pro. I P. P. 



1892. 



746 
568 



316 



811 



8,868f| 



585 || 
1,050 || 
952 || 
774 || 
763 || 
1,772 || 
1,310 || 
756 || 
511*H 
1.187$|| 
916 || 
2,065 || 
II 



Rep. I 

14,198 | 

15,131 | 

14,139 | 

16,209 | 

12,645 | 

16,385 | 

9,699 | 

15,671 | 

14,354 | 

8,822 | 

16,961 | 

17,316 | 

13,945 | 



Dem. 

13,995 | 

12,718 | 

13,262 | 

13,058 | 

14,423 | 

10,228 | 

9,733 | 

14,679 | 

8,622 | 

7,591 | 

14,404 | 

12,673 | 

9,006 | 



Pro. 



P. P. 



,019 
571 



520 



602 



517 
,507t 
560 
916 



* Social. Labor, f Democratic Citizen. $ Independent Republican. 
The comparison in the State vote is with the previous year, but the candi- 
dates of each party for the two periods are not in all cases the same. 



flassachusetts Republican Platform. 



The principles of the Republicans of 
Massachusetts are as well known as the 
Commonwealth itself : well known as the 
Republic: well known as Liberty; well 
known as Justice. 
Chief among- them are : 
An equal share in government for every 
citizen ; 

Best possible wages for every work- 
man ; 

The American market for American 
labor ; 

Every dollar paid by the Government, 
both the gold and the silver dollars of the 
Constitution, and their paper representa- 
tives, honest and unchanging in value and 
equal to every other ; 

Better immigration laws : 

Better naturalization laws ; 

Notramp,Anarchi8t,criminalor pauper 
to be be let In, so that citizenship shall 
not be stained or polluted. 

Sympathy with Liberty and Republican 
government at home and abroad : 

Americanism everywhere ; 

The flag never lowered or dishonored ; I 
Adopted Oct. 6, 1894, in 



No surrender in Samoa; 

No barbarous Queen beheading men in 

Hawaii ; 
No lynching ; 

No punishment without trial ; 
Faith kept with the pensioner ; 
No deserving old soldier in the poor 
house ; 

The suppression of dram drinking and 
dram selling ; 
A school at the public charge open to all 
the children, and free from partisan or sec- 
tarian control ; 

No distinction of birth or religious creed 
in the rights of American citizenship ; 

Devotion paramount and supreme to the 
country and to the flag ; 
Clean politics; 
Pure administration ; 
No lobby ; 

Reform of old abuses ; 

Leadership along loftier paths ; 
Minds ever open to the sunlight and the 
morning, ever open to new truth and new 
duty as the new years bring their lessons. 

Convention at Boston. 



8 



DEMOCRATIC ECONOMIC BELIEF IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



Democratic Economic Belief in flassachusetts. 

"We have for years advocated a thorough reform of the tariff. The House 
or Wilson bill was an honest effort to carry out the Democratic policy. Its 
defeat is much to be regretted. We hold those Democratic Senators who by 
their inaction or resistance prevented its passage to be traitors to their party, 
and we demand their retirement from party leadership. We also demand that 
United States Senators be elected by direct* vote of the people. 

"We recognize, however, that the new tariff is, in spi'te of its imperfections' 
a great improvement in almost every schedule over the monstrous act of 
spoliation known as the McKinley tariff, and we hail its passage as the be- 
ginning of the end of an unconstitutional system of duties for protection only. 

"We believe it to be the immediate duty of the Democratic party to place 
every commodity which can fairly be described as raw material upon the free 
list; to abolish all duties which tend to create and maintain monopolies and 
trusts, and to reduce all duties which are still prohibitory in effect. 

"We hold that the currency troubles, which during the last twenty-five 
years have brought industrial distress upon this country, are evils for which 
the Republican party is directly responsible. In 1870 a Republican President, 
with the assistance of a Republican Congress, packed the United States Su- 
preme Court to reverse the decision that the making of greenbacks a legal 
tender was unconstitutional, and thus opened the way for unlimited inflation. 
One of the results of the false ideas thus inculcated was the Bland-Allison act 
of 1878, which compelled the purchase of silver bullion to the amount of $2,- 
000,000 a month. The evil done by this law was greatly increased in 1890, 
when, in pursuance of the recommendation of a Republican Secretary of the 
Treasury a Republican Congress passed, and a Republican President signed, 
the Sherman act, compelling the purchase of silver bullion to the amount of 
4,500,000 ounces per month. These various measures have all been in direct 
violation of the constitutional functions of the Government, according to the 
historic principles of the Democratic party. 

"On the other hand, the only financial measure during this generation for 
which, as the party in power, the Democratic party is responsible, has been 
the repeal of the Sherman act, as the first step toward a healthier financial 
condition. 

"We reaffirm our allegiance to the great financial principles which guided 
Jefferson, Jackson and Secretary Walker; that it is the sole function of the 
Federal Government in monetary matters to provide a standard of value and 
to coin metallic money every dollar of which shall be of equal intrinsic value; 
that nothing but this coined money shall be a legal tender, and that the Gov- 
ernment shall not carry on a banking business. We demand that the untaxed 
notes of State or national banks shall be the only paper money, and that tlw 
Government shall, with the development of a banking system adequate to the 
demands of trade, retire as rapidly as possible all its legal tender paper money. 

"We approve the principle of the income tax as a return to correct theories 
of taxation."— Essential features of platform adopted by party, Oct. 8, 1894. 



STATE CENTRAL COMMITTEES. 



9 



State Central Committees. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

REPUBLICAN. — Headquarters, Boston. Members: Suffolk— 1, E. F. Put- 
nam, Chelsea; 2, William H. Preble, Charlestown; 3, James F. Malone, Bos- 
ton; 4, George H. Bond, Boston; 5, George H. Lyman, Boston; 6, W. F. Clark, 
South Boston; 7, Benjamin H. Lane, Boston; 8, J. W. Hendricks, Boston; 9, 
Frederick K. Folsom. Boston. 

Essex— 1, L. H. Bartlett, Lynn; 2, Joseph W. Peterson, Salem; 3, George P. 
Blodgett, Rowley; 4, J. O. Wardwell; 5, N. Porter Perkins, Wenham; 6, Charles 
U. Bell, Lawrence. 

Middlesex— 1, ; 2, Everett C. Benton, Belmont; 3, Isaac S. Pear, Cam- 
bridge; 4, J. R. McCullis, Marlboro; 6, Wilmot R. Evans, Everett; 7, Walter 
Coburn, Lowell. 

Worcester— 1. Samuel E. Winslow, Worcester; 2, Eben S. Donke, Hopedale; 
3, Daniel Keul. Leicester; 4, F. W. Wellington, Worcester. 

Norfolk— 1. B. H. Woodsum, Braintree; 2. H. J. Plympton, Brookline. 

Bristol— 1. Mr. Washburne, Taunton; 2, Steven B. Ashley, Fall River; 3, 
Charles O. Brightman, New Bedford. 

Plymouth— 1, F. T. Whiting, North Abington; 2, W. F. Ryder, Middleboro. 

Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket— T. H. Hallet, Yarmouth. 

Hampden— A. H. Goetting, Springfield. 

Berkshire and Hampshire— William Bancroft, Chesterfield. 
Berkshire District— A. H. Hall, Pittsfield. 
Franklin— G. A. Towne, Orange. 

DEMOCRATIC— Members: At Large— John W. Corcoran, Clinton; Josiah 
Quincy, Boston; Daniel F. Buckley, Easton; John T. Wheelwright, Boston; 
John H. Sullivan, Boston; John J. Donovan, Lowell; Walter Cutting, Pitts- 
field; Nathan Matthews, Jr., Boston; Eugene M. Moriarty, Worcester; Joseph 
L. Sweet, Attleboro; Patrick J. Daly, Boston; John F. Fitzgerald, Boston; 
Robert E, Burke, Newburyport; James E. Sullivan, Fall River; Henry C. 
Thacher, Yarmouth; Samuel K. Hamilton, Wakefield; Charles C. Spellman, 
Springfield. 

By districts: Bristol County— Lincoln S. Drake, Easton; James E. Dalton, 
Fall River; John I. Bryant, Fairhaven. 

Barnstable. Dukes and Nantucket counties— George T. McLoughlin, Sand- 
wich. 

Essex— Edmund J. Phelan, Lynn; Thomas A. Devine, Salem; Thomas W. 
Brophy, Gloucester; James H. O'Toole, Amesbury; Daniel L. Crowley, Dan- 
vers; Michael O. Mahoney, Lawrence. 

Franklin— John H. Sanderson, Greenfield. 

Hampden— James O'Keefe, Springfield; Elmer W. Dickerman, Westfield. 

Middlesex— William T. Jenney, Medford; M. L. Halleran, Waltham; Andrew 
J. Rady, Cambridge; Maurice F. Coughlin, Holliston; Thomas Salmon, Wo- 
burn; James Fitzpatrick, Maiden; Philip J. Farley, Lowell. 

Norfolk— John W. Hart, Weymouth; John F. Cusick, Brookline. 

Plymouth— John M. Hayes, Abington; William H. Jordan, Brockton. 

Suffolk— William F. McClellan, Boston; Edward Gargan, Boston; George F. 
Coleman, Boston; Patrick J. Grady, Boston; Benjamin W. Wells, Boston; 
John J. Kennelly, Boston; James E. Stewart, Boston; John H. Lee, Boston; 
Patrick M. Keating, Boston. 

Worcester, Hampshire and Berkshire— John F. Riordan, Worcester; George 
P. Cooke, Milford; Joseph M. Olney, Southbridge; Paul Harny, Worcester; 
John J. Kidgell. Ware; Henry J. Risan, Pittsfield; William H. Gross, Lee. 



10 



STATE CENTRAL COMMITTEES.-Continued. 



MAINE. 

REPUBLICAN.— Chairman, J. H. Manley, Augusta. Members: Androscog- 
gin — S. M. Carter, Auburn; Aroostook — Thomas H. Phair, Presque Isle; Cum- 
berland— E. Dudley Freeman, Yarmouth; Franklin— F. E. Timberlake, Phillips; 
Hancock— H. B. Saunders, Ellsworth; Kennebec— Joseph H. Manley, Augusta; 
Knox— John Lovejoy, Rockland; Lincoln— George Bliss, Waldoboro; Oxford— 
W. J. Wheeler, South Paris; Penobscot— A. B. Farnham, Bangor; Piscataquis— 
W. E. Parsons, Foxcroft; Sagadahoc— S. W. Carr, Bowdoinham; Somerset— 
J. O. Smith, Skowhegan; Waldo— J. S. Harriman, Belfast; Washington— L. G. 
Downes, Calais; York— Charles M. Moses, Saco. 

DEMOCRATIC— Chairman, George E. Hughes, Bath. Members: Andros- 
coggin— D. J. McGillicuddy, Lewiston; Aroostook— Peter C. Keegan, Van 
Buren; Cumberland— Llewellyn Barton, Portland; Franklin— Enoch W. Whit- 
comb; Hancock— Edward E. Brady, Ellsworth; Kennebec— Fred Emery Beane, 
Hallo well; Knox— J. H. Montgomery, Camden; Lincoln— George H. Coombs, 
Waldoboro; Oxford— Byron L. Kimball, Norway; Penobscot— Edward Connors, 
Bangor; Piscataquis— Henry Hudson, Guilford; Sagadahoc— George E. Hughes, 
Bath (chairman): Somerset— W. J. Bradbury, Fairfield; Waldo— P. C Kilgore, 
Belfast; Washington— Frank W. Sawyer, Millbridge; York— Tristram Gold- 
thwaite, Biddeford. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

REPUBLICAN.— Headquarters, Concord. Members: Rockingham County 
— Rufus N. Elwell, Exeter; Edward H. Gilman, Exeter; Joseph R. Rowe, Brent- 
wood; Fred. A. Palmer, Derry (depot); George W. Tilton, Epping; Warren 
Brown, Hampton (Falls); Joseph Pinkham, Newmarket; Ira N. Blake, North- 
wood; Moses B. Dow, Plaistow; Samuel W. Emery, Portsmouth; Edwin B. 
Prime, Portsmouth; William R. Wheeler, Salem. 

Strafford— Chris. H. Wells, Somersworth; Cyrus Freeman, Somersworth; 
William E. Waterhouse, Barrington; Charles A. Fairbanks, Dover; William 
D. Sawyer, Dover; James F. Seavey, Dover; Jeremiah Langley, Durham; Eu- 
gene P. Nute, Farmington; John S. Daniels, Rochester; J. Q. A. Wentworth, 
Rollinsford (Salmon Falls P. O.). 

Belknap— George A. Sanders, Laconia; Stephen S. Jewett, Laconia; Henry 
B. Quinby, Laconia: Amos L. Rollins, Alton; Joseph F. Smith, Meredith; Will- 
iam B. Fellows. Tilton. 

Carroll— Charles F. Piper, Wolfeborough; James L. Gibson, Conway 
(North); Edgrar L. Mills, Freedom; James E. French, Moultonborough ; Arthur 
L. Hodsdon, Ossipee. 

Merrimack— Herman W. Greene, Hopkinton; Willis G. Buxton, Boscawen 
(Penacook P. O.); Henry M. Baker, Bow (Concord P. O.); Jacob H. Gallinger, 
Concord; James O. Lyford, Concord; Lysander H. Carroll, Concord; Frank S. 
Streeter, Concord; Loren S. Richardson, Concord; James B. Tennant, Epsom 
(Short Falls P. O.); Edward G. Leach, Franklin (Falls); Frank N. Parsons, 
Franklin; Eugene S. Head, Hooksett; Jeremiah E. Smith, Northfield (Tilton 
P. O.); Hiram A. Tuttle, Pittsfield; Edward H. Carroll, Warner. 

Hillsborough— Nathan P. Hunt, Marcellus Gould, Edwin F. Jones. 

Cheshire— Clement J. Woodward, Charles H. Hersey, Oscar G. Nims and 
Charles C. Boffum, Keene; Charles B. Hopkins, Hinsdale; Josiah G. Bellows, 
Walpole; Lewis W. Aldrich, Westmoreland; George W. Pierce, Winchester. 

Sullivan— James A. Ward, Acworth; Frank Finnigan, Charlestown; George 
H. Stowell and Frank H. Brown, Claremont; Melvin C. Gregg, Goshen; Moses 
P. Burpee, Grantham; John B. Cooper, Newport. 

Grafton— Frank C. Churchill, Lebanon; Hiram Hodgdon, Ashland; George 
T. Cruft, Bethlehem; John H. Brown, Bristol; Moody C. Dole, Campton; George 
H. Gordon, Canaan; Quincy A. Scott, Haverhill; Augustus A. Woolson, Lisbon; 
Henry F. Green. Littleton; William H. Dimick, Lyme; Paul Lang, Oxford; 
Benjamin F. St. Clair, Plymouth; William D. Baker, Rumney. 



STATU CENTRAL COMMITTEES.-Continued. 



11 



Coos— Frank P. Brown, Whitefleld; Herbert I. Goss, Berlin; Thomas H. 
Van Dyke, Stewartstown; Henry Marble, Gorham; Alexander M. Beattie, Lan- 
caster; Frank G. McKellips, Northumberland; John C. Bickford, Daniel F. 
Healy, David Wadsworth, Harry E. Parker, Luther C. Baldwin and Eugene 
Quirin, Manchester; Samuel S. Sawyer, Auburn; Robinson Brown, Goffstown; 
Charles E. Hall, Greenville; John B. Smith, Hillsborough; John McLane, Mil- • 
ford; George H. Brigham, Dana W. King, G. Frank Hammond, Andros B. 
Jones, Edward H. Wason and Lotie I. Minard, Nashua; Daniel M. Webster, 
Pelham; Frank G. Clarke, Peterborough. 

DEMOCRATIC— Headquarters, Concord. Members: Rockingham— Frank 
Jones, Marcellus Eldridge, W. A. Cullen, J. F. Magraw, E. L. Guptill, Ports- 
mouth; J. Warren Towle, John O'Neil, Exeter; George W. Sanborn, East King- 
ston; Thomas Leddy, South Newmarket; Luther W. Twombly, Northwood; 
Gilman Greenough, Atkinson; George E. Hodgdon, Newmarket; Miner G. Frye, 
Derry Depot; Frank P. Woodbury, Salem; Charles C. Tucker, Deerfield; J. C. 
Eastman, Hampstead; R. M. Scammon, Stratham; A. G. Whittier, Raymond; 
C. E. Folsom, Epping; David Jenness, Rye. 

Strafford— D. H. Whittier, C. M. Bailey, S. D. Felker, S. J. Wentworth, S. 
Wolf, N. T. Kimball. Rochester; J. H. Joyce, B. F. Hanson, W. F. Harmon, 
J. A. Conley. John Bunker, Somersworth; Andrew Killoren, Frank F. Fernald, 

E. O. Pinkham, J. N. Willey, Michael Chicoine, Dover; John F. Cloutman, 
Farmington; Winthrop Merserve, Durham; C. H. Twombly, Strafford; William 
S. Hayes, Madbury; Haven Doe, Rollinsford; J. D. Pinkham, Milton; S. W. 
Lane, Lee. 

Belknap— Frank J. Shannon, Napoleon J. Dyer, Almon J. Farrar, William 
H. Flanders, Laconia; Martin V. B. Nutter, North Barnstead; John B. Leigh- 
ton, Center Harbor; William Childs, New Hampton; Thomas O. Taylor, San- 
bornton; John B. Moore, Gilman ton; Henry F. Hunt, Gilford; Charles H. Mc- 
Duffy, Alton. Moses K, Smith, Belmont; Edwin Cox, Meredith; J. L. Loverin, 
Tilton. 

Carroll— John W. Sanborn, Wolfeboro Junction; George W. Copp, Melvin 
Village; George I. Philbrick, Freedom; Lewis N. Knox, Silver Lake; John S. 
Pendexter, Bartlett; Frank P. Hobbs, Wolfeboro; William A. Heard, Sand- 
wich; Samuel Lovejoy, Conway; Aldo M. Rumery, Ossipee; Cyrus E. Gale, 
Jackson. 

Merrimack— A. W. Sulloway, Franklin Falls; George M. Putnam, Contoo- 
cook; James M. Batchelder, Pittsfield; Daniel B. Donovan, Concord; Fred 
Myron Colby, Warner; Gorman P. Rand, Gossville: John M. Mitchell, Concord; 
Paul H. Jones, Canterbury; John E. Rines, Boscawen; Albert Peaslee, Brad- 
ford; George L. Brown, Sutton; John H. Oberly, Concord; S. P. Danforth, 
Concord; Emri Lapierre, Concord: S. H. Flanders, Suncook; Charles A. Foss, 
Hooksett; George W. Stone, Andover; Henry Dodge, Webster; J. C. Brown, 
Henniker; Warren Tripp, Epsom. 

Hillsboro— Charles F. Reed, John Dowst, D. H. Young, D. L. Perkins, L. P. 
Reynolds, D. F. O'Connor, Martin J. Cronin, John P. Bartlett, T. J. Howard, 

F. H. Lessier, Joseph Dana, E. J. Burnham, Manchester; A. N. Flinn, E. F. 
McQuestion, E. H. Everett, George W. Fowler, F. G. Noyes, Henry P. Whit- 
ney, Ira Proctor, Patrick Barry, J. J. Doyle, Touissant Leduc, Nashua; Walter 
S. Tarbell, Lyndeborough ; Brooks K. Webber, Hillsborough; Warren Colburn, 
Francestown; Oliver E. Branch, North Woare; Clark Campbell, Mount Ver- 
non; James F. Brennan, Bank Village; Charles Tarbell, New Ipswich; Frank 
M. Woodbury, Pelham; Clarence Dodge, New Boston; Nathan C. Jameson, 
Antrim; Lewis L. Reed, Merrimack; Henry G. Cameron, Hollis; Charles 
Farmer, Hancock; Frank Brooks, Greenfield; Edward Finerty, Milford; Fred 
Worthley, Bedford; H. J. Burke, Bennington; W. S. Rowell, Goffstown; Will- 
iam Sloan, Amherst; George E. Bales, Wilton; N. C. Griffin, Litchfield; James 
F. Locke, Deering; James Russell, Mason; H. J. Taft, Greenville; James 
Green, Sharon. 



12 



STATE CENTRAL COMMITTEES.-Continued. 



Cheshire— H. B. Viall, Josiah Madden, George H. Eames, Keene; W. H. 
Kiniry, Walpole (P. O. Bellows Falls, Vt.); Christopher Robb, South Stoddard; 
Frank Wellman. East Jaffrey; John W. York, Chesterfield; George E. Whit- 
comb, West Swanzey; Emory L. Holton, Winchester; Orrin C. Robertson, 
Hinsdale; James A. Craig, Westmoreland; George F. Tufts, Harrisville; Fred 
Mclntire, Marlboro; Fred J. Marvin, Olstead; C. B. Perry, Fitzwilliam; John 
S. Collins, Gilsum; Ned Thrasher, Rudge; E. A. Jones, Marlow. 

Sullivan— David E. Farwell, North Charlestown; John C. Loverin, Croydon 
Flat; Moses O. Boyce, George's Mills; C. E. Jackson, South Cornish; Mason H. 
Dole, Washington; Charles H. Hoyt, Charlestown; W. I. Thissell, Mill Village; 
Moses L. Sargent, Sunopee; V. H. Thurber, East Unity; H. W. Parker, Clare- 
mont; Fred C. Parker, Ac worth; A. S. Wart, Newport. 

Grafton— Charles E. Baker, Bethlehem; Calvin T. Shute, Wentworth; Fred 
P. Weeks, North Woodstock; Wilbur F. Parker, Franconia; Samuel B. Page, 
Woodsville; Harry Bingham, Littleton; Carlos D. Smith, Lebanon; George H. 
Colby, Plymouth; Joseph F. Perley, Enfield; George W. Melvin, Lyme; Charles 
C. Smart, Rumney; J. N. Dickerson, Bristol; Amos N. Beaudin, Bath; H. B. 
Woolton, Lisbon; J. E. Marlin, Grafton. 

Coos— Henry O. Kent, John T. Amey, George M. Stevens and Frank Smith, 
Lancaster; Samuel E. Paine, George W. Lynch and George W. Page, Berlin; 
S. B. Whittemore and Henry Torristall, Colebrook; David M. Aldrich and B. 
C. Garland, Whitefield; John C. Pattee and Clark Stevens, Coos; G. O. Shurt- 
liff, West Stewarts-town; John F. Jaque, Grange; L. M. Watson, Gorham; John 
H. Locke, Carroll; Dever Rich, Groveton. 



VERMONT. 



REPUBLICAN.— Chairman, Olin Merrill, Enosburg Falls. Members: Ad- 
dison County— T. M. Chapman, Middlebury; Bennington— M. F. Deming, Ar- 
lington; Caledonia— A. F. Stone, St. Johnsbury; Chittenden— H. S. Peck, Bur- 
lington; Essex— G. F. Clark, Lunenburg; Franklin— Olin Merrill, Enosburg 
Falls; Grand Isle— R. R. Hathaway, North Hero; Lamoille— P. K. Gleed, Nor- 
ristown; Rutland— George E. Lawrence, Rutland; Orange— H. E. Parker, Brad- 
ford; Orleans— J. G. Foster, Derby Line; Washington— J. W. Brock, Mont- 
pelier; Windham ; Windsor— A. E. Watson, Hartford. 

DEMOCRATIC— Chairman, Herbert F. Brigham, Bakersfield. Members: 
Addison County— R. H. Preble, Shoreham; Bennington— Hon. George M. Viall, 
East Dorset; Caledonia— Alexander Cochran, Groton; Chittenden— J. H. Hol- 
ton, Burlington: Essex— J. H. Linehan, Island Pond; Franklin— H. F. Brigham, 
Bakersfield: Grand Isle— George Tracy, South Hero; LamoilleT-E. H. Stone, 
Eden; Rutland— T. H. Browne, Rutland; Orange— A. A. Olmsted, South New- 
bury; Orleans— P. J. Farrell, Newport; Washington— A. J. Sibley, Montpelier; 
Windham— F. J. Holman, Brattleboro; Windsor— H. W. Stocker, Windsor. 



RHODE ISLAND. 



REPUBLICAN.— Headquarters, Providence. Chairman, Hunter C. White. 
Members: Newport— Albert C. Landers; Providence— Hunter C. White, Frank 
F. Olney, Charles Edward Paine; Portsmouth— Edward F. Dyer; Warwick- 
John H. Northup; Westerly— Albert L. Chester; New Shoreham— Herbert S. 
Milliken; North Kingstown— Allen Reynolds; South Kingstown— Jesse V. B. 
Watson; East Greenwich— Samuel W. K. Allen; Jamestown— John B. Landers; 
Smithfield— Thomas F. Harris; Scituate— R. G. Howland; Glocester— Walter A. 
Read; Charlestown— Edward A. Ken yon; West Greenwich— Thurston Capwell; 
Coventry— Euerene F. Warner; Exeter— Edward P. Dutemple; Middletown— 
Melville Bull; Bristol— Joshua Wilbour* Tiverton— James W. Counsell; Little 
Compton— Philip H. Wilbour; Warren— Benjamin Drown; Cumberland— An- 



S PATE CENTRA L COMMITTEES -Continued. 13 

drew J. Currier; Richmond— John S. Kenyon; Cranston— S. S. Atwell; Hopkin- 
ton— Edwin R. Allen; Johnston— F. A. Twitchell; North Providence— Charles 
H. Cozzens; Barring-ton— Royal D. Horton; Foster— James M. Wright; Burrill- 
ville— Albert H. Sayles; East Providence— Jos. E. C. Farnham; Pawtucket— 
Whoaton Cole: Woonsocket— John W. Ellis; North Smithfield— Arlon Mowry; 
Lincoln— Myron Fish. 



DEMOCRATIC. — Headquarters, Providence. Members: Newport— William 
J. Underwood, F. F. Volan, J. J. Lynch; New Shoreham— Christopher Champ- 
lin; Jamestown— H. Ordley Clark; Portsmouth— John L. Tallman; Middletown 
—George Coggeshall; Little Compton— Owen Manchester; Tiverton— George L. 
Church; Warren— John E. Conley; Bristol— D. F. Leanlon; Barrington— Robert 
Watson; Providence— F. T. Donohue, James O'Hara, E. J. Cooney, James Mc- 
Nally, Richard Hayward, J. T. Drinan, J. F. Byrne, John O'Connor, F. J. 
Mathewson, S. E. West; Pawtucket— H. J. Carroll, T. W. Robinson, Claude J. 
Farnsworth. Edward McCaughey, Thomas O'Brien; Woonsocket— Daniel B. 
Pond, G. W. Green, James W. Burns, J. H. Boucher, John B. Brown; Cumber- 
land— T. J. Smith, John Dillon, John McLaughlin; North Smithfield— Metcalf 
Comstock; Smithfield— W. H. McLaughlin; North Providence— Arthur Cushing; 
East Providence— A. N. Cunningham; Burrillville— Elisha Mathewson; Glouces- 
ter— R. H. Wade; Johnson— Frank Canning; Foster— John W. Bowen; Scitu- 
ate— Franklin P. Owen; Cranston— John Palmer; East Greenwich— J. F. Gal- 
vin; Warwick— J. P. McNeillis, J. T. Tucker, Timothy Murphy; Coventry— John 
H. Chase; West Greenwich— J. T. Parker; North Kingston— D. B. South wick, 
Jr.; Exeter— B. F. Joslin; Richmond— Amos Dawley, Jr.; Hopkinton— James T. 
Hoxsie; West Hopkinton— William P. Clancey; Charlestown— John Hoxsie. 



CONNECTICUT. 



REPUBLICAN.— Chairman, Herbert E. Benton, New Haven; Secretary, 
Samuel A. Eddy, North Canaan. Members: First District— Austin Brainard, 
Hartford; Second— Percy S. Bryant, East Hartford; Third— George P. McLean, 
Simsbury; Fourth— Robert A. Potter, Bristol; Fifth— Charles C. Turner, Wa- 
terbury; Sixth— James P. Piatt, Meriden; Seventh— Frederick L. Gaylord, 
Ansonia; Eighth— James A. Howarth, New Haven; Ninth — Frederick Farns- 
worth, New London; Tenth — William H. Palmer, Jr., ' Norwich; Eleventh- 
George O. Jackson, Colchester; Twelfth— William S. Mead, Greenwich; Thir- 
teenth—Edmund E. Crowe, South Norwalk; Fourteenth— Allan W. Paige, 
Bridgeport: Fifteenth— Samuel S. Ambler, Bethel; Sixteenth— George A. Ham- 
mond, Putnam: Seventeenth— Preston B. Sibley, Brooklyn; Eighteenth— O. R. 
Fyler, Torrington; Nineteenth— A. T. Roraback, Canaan; Twentieth— Edgar L. 
Pond, Terryville; Twenty-first— John I. Hutchinson, Essex; Twenty-second— 
John M. Douglas, Middletown; Twenty-third— Thomas A. Lake, Rockville; 
Twenty-fourth— Harry S. Abel, Stafford Springs. 



DEMOCRATIC— Chairman, Clinton B. Davis, Higganum; Secretary, Fred- 
erick J. Brown, New Haven. Members: First District — Cornelius J. Lyons, 
Hartford; Third— Stephen J. Lyon, Collinsville; Fourth— Robert J. Vance, New 
Britain; Fifth— Frederick J. Brown, Waterbury; Sixth— George A. Smith, Wal- 
lingford; Seventh— Vacancy caused by death of William G. White; Eighth- 
John P. Carney. New Haven; Ninth— Bryan F. Mahan, New London; Tenth— 
J. B. Shannon, Norwich; Eleventh— Charles W. Comstock, Norwich; Twelfth— 
Melbert B. Cary, 35 East 38th street, New York; Thirteenth— Charles N. Wood, 
Norwalk; Fourteenth— Aurelius Stewart, Bridgeport; Fifteenth— Wliliam Mc- 
Phelemy, Danbury; Sixteenth— John W. Church, Putnam; Seventeenth— C. S. 
Burlingame, Brooklyn; Eighteenth— Edward Finn, West Winsted; Nineteenth 
—Sidney P. Ensign, Lime Rock; Twentieth— William G. French, Watertown; 
Twenty-first— Charles A. Elliott, Clinton; Twenty-second— Capt. John Carroll, 
Middletown; Twenty-third— William W. Jones, Hebron; Twenty-fourth— J. V. 
Sauier, Stafford Springs. 



14 LICENSE POSITION OF MASSACHUSETTS CITIES. 



License Position of Massachusetts Cities. 



Cities. 


'81 


«. 


'83 


'84 


'85 


'86 


'87 


'88 


'89 


'90 


'91 


'93 


'93 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Y"es 




No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 




Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


No 




* 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Y r es 




* 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 




No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


Y r es 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 




No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


,Yes 


No 


Yes 




No 


Yes 


Yes 


Y"es 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Ye« 


Yes 


Yes 


Yts 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 




No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 




* 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 




* 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


l r es 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 




* 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


l'es 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 




No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


l T es 


No 


Yes 




No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 




* 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 




Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 




No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


No 


N( 


No 




Yes 


Yes 


No 


Y r es 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yep 


Yes 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Ye? 


Yes 


No 


Yes 




* 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Ye* 


Yes 


Yes 


Yep 


Yes 




No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 



* Election held before adoption of the law. 



BOSTON'S ACTUAL EXPENDITURES. 



15 



New England Legislatures. 





Senate. 


House of Representatives. 


• Sessions. 




Kfj). 


Drill. 


Others 


Rep. 


Dem. 


Others 


Salary. 






;;i 


y 


o 


140 






$!50. 


Biennial— Odd years. First 


















Wed. of Jan. 


Now Hampshire 


18** 


3 


o 


265 


98 


0 


$200. 


Biennial— Odd years. First 


















Wed. of Jan. 




30 


0 


0 




11 


o 


$3 pr Diem 


Biennial — E v e n years. 
















Kirct Wnrl nf Oft 


Massachusetts. 


36 


4 


0 


198 


44 


0 


$750.* 


Annual — First Wed. of 


Rhode Island... 


35 


•j 


0 


69 


3 


0 


$1 pr Diem 


Jan. 

Annual— May at Newport, 
















and Jan. at Providence. 




22$ 


I 


0 


206 


46 


0 


$300.* 


Biennial— Odd years. Wed. 
















to 1 lowing li r st Mon.in Jan. 



X One seat contested. 

**No election in three districts. Vacancies will be tilled by Legislature in joint 
convention. 

* Mileage also paid. 



Boston's Valuation and Taxation. 



Assessed Valuation. 



Real Estate. 



1880 i $437,370, 100 

1881 j 455,388,600 

1882 i 467,704,150 

1883 1 478,318,900 

1884 i 488,130,600 

1885 1 495,973,400 

1886. 1 517,503,275 

1887 1 547,171,175 

1888 ! 563,013,275 

1889 ! 593,799,975 

189v> I 619,990,275 

1891 ! 650,238,375 

1892 | 680,279,875 

1893 | 707,762,275 

1894 | 723,728,750 



Personal 
Estate. 

.$202,092,395 
210,165,997 
204,793,811 
204,113,771 
194,526,057 
189,605,672 
193,180,060 
200,471,342 
201,439,273 
201,633,769 
202,051,525 
204,831,040 
213,695,829 
216,331,476 
204,363,706 



Tax rate per $1,000. 



State. C'nty. I City. Total. 



Poll Tax 

Assessed 



.0.86 | 


$0.27 


| $14.07 


$15.20 | 


$187,640 


.81 | 


.25 


| 12.84 


13.90 | 


198,824 


1.12 | 


.29 


j 13.69 


15.10 | 


205,163 


.72 | 


.28 


| 13.50 


14.50 | 


214,593 


1.00 | 


.29 


| 15.71 


17.00 | 


220,919 


.71 | 


.27 


| 11.82 


12.80 | 


224,236 


.65 | 


.40 


| 11.65 


12.70 | 


225,037 


1.00 | 


.57 


| 11.83 


13.40 | 


231,369 


.97 | 


.74 


| 11.69 


13.40 | 


241,225 


.83 | 


.80 


| 11.27 


12.90 | 


246,710 


.69 j 


.85 


| 11.76 


13.30 | 


254,537 


.54 | 


.56 


| 11.50 


12.60 | 


265,824 


.63 | 


.77 


| 11.50 


12.90 | 


273,118 


.92 | 


.75 


11.13 


12.80 | 


279,406 


.75 | 


.81 


11.24 


12.80 | 


279,486 



Boston's Actual Expenditures. 



Fiscal Year. 


Interest. 


State Tax. 


Other City 
Expenditures 


Total City 
Expenditures 


County. 


1880-81 1 


$2,220,171 


$619,110 | 


$10,252,967 | 


$13,092,249 | 


$305,872 


1881-82 1 


2,188,565 i 


619,110 | 


10,422,476 | 


13,230,151 | 


338,261 


1882-83 1 


2,184,580 i 


825,480 I 


11,879,562 | 


14,889,623 | 


362,908 


1883-84 | 


2,227,046 


578,055 | 


12,852,436 1 


15,657,537 | 


368,352 


1884-85 ! 


2,238,518 I 


770,740 | 


12,456,798 f 


15,466,056 | 


393,786 


1885-86 1 


2,242,102 | 


578,055 | 


11,480,449 | 


14;300,606 | 


852,614 


1886-87 i 


2,237,479 | 


555,870 1 


11,542,638 | 


14,335,987 | 


999,056 


1887-88 | 


2,315,833 | 


833,805 i 


12,920,867 | 


16,070,505 | 


1, 086, ( (2(5 


1888-89 | 


2,324,477 | 


833,805 | 


12,974,132 | 


16,132,413 | 


1,334*640 


1889-90 | 


2,353,786 | 


738,020 1 


13,508,467 | 


10,600,273 j 


1,205,100 


1890-91 | 


2,447,883 | 


645,768 j 


14,585,465 | 


17,079,115 i 


1.133.121 


1891-92* ! 


1,784,671 | 


553,515 j 


13,856,842 | 


16,195,028 | 


777,490 




2,522,588 | 


640,063 | 


16,954,626 | 


20,117,276 | 


1,183,389 


1893-94 | 


2,476,431 


914,375 I 


17,287,021 | 


20,677,827 | 


1,019,173 



Nine months. 



16 



THE FIFTY ASSOCIATES. 



Boston Park Statistics. 





1 
i 


Cost to Jan. 31, 1894. 1 








Year |- 




~ 1 




A 


Parks. 


Taken. | 


Land. 


[Construction. | 


Total. 


1 A 

1 Acres. 


Main Park System: | 


1 












1879 | 


$580,764 


1 $2 010 887 I 


$2,591,651 


| 115 




1890 | 


368,246 


415 357 


783,603 


40 


Leverett Park | 


1891-92| 


1 40 fi^O 


1 R9 4.9^ 


312,076 


| 60 




1892 j 


351,443 


99 870 1 


374,313 


j 120 




1892 | 


38 461 


fi1 831 I 
ox, 001 


100,292 


| 36 


Arnold Arboretum | 


1882 | 


73 717 


221 749 


295,526 


| 155 


Franklin Park j 


1883-84| 


1 540 523 


1 1 409 8**fi 1 


2,943,359 


| 527 


Marine Park System: | 


I 










Dorchesterway | 


1892 | 


57 763 


19 764 


77 527 


1 6 




1890-92| 


353', 045 


1 ' 57 | 


353', 102 


| 194 


Marine Park 1 


1883 | 


232 972 


| 751,601 | 


984,574 


| 267 


Castle Island 


1890 j 




31,406 | 


Ol A Aft 


1 91 


Charlesbank | 


1S83 | 


373,916 


280.815 | 


654,732 


I 10 




18S2 | 


132,800 


| 129,159 | 


261,959 


| 212 


Charlestown Heights ...| 


1891 | 


50,538 


| 61,277 | 


111,815 


1 10 


Charlestown Playground | 


1891 | 


47,893 


4,074 


51,967 


18 


North End Park | 


1893 | 








1 7 


Dorchester Park | 


1891 | 


31,301 


1,301 


32,602 


| 26 


Franklin Field | 


1892 | 


56,420 | 


45,778 | 


102,199 


| 77 



NOTE.— These figures, of course, do not represent the total cost to the 
city of its park system. Including other expenses of maintenance, etc., to 
Jan. 1, 1894, the cost was $10,592,876. For statistics of public parks in other 
cities see page 77, 



Boston Gas Consumption. 





Sales i 


11 Feet. 


No. of Meters. 




1894. 


1893. 


1894. 


1893 




1,222,887,770 


1,191,985.380 


30.097 


30 732 




181.127.002 


178,059,842 


8664 


8,749 




77 918.763 


76.873.560 


2,941 


2,803 




100,532,100 


82,578.200 


5,166 


4.450 




139,442,358 


71,942,041 


8,990 


2,462 


Bay State* 


856.417.159 


965.a37,860 


27 


48 



*The Bay State Company sells its product almost who'ly to the other companies, and 
so, in determining the actual consumption of gas, would have to be excluded from the 
totals. 



The Fifty Associates. 

The Fifty Associates is a Boston real estate corporation. It lias no capital stock, 
but there are 1,000 shares, each share representing one-thousandth part of the stock. 
It pays quarterly dividends amouming to $120 annually. The last sale of the shares 
was at $4,525 and $4,150. The valuation in 1893 of the real estate owned by the Fifty 
Associates as returned by the assessors is as follows : Ward 6, $336,000 : Ward 7, $1,333,500 ; 
Ward 10, $1,143,000 ; Ward 12, $276,400. Total, $3,088,900. The tax on this property in 1893 
was $39,538. 



BOSTON'S GRAIN EXPORTS. 



17 



Commerce of Boston. 



Exports. 

I I « 

Mdse. | Domestic | Foreign 



Year. | Imports. | Mdse. 
i 1 1 



1884. . 
1885. . 
L886. . 
1SS7. . 
L888. . 



|f59,744,297|$64,841,132| 
| 53,576,300| 63,953,601| 
| 60,342,862| 57,480,3241 
j 62,504,559| .".,731,4341 
| 64,534,532| 58,527,852| 



Mdse. 

$967,497 
5(57,978 

1,146,704 
9o8,581 
850,347 



Exports. 



Year. 



1889. . 
1890. .. 
1891. ., 
1892. . 
1893. . 



| Mdse. | Domestic | Foreign 
| Imports. | Mdse. | Mdse. 

-I 1 1 

. | .$05, 46 1,778 1 $69,567 ,367 1 $1,190,060 
.| 66,064,601| 72,141,593| 347,514 
.j 70,659,616| Sl,018,421| 421,147 
.| 75,593,5661 88,241,530| 563,673 
.| 69,118,709| 82,128,922] 1,411,017 



Boston as a Live Stock Market. 



Year. 



| Cattle. | Sheep. 



1893 | 151,188 

1892 | 188,953 

1891 | 161,167 

1890 | 167,974 

L889 | 167,342 

1888 | 124,416 

1887. | 99,584 

1886 | 113,316 

1885 | 112,995 

1884 | 139,465 

1883 | 161,162 

1882.. | 136,993 



530,064 
571,980 
585,709 
583,545 
540,460 
538,490 
591,476 
524,089 
669,847 
568,041 
648,790 
626,608 



Veals. I Fat Hogs. I Pigs. 



80,315 
80,495 
77,084 
74,234 
58,565 
53,274 
46,448 
53,003 
45,024 
38,979 
39,712 
35,645 



1,150,685 
1,668,556 
1,465,099 
1,312,971 
1,143,314 
1,038,827 
1,039,692 
921,756 
781,483 
786,110 
762,756 
807,949 



6,892 
5,509 
7,725 
9,565 
9,173 
7,191 
6,911 
9,031 
8,899 
10,154 
9,001 
8,586 



These figures show the amount of live stock at the Watertown and Brigh- 
ton stock yards for the past dozen years. 



Boston's Grain Exports. 



Date. 



Flour. 



I- 



Barrels. 



Wheat. 



Corn. 



Corn. Corn meal 



Barrels. I Bushels. I Bushels. 



395,598| 4,023,791| 7,163,243| 
820,380| 5,321,351| 7,437, 476| 
1,076,350| 3,2iJ6,9t)l|ll,612,695| 
1,035,240| 2,999,393j 8, 004,504 1 
1,355,585| 2,724,075j 2,1.6,728 
1,768,024| 1,963,974| 4,568,325| 
3,189,222| 1,118,572| 4,118,102i 
1,652,310| 1,676,067| 3,643,788| 
2,076,917 | 2,624,538| 3,213,523| 
2,160,334| 3,920,596| 2,237,666| 
l,6i)»,233| 1,178,614 3,353,617| 
1,329,470| 538,951| 7,012,318| 
l,363,42lj 497,176| 4,59<>,651| 
1,724,. 63| 2,860,564| 4,032,380| 
2,048,553| 7,403,935| 2,714,832| 
1,983,152| 5,088,230| 5,362,169| 
I 1 1" 



Barrels. 



Peas. 



93,992 1 
9, 804 1 
89, 706 1 
17, 086 1 

I 

1,500 j 
3,300] 
462,3371 
542,845 1 
5,746 1 
1,200| 
44, 719 j 
528,275| 
298,383 1 
1,338,808| 
487,217| 
+ 



"I" 

99, 650 1 
122,929 j 
133,054| 
121,531| 
93, 853 1 
116,06!) | 
83,977| 
98,931| 
89,667 1 
113,323] 
99,683 j 
124, 566 1 
123,066| 
66,997 j 
52, 950 1 
56,1011 



Bushels. 



Barley. 



Bushels. 



1 

62,397 j 4,251 

220,362 1 23,594 

133,685] 12,695 

170,584| 

319,086| 

174,047| 24,731 

5*. 1,728 1 

325,980| 18,472 

546,913 1 13,012 

576,525| 

98,204 1 

79, 607 1 

232,362| 10,219 

31 1,057 | 78,460 

705,862 1 57,282 

111,006| 57,955 



Totals ....|25,583,552|47,246,758f81,297,017| 3,924,3181 1,597,547| 4,127,405| 300,671 



18 



TREES ON BOSTON COMMON. 



Boston Police Force. 



The city of Boston is divided into sixteen police districts. Station-houses 
are located as follows: Division 1, Hanover street, near Cross; 2, Court square; 
3, Joy street, near Cambridge street; 4, La Grange street; 5, East Dedham 
street; 6, Broadway, near C street; 7, Meridian street, near Paris street; 8, 
corner Commercial and Battery streets; 9, Dudley street, corner Mount Pleas- 
ant avenue; 10. junction Tremont and Roxbury streets; 11, Adams, corner 
Arcadia street: 12. Fourth street, near K street; 13, Leaverns avenue, J. P.; 
14, Washington street, junction Cambridge street, Brighton; 15, Old City 
Hall, Charlestown; 16, Boylston street, near Hereford street. There are about 
000 men in the Boston Police Department, including commissioners, superin- 
tendents, officers, patrolmen and reserve men. 



Boston Fire Department. 

The city of Boston is divided into twelve fire districts, in the charge of dis- 
trict chiefs. Aside from the commissioners, chief of the department and his 
assistants and these district chiefs there are 50 captains, 33 lieutenants, 625 
permanent men and 120 call men. There are 44 engine companies, including 
the fire boat (engine 31); 17 ladder companies; 10 chemical engines; 2 combina- 
tion wagons: 2 water towers; 3 hose companies. A new fire boat (Engine 44) 
is now in course of building by the department. 



Boston's Fire Record. 



Year. 



No. of 
Alarms. 



I I 
| Losses. | 



Insur- 
ance. 



1884-85. .| 


927 


1885-86. .| 


785 


1886-87. .j 


827 


1887-88. .| 


975 


1888-89'. . | 


962 



I L 

j$l,593,393| 
| 821,848 1 
| 911,999| 
I 784,667| 



$8,068,295 
7,082,541 
6,771,654 
10,165,625 
1,078,333| 12,146,901 



| No. of 
Year. | Alarms. 



1889-90. .j 


963 


* 1890-91.| 


679 


1891-92. .| 


1,230 


1892-93. .| 


1.412 


1893-94. .| 


1,7X8 



| Insur- 
| Losses. | ance. 

I- 



|.$4,746,869|$16,023,952 
| 556,597| 9,397,034 
| 1,629,413| 19,247,795 
| 1,926,897| 22,674,18!) 
| 4,348,902| 27,875,355 



* The preceding records are from May 1 to May 1. This is from May 1 to 
Jan. 1. The succeeding year is for thirteen months, the years thereafter be- 
ginning with Feb. 1. 

Boston's "big fire" started on Nov. 9, 1872. The amount of property de- 
stroyed is set down as $75,000,000. The burned area embraced sixty-five acres. 
Buildings destroyed numbered 776, of which 709 were brick and stone. 



Boston Harbor. 



The average width of the main ship channel in Boston Harbor is 2,000 feet. 
Its average depth is 25 feet at mean low water. The built-up wharfage front 
below the bridges is seven miles long. Above the bridges it is twelve miles 
long, including the indentations of the piers. 



Trees on Boston Common. 

There are 1,370 trees within the enclosure of Boston Common. The number of each 
species is as follows : Elms, 1,158 ; maples, 136 ; lindens, 56 ; ash, 12 ; tulip trees, 4 ; horse 
chestnuts, 2 : birch, 1 ; Gingko tree, 1. Of the elms, the American elms are the most 
numerous, constituting over 67 per cent, of all the trees of that species, and over 56 per 
cent, of all the trees on the Common. 



HUSTON NATIONAL HANKS. 



19 



Boston National Banks. 



NAME. 



Capital, j 



President. 



Atlantic 

Alias 

Blackstoue 

Boston 

Boylston 

Broadway 

Bunker Hill 

Central 

Columbian. 

Commercial 

Continental 

Eliot 

Everett 

Faneuil Hall 

First 

First Ward 

Fourth 

Freemans 

Globe 

Hamilton 

Howard 

Lincoln 

Ma n uf acturers' 

Market 

Massachusetts 

Mechanics' 

Merchants' 

Metropolitan 

Monument 

Mt. Vernon 

Bank Commerce 

Bank Commonwealth 
Bank North America 
Bank Redemption--. 

Bank Republic 

City 

Eagle 

Exchange 

Hide and Leather 

Market (Brighton). . . 

ttevere 

Kockland 

security 

Union 

Webster 

New England 

Ninth *. 

Old Boston 

People's .. 

Secord 

Shawmut 

Shoe and Leather 

South End 

State 

Suffolk 

Third 

Traders' 

Tremont 

Washington 

Wi nth t op 



Discount Day 



$750,000 
1,500,000 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 
700,000 
200,0i0 
oOO,000 
50.',000 
1,000.000 
250.000 
1,000,000 
1,000.000 
400,000 
1,000,000 
1,000.000 
200,000 
750,000 
800,000 
1,000,000 
750,000 
1,000,000 
500,000 
500,000 
800.000 
800,000 
250,000 
3,000,000 
500,000 
150,000 
200.000 
1.500,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,500.000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,500,000 
250.000 
1,500,000 
300,000 
250,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,100,000 
900,000 
300,000 
1,600,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
200,000 
2,000,000 
1,5(JO,000 
2,000,000 
500,000 
2,000.000 
750,000 
300,000 



Isaac Pratt, Jr. 
John G. Wetherell. 
Eustace C. Fitz. 
Silas Peirce. 
Joseph T. Bailey. 
Koswell C. Downer. 
C. R. Lawrence. 
Charles H. Allen. 
Horatio Newhall. 
Otis Hinman. 
William T. Hart. 
William H. Goodwin. 
Warren sawyer. 
J. Varnum Fletcher. 
John Carr. 
George W. Moses. 
W. W. Kimball. 
William A. Rust. 
Charles E. Stevens. 
Aaron H. Bean. 
S. F. Wilkins. 
Edward K. Butler. 
David J . Lord. 
Charles T. Whitmore. 
William A. French. 
C. O. L. Dillaway. 
Franklin Hovey, Jr. 
Increase E. Noyes. 
Amos Stone. 
Thomas N . Hart. 
N. P. Hollowell. 
W. A. Tower. 
Isaac T. Burr. 
James B. Case. 
Charles A. Vialle. 
Leverett S. Tuckerman. 
A. S. Woodworth. 
Edward L. Tead. 
George Ripley. 
Homer Rogers. 
George S. Bullens. 
Samuel Little. 
S. A. Carlton. 
George Whitney. 
John P. Lyman. 
Charles W. Jones. 
William H. Leonard. 
Horatio G. Curtis. 
Samuel B. Hopkins. 
Thomas P. Beal. 
John Cummings. 
James C. Elms. 
John A. Pray. 
Samuel N. Aldrich. 
A. Lawrence Edmonds. 
Moses Williams. 
11. J. Jaquith. 
Aaron Hobart. 
Fben Bacon. 
Wilmot R. Evans. 



Monday & Thursday, 12>£. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Monday & Thursday, 11^. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Wednesday& Saturday, 9^. 
Daily. 

Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Monday & Thursday. 
Daily. 

Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Monday & Thursday, 11. 
Tuesday & Friday, 11. 
Monday & Thursday, 1. 
Monday & Thursday, 12. 
Wednesday & Satuiday, 9 
Tuesday & Friday, 1. 
Monday & Thursday, 11. 
Monday & Thursday. 
Monday & Thursday, 12. 
Monday & Thursday, 1%. 
Wednesdays Saturday,!!^ 
Monday & Thursday, 12. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Monday, 3J^. 
Monday & Thursday, 12. 
Monday & Thursday, 11. 
Monday & Thursday. 
Tuesday & Friday. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Tuesday & Friday, 11. 
Tuesday & Friday, 11. 
Monday, Wednes.& Friday. 
Monday & Thursday, 12. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Wednes. & Saturday, JO}^. 
Monday <fc Thursday, 1. 
Tuesday & Friday, 11. 
Wednesday, 3. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Tuesday, p. m. 
Tuesday & Friday, 11. 
Tuesday & Friday, 1. 
Tuesday & Friday, 10^j. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Monday & Thursday, 1. 
Monday & Tnursda.) , 12^. 
Tuesday. 

Monday & Thursday, 12^. 
Monday & Thursday, VZy z . 
Tuesday & Friday, 113^. 
Daily. 

Monday & Thursday, 12. 
Tuesday & Friday, 12. 
Monday & Thursday, 12}4. 
Wednesday & Satur day, 12. 
Monday & Thursday, 12^. 
Monday & Thursday. 
Tuesday & Friday. 



20 FACTS ABOUT BOSTON. 



Facts about Boston. 

Boston became a city in 1822, the charter being granted Feb. 13. The vote 
on the question of becoming a city stood 2,805 in favor and 2,006 against. 

Charlestown was annexed Jan. 5, 1874; Roxbury, Jan. 5, 1868; Dorchester, 
Jan. 3, 1870, and Brighton and West Roxbury, Jan. 5, 1874. 

The city contains 27,596 acres, or 43.12 square miles. 

There are 48 1 / £ acres in the Common and 24^4 acres in the Public Gardens. 
There are 448 miles of public streets and 142 miles of private ways and 
alleys. 

Eighty miles of the streets are paved with stone or asphalt. 

Filling up of the Back Bay district was begun June 15, 1855. ♦ 

Gaslight pipes began to be laid in its streets in 1826. 

Boston, however, was the second city in the country to organize a company 
for the manufacture and distribution of illuminating gas. The enterprise was 
known as the City Gas Company and was formed Aug. 15, 1822. Baltimore got 
the start of Boston in this by about five years. 

Arrivals at the port of Boston for the year 1893 numbered 2,218 vessels, rep- 
resenting a tonnage of 1,650,561 tons; the clearances numbered 2,085 vessels, 
with a tonnage of 1,323,703 tons. 

The Massachusetts General Hospital was incorporated in 1811. 

The present Minot's Ledge lighthouse was completed Nov. 16, 1860. The 
old one was destroyed April 17, 1851. 

Members of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery trace their history back 
to June 1, 1638. the date of formal organization. 

The first train passed through the Hoosac Tunnel Feb. 9, 1875. 

Pacific Bank suspended in November, 1881; resumed again in March, 1882; 
closed finally May 22, 1882. 

The Boston Stock Brokers' Board was organized Oct. 13, 1834. Of the thir- 
teen original members two are yet alive— Messrs. Samuel Gilbert and Matthew 
Bolles, the latter still in active business. 

The first season 'ticket on the Boston & Worcester Railroad, now a part of 
the Albany, was on May 1, 1838. Only two were sold in that year, one the 
next and two the next, with four in each of the two succeeding years, and 
each by special vote of the directors. In 1843 a special train to West Newton 
was established, and the superintendent was authorized to sell season tickets 
for that. This was the beginning of the season-ticket system. 

The Custom House is 140 feet long, 75 feet wide at the ends and 95 feet 
through the centre. The rotunda is 63 by 59 feet and 62 feet high. 

The Handel and Haydn Society was founded in 1815, and is the oldest mu- 
sical organization in the United States. 

Boston City Hospital was opened to patients in June, 1864. Residents of 
the city, unable to pay for treatment, are treated gratuitously. 

Mount Auburn Cemetery was established in 1831 by the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, in connection with an experimental garden. It was 
transferred to the "Proprietors of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn" in 1835, 
and is the oldest garden cemetery in the United States. It comprises about 
135 acres. 

The Boston Theatre was opened to the public in 1854. Thomas Barry was 
the first manager. It is the largest theatre in New England. 

Returns for June 30, 1894, showed that the number of children in Boston 
between 5 and 15 years was 76,139, and the number attending the public 
schools was 56,841, and in private schools, 11,294. On the same date ther^ 
were 613 schools and 1,492 teachers in the general schools. Of the regular 
teachers 1,240 were women, and of the 296 special teachers 188 were women. 
The percentage of attendance was 88.8. while out of an average attendance of 
57,741 there was an average absence of 7,310. 

The cutting down of Fort Hill was begun Sept. 4, 1866. 

There was a frost every month during the year 1816. 

The longest session of the Massachusetts Legislature was in 1883, 206 days; 
the shortest in 1841, 72 days. 



FACTS ABOUT BOSTON.-Cont Inued. 



21 



Women were first allowed to vote for the school committee in 1879. 

The old elm on the Common was blown down in the storm of Feb. 15, 1876. 

The telegraphic fire alarm system was established in Boston Jan. 1, 1852. 

The Franklin statue in front of City Hall was placed there Sept. 17, 185G; 
the Webster statue at the State House on Sept. 17, 1859; the Hamilton on 
Commonwealth avenue, Aug. 24, 1865; the Washington equestrian, in the Pub- 
lic Garden, July 3, 1869; the Horace Mann at the State House, July 4, 1865; 
the Edward Everett, in the Public Gardens, Nov. 18, 1867; the Samuel Adams, 
in Dock square, July 4, 1880; the Winthrop, in Scollay square, Sept. 17, 1880. 



Jury Duty in Massachusetts. 

PERSONS QUALIFIED.— All persons qualified to vote in the choice of 
representatives to the General Court. 

PERSONS EXEMPTED.— Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of 
Commonwealth, members of Governor's Council, members of State Legislature 
during this session, judges and justices of any court, county and special com- 
missioners, clerks of courts, registers of probate and insolvency and of deeds, 
sheriffs and other deputies, coroners, constables, United States marshals and 
their deputies, and other officers of the United States, attorneys, settled cler- 
gymen, officers of colleges, teachers in incorporated academies, practicing 
physicians and surgeons, cashiers of incorporated banks, members of the 
militia while in service and those who have served for nine years in it; mem- 
bers of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery and members of the Boston Fire 
Department and fire departments of other cities or towns, providing the city 
councils or inhabitants of the towns so vote. 



Extra Sessions of Massachusetts Legislature. 

Extra sessions of the Massachusetts Legislature have been held as follows: 
In 1835, to revise the statutes; in 1842, to divide the commonwealth into Con- 
gressional districts: in 1848, to choose electors of President and Vice-President; 
in 1857, to establish districts for the choice of Councilors, Representatives 
and Senators; in 1859, to revise the General Statutes; in 1860, to consider the 
subject of disease among the cattle of the commonwealth; in 1861, to consider 
matters pertaining to the Rebellion; in 1863, to provide for raising of troops 
under call of the President; in 1872, to consider what legislation was necessary 
by reason of the great Boston fire, and in 1891, to compile the Public Statutes. 



Massachusetts Industries and the Panic. 



Classification. | 1892. | 1893. | Amount. |Percentage. 

1 , | | 

Number of private firms. . .| 3,534| 3,478|Dec. 56| Dec. 1.58 

Number of corporations. . | 820| 872|Inc. 52| Inc. 6.34 

Number of partners | 5,671| 5,519|Dec. 152 1 Dec. 2.68 

Number of stockholders.. . | 37,064| 38,284|Inc. 1,220| Inc. 3.29 

Capital invested |$439,015,263!$444,480,277|Inc. $5,465,014| Inc. 1.24 

Stock used j$370,554,375|$348,991,905|Dec. $27,562,470! Dec. 7.32 

Value bonds made !|639,137,402|ii;587,343,550|Dec. $51,793,852| Dec. 8.10 

Average number employed. | 306,203| 293,169|Dec. 13,034| Dec. 4.26 

Total wages paid |$137,972,501|$127,2S6,397|Dec. $10,6S6,104j Dec. 7.75 

Average yearly earnings. . .| $450,591 $434.17|Dec. ?16.42| Dec. 3.64 

Average proportion of busi-| | | 

ness done | 69.38| 59.18|Dec. 10.20| Dec. 14.70 

Average days in operation.! 297.83 | 277.36|Dec. 20.47| Dec. 6.87 

These figures are from the report of the Massachusetts Bureau of Labor 
Statistics and cover sufficient industries to indicate the general business drift 
of the year, as compared with the previous one. 



22 



NEW ENGLAND GRANITE INDUSTRY. 



Cotton Manufacturing at Fall River. 



Years 1894 and 1893. 



American Linen Co , 

Barnaby Manufac'g Co. .. 
Barnard Manufac'g Co.. 

Border City Mfg. Co , 

Bourne Mills 

Chace Mills 

Conanicut Mills 

Cornell Mills , 

Davol Mills 

Flint Mills 

Globe Yarn Mills 

Granite Mills 

Hargraves Mills 

Kerr Thread Co. 

King Philip Mills 

Laurel Lake Mills 

Mechanics' Mills 

Merchants' Mfg. Co.... 

Metacomet Mfg. Co 

Narragansett Mills 

Osborn Mills 

Pocasset Mfg. Co 

Richard Borden Mfg. Co 

Robeson Mills 

Sagamore Mfg. Co 

Sanford Spinning Co.... 

Seaconnet Mills , 

Shove Mills 

Slade Mills 

Stafford Mills , 

Tecumseh Mills 

Troy Cot. & W. Mfg. Co. 
Union Cotton Mfg. Co... 

Wampanoag Mills 

Weetamoe Mills 



Capital. 



Dividends 1894. 



P # c # | Amount. 



Dividends 1893. 



P q Amount. 



Increase 
or 

Decrease. 



$800,000| 


4 


$32,000| 


7% | 


400, 000 1 


1% 


6,000| 


8 I 


330,000| 


5 


16,500| 


8 1 


1,000,000| 


7 


70,000| 


14 | 


| 400,000| 


12 


| 48,000 1 


12 | 


500,000) 


6 


30,000| 


9 1 


120,000| 


3 


3,600 | 


8 1 


400, 000 1 


6 


24,000| 


4V 2 | 


| 400,000| 


6 


| 24,000| 


6 I 


580,000| 


8 


| 46, 400 1 


8 I 


1,200,000| 


5y 2 


66,000| 


8 I 


1,000,000 1 


*6 


57,000| 


n° 1 


800,000| 


5% 


44,000 1 


6 I 


1,000,000| 






3 1 


| 1,000,000| 


6 


| 60,000| 


6 I 


400,00()| 


51/2 


22,000| 


TVs I 


750, 000 1 


3 


22,500 1 


7% | 


800, 000 1 


6 


48,000| 


9 1 


288,000| 






4% I 


400,000| 


5 


20,000| 


7y 2 1 


600,000| 


7 


42,000| 


8 I 


800,000 1 


4 


32,0001 


7 1 


800,000| 


31/0 


28,000 1 


7 1 


ZOU,UUU| 






d\L 1 
4 V2 I 


900,000| 


0V2 


58,500| 


10 1 


400,000 


3 


12,000 


3y 2 1 


400, 000 1 


5V> 


22, 000 1 


ioy 2 1 


550,000| 


6% 


35, 750 1 


9 1 


550,000| 


1% 


8,250i 


5 1 


800,000| 


7 


56,000j 


12 | 


500,000| 


6 


30,0001 


7y 2 | 


300,000 


17 


51,000] 


20 ! 


750,000| 


9 


67.500| 


12 | 


750,000| 


6 


45,000| 


7 I 


550,000| 






2 I 


$21,478,000| 


5.25 


$1,128,000| 


1- 

$8.62|? 



$60,000|Dec. 

32,000|Dec. 

26,400|Dec. 
140,000|Dec. 

48,000| 

45.000 Dec. 
9,600|Dec. 

18,000|Inc. 
24,000| 
46,400| 
96,000|Dec. 

80.000 1 Dec. 
48,000|Dec. 
30,000|Dec. 
60,000 I . . 
30,000|Dec. 
56,250|Dec. 
72,000|Dec. 
12,960|Dec. 
30,000|Dec. 
48,000|Dec. 
56,000|Dec. 
56,000|Dec. 
ll,700|Dec. 
90,000|Dec. 
1 4,000 j Dec. 
42,000|Dec. 
49,500 1 Dec. 
27,500|Dec. 
96,000 j Dec. 
37,500|Dec. 
60,000|Dec. 
90,000|Dec. 
52,500|Dec. 
11,000 Dec. 



28,000 
26,000 
9,900 
70,000 



15,000 
60,00 
6,000 



30,000 
23,000 
4,000 
30,000 



8,000 
33,750 
24,000 
12,9(30 
10,000 

6,000 
24,000 
28,000 
11,700 
31,500 

2,000 
20,000 
13,750 
19,250 
40,000 

7,500 

9,000 
22,500 

7,500 
11,000 



li/o per cent, on capital of $800,000. f On capital of $800,000. 

f On capital of $21,278,000. 



New England Granite Industry. 



States. 



Maine 

NewHampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . 
Rhode Island... 
Connecticut — 



Value of 
Product. 



62,325,839 
737.531 
581,870 

2,503,503 
931,216 

1,061,202 



Total 
Wages- 



$1,517,026 
529,945 
408,916 
1,630,128 
618,013 
697,080 



Total 
Expenses, 



$1,823,976 
597,491 
477.114 
1.973,729 
789,219 
813,200 



Total 
Capital. 



Percentage of Profit or Loss. 

On Value of 



On Capital. 



$3,192,317 
761,362 
967,750 
2,235,759 
646.392 
891.889 



12 59 
17.08 
10.82 
23 70 
21.97 
27 81 



Product. 



18.05 

17.87 

18. 

21.16 

15.25 

23.37 



TIIK NKW ENGLAND MILITIA. 



28 



Northern New England Game Laws. 

GAME— WHEN NOT TO BE KILLED. 

New Hampshire. | 



Variety. 


Main<\ 



Moose 

Caribou, deer 


Jan. 1 and Oct. 1.... 
Jan. 1 and Oct. 1.... 


Sable, otter, fisher... 




May 1 and Oct. 15... 
May 1 and Sept. 1... 
May 1 and Aug. 1... 
Dec. 1 and Sept. 1... 




Partridge, woodcock. 



I 

I- 

I Jan. 1 and Sept. 1. , 

| Jan. 1 and Sept. 1. , 

| April 1 and Sept. 1. 

| April 1 and Oct. 1.. 

I Feb. 1 and Aug. 1. 

| Feb. 1 and Aug. 1.. 

| Jan. 1 and Sept. 1.. 



Vermont. 



| Not till after 1900. 
| May 1 and Sept. 1. 



| Jan. 
| Jan. 
I Jan. 



1 and Sept. 1. 
1 and Sept. 1. 
1 and Sept. 15. 



Variety. 



FISH— WHEN NOT TO BE TAKEN. 
| Maine. | New Hampshire. 1 
■I 1 1 



Vermont. 



Black bass j April 1 and July l...| April 30 and June 15. \ Jan. 1 and June 15. 

White perch | April 1 and July l...| April 30 and June 15.] April 15 and June 15. 

Land-locked salmon, | 

trout | Oct. 1 and May 1.... Sept. 30 and April 15. | Sept. 1 and May 1. 

Salmon I July 15 and April | 



Except between July 15 and Sept. 15 may be taken with rod and single line. 



The New England Militia. 

MAINE: Total strength, 94 officers and 1,201 men, organized as two eleven- 
company regiments and an ambulance corps. Commander of First Regiment 
of Infantry, Col. Lucius H. Kendall, Biddeford; commander of Second Regi- 
ment of Infantry, Col. George A. Philbrook, Lewiston; commander of Ambu- 
lance Corps, Capt. W. E. Riker, Lewiston; Adjutant-General, Gen. Selden Con- 
nor, Augusta. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE: Total authorized strength, 130 officers and 1,535 men, 
organized as a brigade of three eight-company regiments, one four-gun light 
battery and one troop cavalry. Brigade Commander, Brig.-Gen. George M. 
L. Lane, Manchester; Adjutant-General, A. D. Ayling, Concord. 

VERMONT: Total strength, 48 officers and 797 men, divided as follows: 
Commander-in-chief and staff, 15; brigade commander and staff, 11; one 12- 
company regiment of infantry, 48 officers and 043 privates; one light battery, 
8 officers and 72 privates. Brigade Commander, Brig.-Gen. Julius J. Estey of 
Brattleboro; Infantry Commander, Col. Charles C. Kinsman of Rutland; Light 
Battery Commander, Capt. Fred. D. Welch of Brattleboro; Adjutant-General, 
T. S. Peck, Burlington. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Total authorized strength, 448 officers and 0,030 men. 
Present actual strength, about 0,100 men and officers. Organized as two 
brigades, consisting of three twelve-company regiments, two four-company 
corps of cadets, an eight-division naval brigade, a battalion of cavalry and 
a separate troop, and a battalion of light artillery. Commander of First 
Brigade, Benjamin F. Bridges; Commander of Second Brigade, Benjamin F. 
Peach, Jr.; Adjutant-General, Major-Gen. Samuel Dalton. 

RHODE ISLAND: Total strength, 170 officers and 1,470 men. organized as 
a brigade of two eight-company regiments, one battalion of cavalry, two sep- 
arate companies of infantry (colored), one battery of light artillery, one ma- 
chine-gun battery, two companies of naval reserve and five independent char- 
tered military organizations. Brigade Commander, Brig.-Gen. Hiram Ken- 
dall, Providence; Adjutant-General, Elisha Dyer, Providence. 

CONNECTICUT: Total strength, 208 officers and 2,054 men, organized as 
a brigade, consisting of two ten-company regiments, two eight-company regi- 
ments, two separate companies, a signal corps, one light battery, one machine- 
gun battery and one division of naval militia. Brigade Commander, Brig.-Gen. 
George Haven, New London; First Regiment, Col. Charles L. Burdett, Hart- 
ford; Second Regiment, Col. John B. Doherty, Waterbury; Third Regiment, 
Col. Augustus C. Tyler, New London; Fourth Regiment, Col. Russell Frost, 
South Norwalk; First Separate Company, Capt. Daniel S. Lathrop, Birming- 
ham; Second Separate Company, Capt. Edwin B. Freeman, Hartford; Light 
Battery A, Capt. Barlow S. House, Branford; Machine-Gun Battery, Capt. 
Henry Avery, Hartford; Naval Militia, Lieut. Edward V. Raynolds, New 
Haven; Adjutant-General, Brig.-Gen. Edward E. Bradley, New Haven. 



24 



COLLEGE PHYSICAL STATISTICS. 



The New England Coast. 

NUMBER OF VESSELS BUILT. 





| Sailing. 


Steam. 


| Total number. 




1 j 


33 


184 




I 277 


40 


317 


1892 


| 308 


46 


354 




| 120 


23 


143 


1894 


| 158 


30 


188 



New England Vital Statistics. 



States and Countries. 



Twenty Years, 
1871-1890. 



Massachusetts . 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Rhode Island . 
Connecticut 



England and Wales. 

Scotland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden 

Austria 

Hungaryf 

Switzerland 

German Empire^ . . 

Holland 

Belgium 

France 



Mar- 
riage 
Kate. 

18.1 

18.6 
15.6 
18.7 
16.0 

15.6 
13.9 
9.0 
15.6 
15.2 
13.7 
13.1 
16.3 
19.1 
14.7 
16.4 
15.1 
14.2 
15.4 



Birth Death 
Kate. Kate. 



Mar- 
riage 
Kate. 

| 18.9 
| .... 
| 20.6 
| 17.0 
| 18.8 
| 16.8 
I 

| 15.6 
| 13.9 
| 9.2 
| 15.0 
13.6 
| 13.2 
| 11.6 
I 15.4 
17.2 
14.3 
16.1 
14.2 
14.8 
15.0 



Birth Death 
Kate. Kate. 



27.4 

19.8 s1 
20.0 
25.9 
24.8 

31.4 
31.2 
23.1 
37.3 
31.0 
30.9 
28.3 
38.1 
42.3 
28.2 
37.0 
33.7 
29.6 
22.6 



19.7 

19.3 
16.9 
18.7 
19.2 



1892. 



Mar- 
riage 
Kate. 

19.0 
17.1 
21.6 
17.5 
19.4 
16.6 



Seven years. Registration of births said to be defective. 

± Nineteen years. 



20.2 || 15.4 | 30.5 | 19.0 

20.7 || 14.1 | 30.7 | 18.5 

18.4 || 9.3 | 22.4 | 19.4 
26.2 || 15.0 | 36.3 | 26.2 

20.0 || 13.6 | 29.5 | 19.4 

17.5 || 12.6 I 29.6 I 17.7 

16.8 || .... . 

27.9 || 15.6 I 36.2 | 28.8 

33.1 || ... 
20.7 || 14.7 | 28.0 | 19.3 
23.4 || 15.9 | 35.7 j 24.1 
20.7 |i 14.4 | 32.0 | 21.0 
21.0 || 15.4 | 28.9 | 21.8 

22.6 || 15.2 | 22.1 j 22.6 

t Fifteen years. 



Birth 
Kate. 

27.8 

21.2 

20.6* 

19.7 

24.7 

24.7 



D'th 
Kate 

20.6 
18.4 
21.2 
18.6 
20.5 
19.0 



College Physical Statistics. 





u-6 












a 






ach. 




-a 

0 Q 


•o . 






Numbe 
Observe 


Age. 


Weight 


Height 


Chest Gii 


Arm Gir 


Foreari 
Girth. 


Lung 
Capacit 


-3 
a 
M 


Finger Re 


Chest 
Expansii 


Right Hf 
Strengt 


Left Ha 
Strengt 


Per Cen 
Strongest 
Right Ha 




1,113 


22.24 


142.19 


67.94 


35.97 


11.77 


11.21 


251.05 


11.33 


69.72 


3.18 


92.02 


86.48 


93 




1,148 


21.87 


140.59 


67.86 


35.61 


11.72 


11.07 


250.07 


11.31 


69,78 


3.33 


88.99 


85.98 


97 


Sophomores 


1,263 


20.57 


139.39 


67.53 


35.44 


11.69 


11.06 


249.23 


10.58 


69.70 


3.45 


90.45 


86.05 


96 




1,489 


19.31 


133.19 


67.33 


34.76 


11.23 


10.80 


233.08 


8.61 


69.60 


3.00 


87.83 


83.34 


96 


College Average 


5,013 


21.10 


138.84 


67.66 


35.40 


11.19 


11.02 


241.79 


10.25 


69.69 


3.02 


89.69 


85.50 


95 


College Mean... 






131.00 


67.50 


35.50 


11.25 




230.00 


11.00 













These figures represent the averages of the measurement of 2,106 different students 
of Amherst College, showing the averages of each class for twenty years, in age, 
weight, height, chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, lung capacity, body lift, finger 
reach, chest expansion, and the comparative right and left hand strength. 



[XGOT COPPER. 



25 



New England Colleges. 



Location. 



President. 



90 



I 2. 



Amherst College | Amherst, Mass | M. E. Gates, LL. D |1821 

Andover Theol. Sem I Andover, Mass |Egbert B. Smyth, D. D 11807 

Bates College. ILewiston, Me |George C. Chase, Ph. D |1863 

Boston College i Boston, Mass I Rev. E. I. Devitt, S. J |1863 

Boston University IBoston, Mass | Rev. W. F. Warren, LI,. D 1 1869 

Bowdoin College I Brunswick, Me | William D. Hyde, D. D |1794 

Brown University |Providence, R. I | Rev. E. B. Andrews, LL. D 1 1764 

Clark University I Worcester, Mass |G. Stanley Hall, LL. D 1 1887 

Colby University IWaterville. Me |Rev. B. L. Whitman, A. M |1818 

Dartmouth College (Hanover, N. H I Rev. W. J. Tucker, LL. D |1769 

Harvard University .... [Cambridge, Mass |Charles Wm. Eliot, LL. D |1636 

Maine State College |Orono, Me I A. W. Harris, Ph. D |1868 

Mass. Inst. Technology, j Boston, Mass I P. A. Walker, LL. D |1868 

Middlebury College j Middlebury. Vt |Ezra Brainerd, LL. D |1800 

Newton Theol. Tnst INewton, Mass I Rev. Alvah Hovey, LL. D |1825 

Smith College (Northampton, Mass |L. Clark Seelye, D. D |1871 

Trinity College | Hartford. Ct |Rev. Dr. G. W. Smith, LL. D |1823 

Tufts College ICollege Hill, Mass | Elmer H. Chapin, D. D |1852 

University of Vermont. . | Burlington, Vt |Matthew H. Buckham, D. D 1 1791 

Wellesley College |Wellesley, Mass |Julia J. Irvine, Ph. D 1 1 875 

Weslevan University ... |Middletown, Ct |Rev. B. P. Raymond, LL. D |1831 

Williams College | Williamstown, Mass | Franklin Carter, LL. D |1793 

Yale University |New Haven, Ct |Rev. Timothy Dwight, LL. D |1701 



Oldest New England College Graduates. 



Class. 


College. 


Name. 


Class. 


1830. 
1820. 
1825. 
1832. 
1825. 


Trinity .... 
Wesleyan ... 
Williams.... 
Yale 


William H. Furness, D. D . . 

William Gilpin 

John Wesley Merrill, D.D. . 

J. H. Noble, D.D 

Henry Herrick, D.D 


1820 
1829 
1834 
1826 
1822 



College. 



Amherst . . . 
Bowdoin . . . 

Brown 

Colby 

Dartmouth. 



Name. 



Emilius Kitchell Snyre 

Thomas T. Stone, D.D 

George W. Briggs, D.D 

Hon. Albert W. Paine 

Mark Wentwovth Fletcher. 



Ingot Copper. 



Year, 



Jan. 



1884 14%-15 

1885 11 -11/ 

1886 11%-H% 

18S7 10%- 1 1% 

1888 15ft-l 7 £ 

1889 Ifi%-1^ 

1890 14/-14% 

1891 h/-h/ 

1892 10%-11 

1893 



Feb. 



14% -14% 
11 -U% 

11% -\\y% 
io/ -ii 

15.95-16.55 
16/ -17 
14 -141/ 
14 -14% 
10)^ -10% 
12 -12^ ! 12 -12% 



March. 



14% -143/ 
10^ -11% 

11% -uy 2 

10.35-10% 
15.95-16. 30 
15% -16 
14 -14 
14 -14 
10% -12% 
11/ -12 



April. 



14 -14/ 
10% -11% 
11/ -11^ 
10 -10)| 
15.95-16.70 
15 



-15% 

■m 



May. 



14% -14% 
11% -u/ 
10 -11)4 

9% -10 
16.25-16.70 
12 -12 
14)4 -15% 
12% -13% 
12 -12% 
10% -11 



June. 



13% -14)4 
11/ -H% 
10 -10 
9.90-10 
16% 16 60 
12 -12 
15% -16% 
12% -13 
11% -12 
10% -11 



Year. 



July. 



1884 13% 14 

1885 11%-HM 

1886 10 -10 

1887 10 -10% 

1888 16%-16 90 

1889 11/-12 

1890 16%-17Z 

1891 12/-12% 

1892 11 /-UK 

1893 10%-10% 



August. 



13% -13% 

11 -im 

10 -10)1 
10% -10?? 

16 65-17 

n% -12 

17 -17 

12 Am 
11% -11% 

9% - 9% 



Sept. 



12% -13^ 
11 -11^ 
10)4 -11 
10/ -10% 
16.90-17.65 
11 -11% 
17 -17 
12/ -12/ 
11% -11% 
9% -10 



Oct. 



12% -13 
10% -11 
11 -11/ 
10)4 -12.15 
17.35-17.65 
11 -11% 
16% -17 
11/ -12% 
11 -H% 
9% - 9% 



Nov. 



12 -12% 
10% -11 
11% -12 
10.40-15 
17.40-17.50 
11% -13 
16% -16% 
11 -11% 
11/ -12% 
9% -10 



Dec. 



10/ -12 
11% -11% 
11% -12% 
15 -17.90 
17.15-17.50 
13/ -14/ 
14/ -16 
10/ -11 
12% -12% 
10 -10% 



These figures cove r the monthly range of prices for a period of ten years, including 
the time of the rise and fall of the French Syndicate. 



20 WHAT PROPERTY MAY BE TAXED FOR IN NEW ENGLAND. 



Telephone Business. 





1886. 


1887. | 1888. | 1889. 


1890. 


1801. 


1892. 


1893. | 1894. 


F^xchanges 


747 


1 - 1 
7361 739| 742 


757 


774 


788 


81° 


838 




428 


446i 452 1 452 


471 


467 


509 


539 


571 


Miles of wire on 




1 1 












poles 


100.332 


111,3491127,8091142,631 

1 1 


154,009 


171,498 


180,139 


201,259 


214,676 


Miles of wire on 
















10,043 


10,5871 10,225| 10,266 
1 1 


11,484 


13,445 


14,954 


14,980 


16,492 


Miles of wire under- 
















3,417 


6,030 | 8,0091 17,038 

1 1 


27,117 


54,690 


70,334 


90,216 


120,675 


Miles of wire sub- 
















254 


265| 3651 536 


603 


779 


1,029 


1,336 


1,637 


Total miles of wire... 


114,046 


128,231 146,438|170,471 


193,213 


240,412 


266,456 


307,791 


353,480 




112,067 


121, 260|132, 0041143,687 


156,780 


173,665 


186,462 


201,322 


205,891 




5,438 


5.8431 6,1831 6,310 


6,758 


7,845 


8,376 


9,970 


10,421 


Total stations 


137,750|147,068|158,712|171,454|185,003|202,931 


216,017|232,140|237,186 



These are the latest figures for the Bell Telephone Company, who controls 
the bulk of the business in this country. The estimated number of exchange 
connections daily in the United States, made up from actual count in most 
of the exchanges, is 1.871,667, or a total per year of about 600,000,000. The 
number of daily calls per station varies in different exchanges from 2 to 18, 
the average throughout the United States being 8, which is about the same 
as the number reported last year. The average cost to the subscriber varies, 
according to the size of the exchange and character of the service, from less 
than 2 to 8y 2 cents per connection. 



What Property may be Taxed for in New England. 

MAINE.— For local purposes: All except specially exempt and property of 
telegraph, telephone, railroad and express companies. For State purposes: 
Same as for local purposes, and also property of telegraph, telephone, railroad 
and express companies. Rate fixed by Legislature. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE.— For local purposes: All not specially exempted. For 
State purposes: All property taxable for local purposes. Rate fixed by Legis- 
lature for State purposes and by local authorities for local purposes. Towns 
may exempt products of manufactories for ten years. 

VERMONT.— For local purposes: All not specially exempt; corporations 
taxed for State purposes only. For State purposes: Gross receipts of corpora- 
tions, bank deposits and a mill tax on all taxable property. Rate fixed by 
Legislature for State and general purposes, by local authorities for local pur- 
poses. 

MASSACHUSETTS.— For local purposes: All except savings bank and rail- 
road property and special exemptions. For State purposes: By tax on savings 
banks, railroad property and direct tax on all property. Rate fixed by local 
authorities. 

RHODE ISLAND.— For local purposes: All not specially exempt, and tele- 
graph, telephone and express companies. For State purposes: Gross receipts 
of telegraph, telephone and express companies; also mill tax on all taxable 
property. Rate fixed by Legislature for State purposes and by local boards 
for local purposes. 

CONNECTICUT.— For local purposes: All except corporate property and 
special exemptions. For State purposes: Tax on corporations. Rate fixed by 
local boards; on capital stock of manufactories by act of Legislature. 



COMPOSITION OF UNITED STATES MONEY. 27 



Voting Strength of Foreign Born in New England. 





Foreign Born 


Naturalized to 100 


Natu ralized For- 




Males 21 Years and 


Foreign Born 


eign Born Males 




Over to 100 Males 


Males 21 Years 


to 100 Males 21 




21 Years and Over. 


and Over. 


Years and Over. 




J."). 14 


36 52 


5 52 




22.05 


38.90 


8.57 




L9.37 


46.95 


9.08 




38.66 


43.76 


16.91 




40.18 


38.83 


15.60 




34.99 


49 39 


17.28 




25.67 


58.55 


15.02 



Boston Sidewalk Law. 

The principal part of the act regulating the construction and the apportionment 
of the cost of sidewalks in Boston is as follows: 

" The Board of Mayor and Aldermen of the city of Boston may grade and construct 
sidewalks, and complete any partially constructed sidewalk in any street of such city 
as the public convenience may require, with or without edgestones, as said Board shall 
deem expedient, and may cover the same with brick, flat stones, concrete, arravel or 
other appropriate material, and may assess upon the abutters on such sidewalks in just 
proportions, not exceeding one-half of the expense of the same; but all assessments so 
made shall constitute a lien upon the abutting land, and be collected in the same man- 
ner as taxes on real estate are now collected ; and such sidewalks, when constructed 
with edgestones and covered with bricks, flat stones or concrete, shall afterwards be 
maintained at the expense of the city. When any such sidewalk shall be permanently 
constructed with edgestones and covered with brick, flat stones or concrete, as afore- 
said, there shall be deducted from the assessment therefor any sum which shall have 
been previously assessed upon the abutting premises and paid to the city for the ex- 
pense of the construction of the same in any other manner than with edgestones and 
with brick, flat stones or concrete as aforesaid : and such deductions shall be made pro 
rata and in just proportions from the assessments upon the different abutters who at 
the time of such assessments are owners of the estate which at the time of such former 
assessment was the estate of the abutters who had previously paid such former 
assessments." 



Composition of United States Money. 



Fiscal Year Ending 
June 30. 


Gold Coin and 
Bullion. 


Silver Dollars and 
Bullion. 


Subsidiary 
Silver Coin. 


Gold 
Certificates. 


Silver 
; Certificates. 


United States 
Notes. 


Treasury 
Notes of 1890. 


National Bank 
Notes. 


Currency 
Certificates. 


Total. 




213 


16 


72 


44 


•> 


347 




325 


47 


1,064 




246 


41 


76 


15 


3 


347 




329 


31 


1,088 


1880.. .. 


352 


69 


79 


8 


12 


347 




344 


14 


1.225 




478 


95 


80 


6 


51 


347 




354 


12 


1,423 




507 


122 


80 


5 


67 


347 




a57 


13 


1,498 




543 


152 


81 


81 


89 


347 




356 


13 


1,663 




545 


179 


75 


98 


121 


347 




339 


12 


1.716 


1885..... 


589 


208 


75 


140 


140 


347 




317 


29 


1,845 




591 


237 


75 


131 


116 


3+7 




308 


18 


1,823 


1887.. . 


655 


278 


75 


121 


146 


34? 




279 


9 


1,910 




706 


310 


76 


142 


229 


347 




252 


15 


2,077 


1889 ..... 


680 


344 


76 


154 


263 


347 




211 


17 


2,092 


695 


380 


77 


157 


302 


347 




186 


12 


2,156 




647 


437 


78 


152 


314 


347 


50 


167 


24 


2,216 


1892 


061 


491 


77 


157 


332 


347 


101 


172 


30 


2,371 




592 


538 


77 


94 


331 


347 


147 


179 


12 


2,317 



These amounts are in all cases given in the nearest millions of dollars, j 



28 



NEW ENGLAND FISHERIES. 



New England Cotton Manufacture. 







Number 




LABOR 


& WAGES. 


COTTON USED. 


Cost of 

all 
materials 




States. 




of es- 
tablish- 
ments. 


Capital 
invested. 


Hands 
em- 


Wages 
paid. 


Pounds. 


Cost. 


Value of 
products. 


Maine 


1890 
1880 


23 
24 


$20 850 754 
15,292;07S 


13,992 
11,'864 


$4,372,473 
2^36^640 


54,185,061 


$7,053,168 


$8 407 362 
7|320i 152 


$15 316 909 
13i319>63 


New Hampshire 


1890 
'1880 


27 
36 


26 801 933 
19',877,084 


19 533 
16^529 


6 429 084 
4!290!960 


107,319,124 
76,386,499 


11,203,742 
8,629,063 


12 938 074 
10,'l46;904 


21,958 002 
17^953',403 


Vermont 


1890 
1880 


6 
7 


1,431,986 
936,096 


737 
735 


220,742 
161,748 


4,647,889 
3,562,088 


498,348 
458,607 


538,925 
508,297 


914.685 
855,864 




1890 
1880 


187 
175 


128,838,837 
72,291,601 


76,213 
61,844 


26,230,667 
15,828,571 


386,767,326 
273,718,889 


40,870,307 
31,107,154 


56,492,375 
35,994,109 


100,202,882 
72,289,'518 




,1890 
1880 


94 
115 


38,798,161 
28,047,331 


24,832 
21,474 


8,131,142 
5,320,303 


97,982,155 
81,137,172 


11,147,080 
10,457,770 


14,334,034 
12,291,437 


27,310,499 
22,875,111 


Connecticut 


1890 
18S0 


65 
82 


26,431,578 
20,310,500 


13,411 
14,739 


4,524,483 
3,632,639 


52,257,968 
52,384,171 


5,976,485 
6,281,939 


8,208,111 
8,029,127 


15,409,476 
16,069,771 



New England Wool Manufacture. 







Number 




LABOR 


& WAGES. 


WOOL 


USED. 


Cost of 

all 
materials 




States. 




of es- 
tablish- 
ments. 


Capital 
invested. 


Hands 

em- 
ployed. 


"Wages, 
paid. 


Pounds. 


Cost. 


Value of 
products. 




. 1890 
1880 


82 
97 


$9,484,925 
4,016,828 


5,453 
3,265 


$1,991,676 
1,091,329 


13,782,749 
9,074,011 


$3,905,736 
3,172,391 


$5,704,508 
4,444,990 


$8,814,256 
6,962,003 


New Hampshire . 


..1890 
1880 


89 
85 


14,721,786 
8,374,855 


9,400 
7,352 


3,341,695 
2,237,736 


22,152,190 
16,929,169 


5,747,363 
5,407,774 


8,784,638 
7,854,955 


14,445,172 
13,220,830 


Vermont 


. ,1890 
1880 


39 
50 


4,059,264 
2,812,161 


2,303 
2,467 


895,284 
645,175 


4,516,739 
4,004,524 


1,224,972 
1,376,945 


2,081,026 
2,372,428 


3,829,641 
3,813,077 




1890 
1880 


293 
271 


71,066,526 
38,231,375 


43,038 
38,128 


16,154,034 
11,635,889 


99,569,455 
86,018,482 


25,430,803 
26,409,739 


44,767,072 
41,677,919 


72,681,408 
67,451,805 


Rhode Island — 


1890 
1880 


85 
62 


26,039,361 
13,022,116 


19,325 
12,164 


7,049,109 
3,711,657 


40,762,303 
27,141,974 


12,674,724 
9,924,837 


21 ,562,313 
13,094,650 


34,722,493 
21,624,204 




.1890 

1880 


98 
102 


23,794,374 
14,221,637 


13,047 
12,024 


4,940,783 
3,986,965 


23,482,736 
24,943,637 


6,048,301 
8,708,316 


12,530,719 
14,742,091 


20,843,965 
24,855,729 



New England Fisheries. 



State. 


Persons 

Em- 
ployed. 


No. of 
Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Value of 
Outfit. 


Capital and 

Shore 
Property. 


Value of 
Fisheries. 




14,129 
*11,071 


408 
*574 


13,136.67 
*16,529.66 


$638,151 
*934,593 


$1,415,108 
*1,562,235 


$2,111,206 
*2,742,571 


New Hampshire -j 


365" 
414 


15 

23 


588.05 
1,019.05 


33,390 
60,385 


43,100 
89,800 


88,511 
170,634 


Massachusetts. . -j 


17,238 
20,117 


836 
1,007 


59,259.30 
81,080.49 


2.550,444 
3,523,925 


7,343,407 
7,282,600 


5,858,274 
7,959,760 


Rhode Island.. . j- 


1,757 
2,310 


69 
92 


1,484.79 
2,502.77 


146 202 
138,733 


614,283 
• 204,850 


935.144 
696,814 


Connecticut — -j 


3,017 
3,131 


214 
291 


5,269 68 
9,215.95 


243,384 
3^5,535 


1,959,305 
457,850 


1,557.506 
933,242 



*The first figures in each set are from the census of 1890 ; the second are from the 
census of 1880. 



VACCINATION AND SMALL POX. 



29 



Population of New England by Counties. 



COUNTIES. 



Maine 

Androscoggin 

Aroostook 

Cumberland 

Franklin 

Hancock 

Kennebec 

Knox 

Lincoln 

Oxford 

Penobscot 

Piscataquis 

Sagadahoc 

Somerset 

Waldo 

Washington 

York 

New Hampshire 

Belknap 

Carroll 

Cheshire 

Coos 

Grafton 

Hillsboro 

Merrimack 

Rockingham 

Strafford 

Sullivan 

Vermont 

Addison 

Bennington 

Caledonia 

Chittenden 

Essex 

Franklin 

Grand Isle 

Lamoille 

Orange 



1890. 



376,530 



20,321 
18,124 
29,579 
23,211 
37,217 
93,247 
49,435 
49,650 
38,4+2 
17,304 

332,422 



22,277 
20,448 
23,436 
35,389 

9,511 
29,755 

3,843 
12,831 
19,575 



1880. 



648,930 



45.042 
41,700 
86,359 
18,180 
38,129 
53,058 
32,863 
24,821 
32,627 
70,476 
14,872 
19,272 
32,333 
32,463 
44,484 
62,257 

346,991 



17,948 
18,224 
28,734 
18,580 
38,788 
75,634 
46,300 
49,064 
35,558 
18,161 



24,173 
21,950 
23,607 
32,792 

7,931 
30,225 

4,124 
12,684 
23,525 



Counties. 



Vermont— Continued 

Orleans 

Rutland 

Washington 

Windham 

Windsor 

Massachusetts 

Barnstable 

Berkshire 

Bristol 

Dukes 

Essex 

Franklin 

Hampden 

Hampshire 

Middlesex 

Nantucket 

Norfolk 

Plymouth 

Suffolk 

Worcester 

Rhode Island 

Bristol 

Kent 

Newport 

Providence 

Washington 

Connecticut 

Fairfield 

Hartford 

Litchfield 

Middlesex 

New Haven 

New London 

Tolland 

Windham 



1890. 



22,101 

45,897 
29,606 
26,547 
31,706 

2,238,943 



29,172 

81,108 
186,465 
4,369 
299.995 

38,610 
135,713 

51,859 
431,167 
3,268 
118,950 

92,700 
484,780 
280,787 

345,506 



11,428 
26,754 
28,552 
255,123 
23,649 

746,258 



150,081 
147,180 
53,542 
39,524 
209,058 
76,634 
25,081 
45,158 



1880. 



22,083 
41,829 
25.404 
26,763 
35,196 

1,783,085 



31,897 
69,032 

139,040 
4,300 

244,535 
36,001 

104,142 
47,232 

317,830 
3,727 
96,507 
74,018 

387,927 

226,897 

276,531 



11,394 

20,588 
24,180 
197,874 
22,495 

622,700 



112.042 
125,382 
52,044 
35,589 
156,523 
73,152 
24,112 
43,856 



Vaccination and Small Pox. 



Year. 



1885 | 32 

1886 | 2 

1887 | 13 

1888 | 32 

IS80 1 15 

1890 | 6 

1891 | 5 

1892 | 19 

1893 | 44 



5 v 



| 168 | 34 | 20.2 



T| 
1| 
6| 
15 | 

11 I 
2 I 
1 I 
7 I 

11 I 



0> G 



0| 



+j 0*0 
o o a; 



I 13 I 



5| 
13 | 
3| 

2 I 

3 I 
10 | 
27 | 



| ... | 



61 



3 | 4.9 1 1 76 | 23 | 30.3 



12 I 

1 I 

2 I 
4| 

1 I 

2 I 
1 I 
2.1 
•6 I 



2 I 

0 I 
2 i 

1 I 
1 I 
1 I 

•• I 
1 I 
0| 



31 | 8 | 25.8 



These figures are for Massachusetts and are from the returns of the State Board 
of Health. 



30 



The Sunday and Daily Journal 

Are both papers that recommend 
themselves to the New England 
people. 

THE JOURNAL^ ^ 

Is a paper you would be proud to 
talk about as your home paper. 
It is always clean, newsy and 
bright. 



IT IS THE PAPER TO HAVE IN YOUR FAMILY. 



31 



The following eminent Writers will furnish notable 
Articles upon important and interesting subjects for the 

^.SUNDAY JOURNAL ^+ 

During the Year 1895. 



READ THE NAMES: 



Walter Camp, 
Professor Stagg, 
George Kennan, 
Gen. H. B. Carrington, 
Justin McCarthy, M. P., 
C. A. Stevens, 
Julian Hawthorne, 
Gilbert Parker, 
Edward Everett Hale, 
Prof. W. Garden Blakie, 
Jacob A. Rns, 



Grace Greenwood, 

Mrs. Henry Ward Beecher, 

Mary Lowe Dickinson, 

Helen Campbell, 

Mrs". Ballington Booth, 

Grace Dodge, 

Olive Thorne Miller, 

Edward W. Bok, 

Theodore Roosevelt, 

John Laird Wilson, 

Capt. Charles King. 



The D a *'y Journal 



Is the newsiest paper published in 
Boston, and has shown remark 
able progress during the pastl 
three years. 



ALWAYS CONTAINS 



ALL the news, able editorials, and 
many features of interest to 
New England people. 



IT IS THE LEADING REPUBLICAN NEWS- 
PAPER OF NEW ENGLAND. 



ALMANAC FOR 1895. 



Divisions of Time. 

Astronomers make use of several different kinds of time: mean solar time; true 
jr apparent solar time ; and sidereal time. 

Solar Time.— Solar time is that used for all the purposes of ordinary life, and is 
measured by the daily motion of the sun. A Solar Day is the interval of time between 
i wo successive transits of the sun over the same meridian ; and the hour angle of the 
juu is called Sola/r Time. This is the most natural and direct measure of time. But 
he intervals between the successive returns of the sun to the same meridian are not 
xaetly equal, owing to the varying motion of the earth around the sun, and to the 
mliquity of the ecliptic. The interval between the sun's transits over the meridian 
being .unequal, it is impossible to regulate a clock so that it shall accurately follow 
i the sun . 

To avoid the irregularity which would arise from using the true sun as the measure 
if time, a fictitious sun, called the Mean Sun, is supposed to move in the equator with 
a uniform velocity. This mean sun is supposed to keep, on the average, as near the 
real sun as is consistent with perfect uniformity of motion ; it is sometimes in advance 
of it, and sometimes behind it, the greatest deviation being about 16 minutes of time. 

Mean Solar Time, which is perfectly equable in its increase, is measured by the 
motion of this mean sun. The clocks in ordinary use and the chronometers used by 
navigators are regulated to mean solar time. 

True, or Apparent Solar Time, is measured by the motion of the real sun. 

The difference between apparent and mean time is called the Equation of Time. By 
means of it we change apparent to mean time, or the reverse. Thus, if the apparent 
time be given, the mean time corresponding to it will be obtained by adding or 
subtracting the equation of time. 

Sidereal Time.— Sidereal time is measured by the daily motion of the stars ; or, as 
it is used by astronomers, by the daily motion of that point in the equator from which 
the true right ascension of the stars is counted. This point is the vernal equinox, and 
its hour angle is called Sidereal Time. Astronomical clocks, regulated to sidereal time, 
are called sidereal clocks. 

A Sidereal Day is the interval of time between the transit of the vernal equinox 
over the meridian, and its next succeeding return to the same meridian. It is about 
3 minutes and 56 seconds shorter than the mean solar day ; 365J4 solar days, or a year, 
being divided into 366J4 sidereal days. It is divided into 24 hours. The sidereal hours 
are counted from 0 to 21, commencing with the instant of the passage of the true vernal 
equinox over the upper meridian, and ending with its return to the same meridian. 
About March 21st of each year the sidereal clock agrees with the mean time or ordinary 
clock, and the former gains on the latter about 3 minutes and 56 seconds per day, so that 
at the end of a year it will have gained an entire day, and will again agree with the 
mean time clock. 

Day — The Civil Day, according to the customs of society, commences at midnight 
and comprises 24 hours, from one midnight to the next following. The hours are 
counted from 0 to 12 from midnight to noon, after which they are again reckoned from 
0 to 12 from noon to midnight. Thus the day is divided into two periods of 12 hours 
each, of which the first is marked A. M. and the last is marked p.m. 

The Astronomical Day commences at noon on the civil day of the same date. It also 
comprises 24 hours, but they are reckoned from 0 to 21, and from the noon of one day 
to that of the next following. The astronomical as well as the civil time may be either 
apparent or mean, according as it is reckoned from apparent noon or mean noon. 

The civil day begins twelve hours before the astronomical day; therefore the first 
period of the civil day answers to the last part of the preceding astronomical day, and 
the la?t period of the civil day corresponds to the first part of the same astronomical 
day. Thus, January 9th, 2 o'clock, A. m. , civil time, is January 8th, 14 hours, astronomical 
time; and January 9th, 2 o'clock, p. M., civil time, is also January 9th, 2 hours, 
astronomical time. The rule, then, for the transformation of civil time into astronom- 
ical time is this : 

If the civil time is marked A. 31., take one from the day and add twelve to the hours, 
and the result is the astronomical time wanted ; if the civil time is marked P. M., take away 
the designation P. M , and the astronomical time is had. without further change. 

To change astronomical to civil time, we simply write P. M. after it if it is less than 12 
hours. If greater than 12 hours we subtract 12 hours from it, add 1 to the days and 
write A. M. 

For example, January 3d, 23 hours, astronomical time, is January 4th, 11 o'clock, 
A. m., civil time. — The American Ephemeris. 

Julian Calendar —Julius Caesar in B. C. 45, ordered that those years whose date 
numbers are exactly divisible by 4 should contain 366 days each, and all other years 365 
lays. The intercalary day was introduced by counting the sixth day before the Kalends 
3f March twice. The average length of the Julian year is therefore 36.>lf days, which is 
too long by 11 minutes and 11 seconds. The J uliau Calendar continued in use until 
A. D., 1582, at which time the date of the beginning of seasons occurred 1J davs lwt*tr 
than when this method of reckoning time was established. 



34 



BELL TIME ON SHIPBOARD. 



Gregorian Calendar.— The Gregorian year was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII 
It consists of 365 days, but every year exactly divisible by 4, except those centuria 
years which are not exactly divisible by 400, contains 366 days. Thus, in 400 years 97 are 
leap years and 303 common years. The Gregorian Calendar was introduced into 
England and her colonies in 1752, at which time the equinox had retrogi-aded 11 days 
since the Council of Nice in A. D. 325, when the festival of Easter was established and 
the equinox occurred March 2lst ; hence September 3d, 1752, was called September 14th; 
and at the same time the commencement of the legal year was changed from March 25th 
to January 1st, so that the year 1751 lost the months of January and February and the 
first 24 days of March. The difference between the Julian and Gregorian Calendars is 
now 12 days. 

French Republican Calendar . — Although reckoned from September 22d, 179/? 
the French Republican Calendar was not introduced until November 22d, 1793. It 
remained in use only until December 31st, 1805, when the Gregorian Calendar was 
restored. The months varied in different years ; thus Niv6se 1 beuran December 21st i« 
1793, December 22d in 1795, December 21st in 1796, December 22d in 1799, etc. Thf 
following are the dates for the year 1804, the last complete year of this calendar : ' 



Vendemiaire (Vintage) Sept. 23 to Oct. 22. 

Brumaire (Foggy) Oct. 23 to Nov. 22. 

Frimaire (Sleety) Nov. 22 to Dec. 21 . 

NivQse (Snowy) Dec. 22 to Jan. 21. 

Pluvi6se (Rainy) Jan. 21 to Feb. 20. 

Ventose (Windy) Feb. 20 to Mar. 19 



Germinal (Budding) Mar. 22 to Apr. 21 

Floreal (Flowery) Apr. 21 to May 20 

Prairial ( Pasture) May 21 to June 20 

Messidor (Harvest) June 20 to July 19 

Thermidor (Hot) July 20 to Aug. 19 

Fructidor (Fruit) Aug. 19 to Sept. 18 



The months were divided into three decades of ten days each, but to make up the 
365, five were added at the end of September; Primidi, dedicated to Virtue; Duodi, to 
Genius; Tridi, to Labor; Quartidi, to Opinion; and Quintidi, to Rewards. To Leap 
Year, called Olympic, a sixth day, the 22d or 23d September, Sextidi, "Jour de la 
Revolution," was added. 

The Ancient Hour.— The day is said to have first been divided into hours from 
293 B. C, when a sun dial was set up in the temple of Quirinus at Rome. The earlj 
Egyptians divided the day and night each into twelve hours, a custom adopted by the 
Jews and Greeks, probably from the Babylonians. In Rome the time was called by 
public criers prior to the invention of water clocks, 158 B. C. Time was measured in 
early times in England by means of wax candles, three inches burning an hour. Day 
bepran at sunrise among most of the Northern nations, at sunset among the Jews and 
Athenians, and at midnight Avith the Romans. 

The Ancient and Modern Year.— The Athenians began the year in June, the 
Macedonians in September, the Romans first in March and afterward in January, the 
Persians on August 11, the ancient Mexicans on February 23, the Mohammedan i in July. 
The Chinese year, Which begins early in February, is similar to the Mohammedan in 
having 12 months of 29 and 30 days alternately ; but in every nineteen years there are 
seven years which have thirteen months. This is not quite correct, and the Chinese 
have therefore formed a cycle of 60 years, in which period 22 intercalary months occur. 



Bell Time and Watch on Board Ship. 



-I 

irt! 



Watch.— For purposes of discipline, and to divide the work fairly, the crew 
mustered in two divisions : The Starboard (right side, looking forward), and the Port 
(left). The day commences at noon and is thus divided: Afternoon Watch, noon to 
4 p. M.: First Dog Watch, 4 p. m. to 6 p. m.; Second Dog Watch, 6 p. m. to 8 p. m.; First 
Watch, 8 P. M. to midnight; Middle Watch, 12 A. M. to 4 A. M.; Morning Watch, 4A. M. 
to 8 a. m.; Forenoon Watch, 8 a. m. to noon. This makes seven Watches, which enables 
the crew to keep them alternately, as the Watch which is on duty in the forenoon one 
day has the afternoon next day, and the men who have only four hours' rest one night 
have eight hours the next. This is the reason for having Dog Watches, which are made 
by dividing the hours between 4 p. m. and 8 p. m. into two Watches. 

Time.— Time is kept by means of " Bells," although there is but one bell on the ship, 
and to strike the clapper properly against the bell requires some skill. First, two 
strokes of the clapper at the interval of a second, then an interval of two seconds, then 
two more strokes with a second's interval apart, then a rest of two seconds, thus : 
Bell, one second ; B., two seconds; B. s.; B. ss.; B. s.; B. ss.; B. 

1 Hell is struck at 12.30, and again at 4.30, 6.30, 8 30 P. M.; 12.30, 4.30 and 8.30 A. M. 

2 Bells at 1 (struck with an interval of a second between each— B. s, B.), the same 
again at 5, 7 and 9 p. M.; 1, 5 and 9 a. m. 

3 Bells at 1.30 (B. s, B. ss, B.), 5.30, 7.30 and 9.30 p. M.; 1.30, 5.30 and 9. 30. A. M. 

4 Bells at 2 (B. s, B. ss, B. s, B.), 6 and 10 p. M.; 2, 6 and OA. m. 

5 Bells at 2.30 (B. s, B. ss, B. s, B. ss, B.) and 10.30 p. m.; 2.30, 6.30 and 10.30 A. M. 

6 Bells at 3 (B. s, B. ss, B. s, B. ss, B. s, B.), and 11 p. M.; 3, 7 and 11 A. m. 

7 Bells at 3.30 (B. s, B. ss, B. s, B. ss, B. s, B. ss, B.) and 11.30 P. M.; 3.30, 7.30 and 
11.30 A. M. 

8 Bells (B. s, B. ss, B. s, B. ss, B. s, B. ss, B. s, B.), every 4 hours, at noon, at 4 p. 
M., 8 P. m., midnight, 4 A. M. and 8 A. M. 



TO OBTAIN CORRECT LOCAL TIME. 



85 



Standard Time. 

A standard of time was adopted by agreement by all the principal railroads of the 
dted States November 18th, 1883. This system divides the United States into four 
it ions, each of 15 degrees of longitude, exactly equivalent to one hour. The first or 
Stern section uses the 75th meridian and includes all territory lying between the 
lantic Coast and an irregular line drawn from Detroit to Charleston, S. O, the latter 
ing its most southern point. The second or central section uses the 90th meridian and 
eludes the territory between the last mentioned line and an irregular line from 
smarek, N. I)., to tne mouth of the Rio Grande. The third or mountain section uses 
e 105th meridian and includes the territory between the last mentioned line and nearly 
e western borders of Idaho, Utah and Arizona. The fourth or Pacific section uses the 
)th meridian and covers the rest of the country to the Pacific Coast. Standard time 
uniform inside each of these sections, and the time of each section differs from that 
xt to it just one hour. Eastern standard time is just five hours slower than Greenwich 
cal time. Thus, at noon Greenwich it is 7 o'clock, A. M., New York City (eastern time), 
o'clock, A. M., Chicago (central time), 5 o'clock, A. M., Denver (mountain time), and 
)'clock, A. M , San Francisco (Pacific time.) This change of system rec'ufed the time 
andards used by railroads to four, a great convenience to travellers, -j.'he suggestion 
ading to the adoption of the standard system originated with Professor Abbe, of the 
gnu I Bureau at Washington. 



To Obtain Correct Local Time. 



Apply to standard time by adding or subtracting the correction in minutes given in 
e table. If the first be correct, the resulting local time will be correct. 



lbany, N. Y 

ustin, Texas 

iltimore, Md 

iton Rouge v.. 

smarck, Dak 

oston. Mass — 

uffalo, N. Y 

urlington, Iowa 

iiro, 111 

liarleston, S. C 

hicago. 111 

incinnati, Ohio 

leveland, Ohio 

iMmnbia, S. C , 

olumbus, Ohio 

ay ton, Ohio 

enver. Col 

es Moines, Iowa 

etroit, Mich 

ubuque, Iowa 

ailuth, Minn , 

rie, Penn 

vansville, Ind 

t. Gibson, Cher. Nat'n. 

ort Smith, Ark 

ort Wayne, Ind 

alena, III 

alveston, Texas 

rand Haven, Mich.. 

[arrisburg, Penn 

[ouston, Texas 

[untsville, Ala 

ndianapolis, Ind 

ackson, Miss 

acksonville, Fla 

anesville. Wis 

efferson City, Mo 

'ansas City, Mo 

Keokuk, Iowa 

^noxville, Tenn 

a Crosse, Wis 

awrence. Kansas 



Eastern 


Add 5 


Central 


Sub. 31 


Eastern 


D 


Central 


" A. 




" 43 


Eastern 


Add 16 




Sub. 16 


Central 


5 

" 3 


Eastern 


14 20 


Central 


Add 10 




44 22 




'» 33 


Eastern 


Sub. 24 


Central 


Add 28 




" 23 


Mountain 


Sub. 0 


Central 


14 




Add 28 




Sub. 3 
9 




Add 40 




14 10 




Sub. 21 




44 11 




Add 19 




Sub. 2 




" 19 


u 


Add 15 


Eastern 


Sub. 7 


Central 


4 * 21 


M 


Add 12 




" 16 




Sub. 1 




Add 33 




4 




Sub. 9 




14 18 
6 


t || 


Add 24 




Sub. 5 


M 


" 21 



Lexington, Ky 

Little Rock, Ark.... 

Louisville, Ky 

Lynchburg, Va 

Memphis, Tenn 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala... 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Haven, Conn... 
New Orleans, La.... 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Ogdensburg, N. Y... 
Omaha City, Neb... 

Pensacola, Fla 

Philadelphia, Penn. 

Pittsburg, Penn 

Portland, Me 

Providence, R. I 

Quincy, 111 

Raleigh, N. C 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

liock Island, 111 

Santa Fe, N. M 

Savannah, Ga 

Shreveport, La 

Springfield, 111 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Superior City, Wis.. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C... 
Wheeling, W. Va. .. 
Wilmington, Del — 
Wilmington. N.C... 
Yankton, Dak 



Central 



Eastern 
Central 



Eastern 
Central 
Eastern 



Central 
Eastern 



Central 
Eastern 



Central 
Mountain 
Central 



Eastern 
Central 
Eastern 



( lentral 



Add 23 
Sub. 9 
Add 18 
Sub. 17 
Add 0 
8 
8 

" 15 
44 13 

8 

Sub. 0 
Add 4 
Sub. 5 
44 2 
»• 24 
Add 11 
Sub. 1 
" 20 
Add 19 
" 14 
Sub. 6 
44 15 
41 10 
44 11 
3 
4 

Add 36 
Sub. 15 
Add 2 
Sub. 19 
1 

44 12 

8 
5 

Add 26 
1 

Sub. 1 
8 

44 23 
2 

41 J3 
44 29 



36 



CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. 



Chronological Eras, 1895. 



6608.— Julian Period. 

7403-7404.— Byzantine Era, 7404 begins September 1st. 
5655-5656.— Jewish Era, 5656 beginning on September 19th, or more exactly, sunse 

September 18th. 
2648.— Since foundation of Rome, according to Varro. 
1611.— Era of Diocletian. 

-'642.— Since the beginning of Era of Nabonassar, which has been assigned to 396' 
year of Julian Period; corresponding in the notation of chronologists 
the 747th, and in the notation of astronomers to the 746th year B. C. 

2671.— Of the Olympiads or the third year of the 668th Olympiad, beginning in Julj 
1895, if we fix the era of the Olympiads at 775^ years B. C, or near th 
beginning of July of the year 3938 of the Julian Period. 

2207.— Of the Grecian Era, or the Era of Selucidae. 

2555.— Of the Japanese Era and 28th year of Period called " Meiji.'* 

1313.— Mohammedan or Era of Hegira, beginning June 24th, 1895. 

January 1st, 1895, 2,413,195th day since beginning of the Julian Period. The 120t 

year of the Independence of the United States of America begins July 4th, 1895. 



Date of Beginning of Eras, Epochs and Periods. 



Bega 

Grecian Mundane Era . . Sept. 1, 5598 
Civil Era of Constantinople 

Sept. 1,5508 

Alexandrian Era Aug. 29, 5502 

Ecclesiastical Era of Antioch 

Sept. 1, 5492 

Julian Period Jan. 1, 4713 

Mundane Era Oct. 1, 4008 

Jewish Mundane Era Oct. 1, 3761 

Era of Abraham Oct. 1, 2015 

Era of the Olympiads...... July 1, 776 

Roman Era (A. U. C). .. .April 24, 753 

Era of Nabonassar Feb. 26, 747 

Metonic Cvcle July 15, 432 

Grecian Era Sept. 1, 312 



n, 

B. C 



Began. 

Tyrian Era Oct. 19, 125 B 

Sidonian Era Oct. 1, 110 k 

Caesarian Era of Antioch.. Sept. 1, 48 4 

Julian Year Jan. 1, 45 4 

Spanish Era Jan. 1,38 ' 

Actian Era Jan. 1,30 1 

Augustan Era Feb. 14, 27 

Vulgar Christian Era Jan. 1, 1 

Destruction of Jerusalem.. Sept. 1, 69 

Era of Maccabees Nov. 24, 166 

Era of Diocletian Sept. 17, 284 

Era of Ascension Nov. 12, 295 

Era of Armenians July 7, 552 

Mohammedan Era July 16, 622 

Persian Era of Yezdegird. June 16, 632 



A. I 



Fixed and Movable Festivals. 



Epiphany January 6 

Septuagesima Sunday February 10 

Quinquagesima k * February 24 

Ash Wednesday February 27 

St. Patrick's Day March 17 

Palm Sunday April 7 

Good Friday April 12 

Easter Sunday April 14 



Low Sunday April 

Rogation Sunday May 

Ascension Day May £ 

Sunday after Ascension May 2 

Whit Sunday . June 

Trinity Sunday , June 

Advent Sunday December 

Christmas Day December 2 



Chronological Cycles. 



(1) Dominical or Sunday Letter F 

(2) Epact (Moon's Agc'January 1) 4 

(3) Lunar Cycle or Golden Number 15 

(4) Solar Cycle 28 



(5) Roman Indiction , 

(6) Julian Period 66( 

(7) Dionysian Period 2 

(8) Jewish Lunar Cycle 



Explanatory Note.— The Dominical Letter indicates the day of the year on whic 
the first Sunday occurs ; F is the sixth letter, and the 6th of January will be Sunday I 
The Golden Number is the number in a cycle of nineteen years, which shows how manf 
years have passed since New Moon fell on January 1. This and ( .) are chiefly vsed 
fixing the date of Easter. No. (4) is a cycle of twenty-eight years, after which the dayij^ 
of the week will recur in the same order ; is used to find (1). Roman Indiction is a cycl 3 
of fifteen years, and is of no utility except to chronologers. Julian Period is a cycle o 3 
980 years, and is the product of (3), (4) and f5), and shows the time when (3), (4) and (f - 
will coincide or begin at the same time. Dionysian Period is a cycle of 532 yearx, an 
is called the Great Paschal Cycle, being the product of the Solarand Lunar Cyck 
This and (6) are chiefly used in chronology. The Jewish Lunar Cycle is alwa} r s thre 
less than (3) ; used only by the Jews in fixing the time of their festi als. 



MOHAMMEDAN CALENDAR. 



37 



Greek and Russian Orthodox Catholic Churches Calendar. 

A. D. 1895. -A. M. 7403-4.* 



>w Style. Holy Days. Old Style. 

n. 13. Circumcision Jan. 1 

' 18. Epiphany (Theophanj r ) " 6 

b. 14 Purification (Hypapante). Feb 2 

" 24. Carnival Sunday " 12 

" 25. First Day of Lent " 13 

irch 3. First Sunday in Lent " 19 

" 14. Accession of Czar Alexander 

I lit March 2 

" 21. Forty Martyrs " 9 

)r. 6. Annunciation of Blessed Virgin 

(Theotokos) March 25 

' 7. Palm Sunday " 26 

1 11 Croat Thursday " 30 

1 12. Great Friday (Good Friday) 

March 31 

k 13. Great Saturday (Passions's Satur- 
day Apr. 1 

4 14. Holy Pascha (Easter Day).. " 2 

ay 5. St. George "23 

21. St. Nicholas May 9 

23. Ascension " 11 

27. Coronation of Czar Alexander ITU- 
May 15 



New Style. Holy Days Old Style. 
J une 2. Pentecost (Whit Sunday). .May 21 

" 3. Holy Ghost Day " 22 

" 10. First Day of Fast of St. Peter and 

Paul ... May 29 

July 11. St. Peter and Paul, Chief Apos 

ties Tune 2!) 

Aug-. 13. First Day of Fast of Theotokos 

Aug. 1 

" 18. Transfiguration " 

" 27. Repose of Theotokos '* 15 

Sept. 11. St. Alexander Nevskyt. 04 30 
" 20. Nativity of Theotokos... Sept. 
" 26. Exaltation of Holy Cross " 14 
Oct. 13. Patronage of Theotokos.. . Oct. 
Nov. 27. First Day of Fast of the Na 

tivity Nov. 15 

Dec. 3. Entrance to Temple of Theo 

tokos Nov. 21 

" 18. St. Nicholas Dec. 

" 21. Conception of Theotokos.. kk 
1896. 
Jan. 6. 



Nativity of Jesus Christ. 



25 



* After the style of Byzantine Empire. 


tPeculiar to Russia. 










Jewish Calendar, 


1895. 






Fear. 


Month . 


Begins. 


Days. 


Year. 


Month . 


Begins. 


Days. 


55 


5 Sebat. 


Jan. 26 


30 


5655 


11 Ab. 


July 22 


30 

29 


55 


6 Adar. 


Feb. 25 


29 


5655 


12 Elul. 


Aug-. 21 


55 


7 Nisan. 


Mar. 26 


30 


5656 


1 Tisri. 


Sept. 19 


30 




8 Yiar. 


April 25 


29 


5656 


2 Marchesvan. 


Oct. 19 


30 


55 


9 Sivan. 


May 24 


30 


5656 


3 Chisleu. 


Nov. 18 


30 


55 


10 Tamuz. 


June 23 


29 


5656 


4Tebet. 


Dec. 18 


29 



-The year 5655 is a common deficient year, having 353 days, and the year 5656 
m redundant year of 355 days. They are respectively the 12th and J3th years 



Note 

a common redundant year of 355 days. They are respectively me izm ana jatn y 
"the 298th Jewish Cycle of 19 years. The Feast of Passover always occurs on Nisan 15, 
d Pentecost is the 50th day after the Passover. All the Jewish Sabbaths, Festivals 
id Fasts commence the previous evening at sunset. The Jewish year 5655 began on 
xober 1, 1894, or more properly, at Sunset, September 30. 



riohammedan Calendar, 1895. 



IfEAR. I Month. 



8 Sheban. 

9 Ramadan. 
10 Schewall. 
UDsul' Kadah 
12 Dsui' Rejjah 

1 Muharrem. 



Begins. 

Jan . 28 
Feb. 26 
Mar. 28 
April 2fi 
May 26 
June 24 



Days 

29 
30 
29 
30 
29 
30 



Year. 



1313. 
1313. 
1313. 
1313. 
1313. 
13 3. 



Month. 



2 Saphar. 
3RabiaI. 
4Rabia IT. 
5 Jomadhi I. 
0 Jomadhi II. 
7 Kedjeb. 



Begins. 


Days. 


July 24 


29 


Aug. 22 


30 


Sept. 21 


29 


Oct. 20 


SO 


Nov. 19 


29 


Iter. 18 


30 



Note.— The Mohammedan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 
,622 A. D. The year is lunar, having twelve moons or 354 or 355 days, and hence slides 
ickward through the Gregorian years in 33 years. The years 1312 and 1313 have 354 
lys each, and are respectively the 22d and 23d of the 44th cycle. 



LEGAL HOLIDAYS. 



Principal Elements of the Planetary System. 

The Solar System consists of a central sun, around which all the other membe 
revolve. There are eight primary planets, viz.: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, J upite 
Saturn, Uranus and Neptune ; twenty satellites or secondary planets, of which the Ear 
has one, Mars two, Jupiter four, Saturn eight, Uranus four and Neptune one ; sever 
hundred minor planets or asteroids, situated between Mars and Jupiter ; several come 
and an immense number of small meteoric bodies. 



Name. 



Mercury 
Venus.. 
Earth.... 

Mars 

Jupiter.. 
Saturn... 
Uranus. . 
Neptune 

Moon 

Sun...... 



Mean 
Diameter. 
Miles. 


Mean Dis. 
from Sun. 
Miles. 


Sidereal 
Period. 
Days. 


Revolves 

on 
Its Axis. 


Orbit Velo 
ity. Mil 
per hour 


3,030 
7,700 
7,918 
4,230 
86,500 
71,000 
31,900 
34,800 
2,180 
866,400 


36.0 Mill. 
67.2 " 
92 9 " 
141.5 " 
483.3 " 
886.0 ,k 
1781.9 " 
2791.6 " 


87.969 
224.701 
365.256 
686.950 
4332.58 
10759.22 
30686 82 
60181.11 


24h., 5m. 
23h., 21m. 
23h., 56m. 
24h , 39m. 
9h., 56m. 
10h., 29m. 


110,000 
83,000 
68,000 
54,000 
30,000 
22,000 
15,000 
12,000 
2,280 









Legal Holidays. 



Jan. 1. New Year's Day : In all the States 
except Massachusetts, New Hampshire 
and Rhode Island. 

Jan. 8. Anniversary of the Battle of New 
Orleans: In Louisiana. 

Jan. 19. General Lee's Birthday : In Geor- 
gia, North Carolina and Virginia. 

Feb. 6. Mardi Gras: In Alabama and 
Louisiana. 

Feb. 12. Lincoln's Birthday : In Illinois. 

Feb. 22 Washington's Birthday: In all the 
States except Arkansas, Iowa and Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mar. 2. Anniversary of Texan Independ- 
ence : In Texas. 

Mar. 4. Firemen's Anniversary: In New 
Orleans. 

Apr. 3. State Election Day : In Rhode Is- 
land, 1895. 

Apr. 12 Good Friday : In Alabama, Louis- 
iana, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Ten- 
nessee. 

Apr. 19. Anniversary of the Battle of 

Lexington : Massachusetts. 
Apr. 21. Anniversary of the Battle of San 

Jacinto : In Texas. 
Apr. 26. Memorial Day: In Alabama and 

Georgia. 

May 10. Memorial Day : In North Carolina 
May 20. Anniversary of the Mecklenburg 

Declaration of Independence: In North 

Carolina. 

Miy30. Decoration Day : In Arizona, Cal- 
ifornia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, 
Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, 
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Min- 
nesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New 



Utah, Vermont, "Wisconsin, Washingtc 
and Wyoming. 
June 3. Jefferson Davis's Birthday: 
Florida. 

July 4. Independence Day: In all 
States. 

July 24. Pioneers' Day : In Utah. 

Sept. 2, 1895. Labor Day: In Californi 
Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Flo 
ida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, low 
Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michiga 
Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshir 
New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Orego 
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Sou 
Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vi 
ginia and Washington. Also made 
National Holiday, by Act of Congref 
approved J une 28, 1894. 

Sept. 9. Admission Day: In California. 

Oct. 3. Admission in the Union Day: N 
vada. 

Nov. — . General Election Day : In A 
zona, California, Florida, Idaho, Indian 
Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Missou 
Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Wef 1 
Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohi|n 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carol 
South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Weft 
Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin at 
Wyoming. In the States which ho 
elections in November, 1895, election d; 
falls on the 5th. 
Nov. 28, 1895. Thanksgiving Day: Is ofl> 
served in all the States, though in son lo 
it is not a statutory holiday. 
Nov. 25. Labor Day : In Louisiana. 
Dec 25. Christmas Day : In all the State 
and in South Carolina the two followirfei 
days also . 



Hampshire, New Jersey, New York 
North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, 
Sundays and Fast Days (whenever appointed) are legal holidays in nearly all tl 
States. 

Arbor Day is a legal holiday in Kansas, Rhode Island and Wyoming, the day beii 
set by the Governor— in Nebraska, April 22; California, Septemner 9; Colorado, thi. 
Friday in April; Montana third Tuesday in April ; Utah, first Saturday in April ; ai 
Idaho on Friday after May 1 



Every Saturday afternoon is a legal holiday in New York, New Jersey, Peni " f 
sylvania, Maryland and the city of New Orleans; and June 1 to September 30 in Ne 
Castle County, Delaware. 



TO FIND THE DURATION OP DAY OK, NIGHT. 



89 



Anniversaries Customarily or Occasionally Observed. 



i t 1. Emancipation Proclamation by 
Incoln. 1863. 

. 17. Franklin born, 1706. 
i. 8. Battle of New Orleans, 1815. 
l. 17. Battle of the Cowpens, S. C, 1781. 
l. 18. Daniel Webster born, 1782. 
i. 19. Robert E. Lee born, 1807. 

7 German Emperor born, 1859. 
b. 12. Abraham Lincoln born, 1809. 
t). 22. George Washington born, 1732. 
b. 22-23. Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 
r. 15. Andrew Jackson born, 1767. 
r. 18. Grover Cleveland born, 1837. 
it. 9. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, 
865. 

>r. 12. Fort Sumter fired upon, 1861. 

>r. 13 Thomas Jelferson born, 1743. 

>r 14. Lincoln assassinated, 1865. 

>r. 19. Primrose Day in England, Lord 

ieaconsfield died, 1881. 

>r. 19 • Battles of Lexington and Concord, 

775. 

>r. 23. Shakespeare born, 1564. 

)r. 27. General Grant born, 1822. 

)r. 30 Washington was inaugurated first 

President, 1789. 

iyl3. The Society of the Cincinnati was 
organized by officers of the Revolution- 
ary Army, 1783. 
ty 14. Flag Day. 

ly 20. Mecklenburg, N. C, Declaration of 

Independence, 1775. 

ay 24. Queen Victoria born, 1819. 

ine 17. Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775. 

me 18. Battle of Waterloo, 1815. 



June 28. Battle of Fort Moultrie, Charles- 
ton, S C, 1776. 

July 1. Dominion Day in Canada. 

July 1-3. Battle of Gettysburg, 1863. 

July 4 Declaration of Independence, 1776. 

July 14. The Bastil^ was destroyed, 1789. 

July 21- Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 

Aug. 16. Battle of Bennington Vt., 1777. 

Sept. 8. Battle of Eutaw Springs, S. C, 
1781. 

Sept. 10 Battle of Lake Erie, Perry's vic- 
tory, 1813. 

Sept. 11 Battle of Lake Champlain, Mc- 

Donough's victory, 1814 
Sept. 13. Battle of Chapultepeo, 1847 
Sept. 17. Battle of Antietam, 1862. 
Sept. 19-20. Battle of Chickamauga, 1863. 
Oct. 7. Battle of King's Mountain, N. C, 

1780. 

Oct. 8 11. Great fire of Chicago, 1871. 
Oct 17. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 
1777. 

Oct. 19. Cornwallis surrendered at York- 
town, 1781. 

Nov. 5. Guy Fawkes Day in England. The 
Gunpowder Plot discovered, 1605. 

Nov. 9 Great fire of Boston, 1872. 

Nov. 10 Martin Luther born, 1483. 

Nov. 25. British evacuated New York, 1783. 

Dec 14. Washington died, 1799. 

Dec. 16. Boston "Tea Party," 1773 

Dec. 16. The great fire in New York, 1835. 

Dec. 22. Mayflower Pilgrims landed at Ply- 
mouth Rock, 1620. 

Dec 25-26. Battle of Trenton, N J., 1776. 



Ritualistic Calendar. 

OLORS FOR THE ALTAR IN USE IN RITUALISTIC EPISCOPAL CHURCHES 
IN THE UNITED STATES. 

White.— From the First Service (First Vespers) of Christmas Day to the Octave 
! Epiphany, inclusive (except on the Feasts of Martyrs) ; on Maundy Thursday (for 
le celebration) ; from the First Service of Easter Day to the Vigil of Pentecost (except 
l Feasts of Martyrs and Rogation Days), on Trinity Sunday, Conversion of St. Paul, 
nriflcation. Annunciation, St. John Baptist, St. Michael, St. Luke, All Saints, Saints 
ho are not Martyrs, and Patron Saints (Transfiguration and Dedication of Church). 

Red.— From First Vespers of Pentecost to the following Saturday, First Vespers 
! Trinity Sunday (which includes Ember Days), Holy Innocents (if on a Sunday), and 
jasts of all Martyrs. 

Violet.— From Septuagesima to Maundy Thursday (Easter Even) ; Advent Sunday 
Christmas Eve ; Vigils, Ember Days (except in Whitsun Week), and Rogation Days ; 
oly Innocents (unless on Sunday). 

Black.— Good Fridays and at funerals. 

Green.— All other days. 

Marriages should not be celebrated from Advent Sunday till 8 days after Epiphany; 
jptuagesima till 8 days after Easter ; Rogation till Trinity Sunday. 



To Find the Duration of any Day or Night. 

To find the length of any night multiply the time of the Sun's rising by two and 
ie product will be the duration of the night. To obtain the length of any day multiply 
e time of the Sun's setting by two and the result will be the duration of the day. You 
ive only to get the solar time correctly and make the multiplication suggested. 



40 



Astronomical Phenomena for 1895. 

ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS. 

Conjunction. 



□ Quadrature. 
8 Opposition. 

Ascending Node, 
y Descending Node. 



© The Sun. $ Mars. 

• Moon. % Jupiter. 

3 Mercury. Saturn. 
$ Venus. Jit Uranus. 

© The Earth. jp Neptune. 

Conjunction.— A planet is said to be in Conjunction with another body when 
it has the same longitude, and is seen in the same direction in the heavens. In 
the case of inferior planets this Conjunction is of two kinds; the one when the 
planet is between the Earth and the Sun, called inferior Conjunction ; and the 
other when at the opposite point of its orbit, with the Sun between the planet 
and the Earth, called superior Conjunction. 

Opposition.— A Planet is said to be in Opposition when it is distant from the 
Sun 180° of longitude, at which time it is most brilliant. 

Quadrature.— Two heavenly bodies are said to be in Quadrature when they 
are half way between Conjunction and Opposition. 

Occultation.— The Moon, in her orbital motion, often passes before and hides 
from a spectator on the Earth certain of the fixed stars and occasionally one of 
Planets. These occurrences are called Occupations. 

When a Planet is in its "ascending" (Q) or "■descending" (y) node, it is 
crossing the plane of the Earth's orbit. " Perihelion " means nearest, and 
" Aphelion," farthest from the Sun. 

THE SEASONS. Eastern Time. 

Vernal Equinox (Spring begins) March 20 d. 3 h. 49 m. P.M. 

Summer Solstice (Summer begins) June 21 d. 11 h. 44 m. A. M. 

Autumnal Equinox (Autumn begins) Sept. 23 d. 2 h. 11 m. A. M. 

Winter Solstice (Winter begins) Dec. 21 d. 8 h. 38 m. P. M. 



MORNING AND EVENING STARS. 

Mercury ( $) will be Evening Star about February 9, June 4, and October 1; and Morning 
Star about March 24, July 22, and November 10. 

Venus (9) will be Evening Star till Sept. 19; and then Morning Star the rest of the year. 
Jupiter {%) will be Evening Star till July 10; and then Morning Star the rest of the year. 



ECLIPSES, 1895.— (Standard Time.) 

In the year 1895 there will be five eclipses, three of the Sun and two of the Moon. 

I. A Total Eclipse of the Moon, March 10-11. Visible entire to North and South Amer- 
ica, and the Atlantic Ocean, and more or less to Europe, Africa and the eastern Pacific Ocean. 
Occurring as follows: 



Standard. 


Eastern. 




Cer 


tral. 




Mountain. 


Moon enters Penumbra 


10 d. 


7 


h. 


57 m - 


A. 


10 d. 


6h. 


57 m. 


A. 


10 d. 5 h. 


57 


m. 


A. 


Moon enters Shadow 




8 


h. 


53 m- 


A. 




7h. 


53 m- 


A. 


6h. 


53 


m. 


A. 






9 


h. 


51 m. 


A. 




8 h. 


51 m. 


A. 


7h. 


51 


m. 


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First contact of shadow, 54 degrees from South point of the moon's limb towards the east. 
Magnitude of eclipse=i.627 (moon's diameter=i. 



II. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, March 26. Visible to North America east of Fredericton, 
N. B., to Greenland, the extreme western edge of Europe, and the North Atlantic Ocean. 

III. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, August 20. Invisible to America. Visible to Russia. 

IV. A Total Eclipse of the Moon, September 3-4. Visible entire to North and South 
America, and in part to portions of Europe, Africa, Australia, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

V. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, September 19. Invisible to America. Visible to east- 
ern Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and neighboring South Pacific Ocean. 



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S^^^-^-O^so^rOMOst.sO^-OJO, 



% £ £ S Jo 8, S 



a -CO OSO h ro^^soco Osm cj romsoco Os O m ro * u,so CO ? h„ s ^ 



i so so so so so ' 



•xsv d Nn Ss -2aaaaaaaa i ?a > ;ra-a-a-a-a ) ; 



HOAVQ 



2 a a ?8 5 S sTrt^ S"S 8^8, ro 



11th MONTH. 



13 1 November j; 95 



30 DAYS. 



LATITUDE 
of New Orleans: 
Florida, Louis'a, 
Tex., Mex. and 


u 


h SB'S 8 a^ sae^?, 0 ^ 0 2-s-«2%%%a%ss srs j?^.** ; 


u 


3 £> m N m 0 Ov Ovoo 00 t^vo vomiriTfTj-rororOiNNNMMMMHOOO : 


it 


iZZW S"iS«S 8*8 S 3 S>S?;f 5*8 S^S *S 8* S, 3> & 8 K 5 j 

ujvovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovovo : 


LATITUDE 

olina, Georgia, Ala., 
Miss., Ark. .N.Mexico, 
Arizona and So. Cal. 


H. W. 
Cb'ton 


*S 0 ^cT 0 ^^ SSSS^SSSSaKSa 0 ^^"!?: 

Ovo f- t^oo OvOvO m 0 m o ro -<t- u->vo vo l^co ON00M0HM<Nro-<j-ioin : 




B >^VO .g VO t^OO ONOwgOMIN^- rnvo S! VO t^oo mo m g 0 H M mtio ; 


If 




a 


airs ?8 a a ff?^^ S"8 g^asssiras's, as-**?? : 


LATITUDE 

Md., vl H ', NQ Ky N , 
Mo., Kas., Col., 
Utah and Cal. 


|s 


a 'O'O .a vnvo t^co O h g o i-i ro Tj- mvo Si vO t^co OiO h g o h [i : 


II 




Si 




LATITUDE 

of N.YorkCity: Phila- 
delphia, Conn., N.Jer- 
sey, Pa., Ohio, Indiana, 
III., Neb. and N. Cal. 




J * 

0 t-^ t^oo UOiO h 0 h 01 (O-tifl irivo t^OO OsOOMOHHNfO'*'-* iftvO 


|i 


_• n t-» ■ 00 00 OvOO <N t^C HVO M NmH VO t^(N o\ * t> C VO VO VO 00 wOO 
a" "ivo .2 invo t^oo 0 m 2 o h (fit iovo Si invo oo m § O h (i co + in 


i? 




i| 






LATITUDE 
of Boston: N .England, 
New York State, Lower 
M ich.,W is., Iowa, Wy- 
oming and Oregon. 


a 


gs^^ss^saas^^s^s^a-^&sjfsa^; 




a mvo .2 »ovo t^co o\h g o m nt i^vo S! "^vo noo J g 0 h ti mtm : 




11 




LATITUDE 
ofMontreal: U p. 
Mich. Wis. Minn. 
Dak. Idaho, Mon. 
and Wash . 


ll 


a" ^ JTg^S r??^^ ^55" <*5 ETC S^&S i 


gala 5?^?? ^.^a^SSRft 5,^8^8 JTSffSTS S 5 8 8 8*2*3 S 


11 


a 8 S- 3- 5 3 JESSE'S, 0 H «*^«- 00 ^82J??l? v 2 , i2?; 




aSSSSSSS^S^^ ^^^^r^w^Saa = 


dO AVQ 




HiNOpMHOAVa 


N « «^vo r^oo ovo m co^vo noo ? Oh„ ro^-jnvo g.00 Ov 0 : 


•HVH^ dO AVQ 





H OV 
J-' OV "1 H M 

s«s*° a 8* 

J; OMrt H 



s~*° a 2< 

Q IN OVVQ ^- 



S~ vo H OV 
0 M °*S rT 



a 8- 
a s* 

Q C OWO 



a 

X ovo o 

0 N OWO 



S0VO0 

° " °* 2 M 



2 s 

0 <S 
0>V0 



isji 



rt^X. ^Tv/3| 



«. OFtUL ua. 



ma 

mil 




Qecember [9 5 [P^j^ 



Eg ovo ^00 00 



3 s 



3P 

Q > r- Z 



,1 

ffli 



rill 

Mi 
•mi 



3- £;rs £-2 g M ssaasrs^ 



SVO.^vO t>co O\0 w g 0 m rOTfinvO J> -o t^OO 0\ O m | O 



g O O O O 



,00 O 



2 a 



O 0 M N ro lOVO 



a ££££££££ ££££££^££:^%K£ 0 0 



K^OJ2 iovO NOvO h g O (I £J mvo CO O. O m | 0 " N (T> ^- invo 



^<£ 2^2 



BESS'S I ^SSAaS^r^S:?^ 



1 <*2 



0 M N CO *f m\0 



'2 h m 0 0 



13 



rV&s^sfSS s,"^ a>V£<2 $&£ N ^E Nrovo 22^£?o 



m<o t^oo o> O m n tn ^- to 



2 a 



£c?8 2 H SS/WS-SSA 
•2 



■2a 



XVO.^ m>0 ^OvO m g O N ro-tuits^ tovo t^cO O w g O m N CO -<j- invO t-» £ 



u">vO C^OO O t-i 2 o N CO Tf^O t-»55 NCO 0\h 



o m n nti 



33 NNNfstsNNMsNtNNNtNNNtNNfsNNtNNNNNNNM 



•xsvj has iS 2 2 8 ttW01 



IAV. AVQ 



H O N 



a 



^°^8,a ^ 
0 - 0 a 



0H 0 W 



OHOM 



%^8,3 S 

N H O CO 



sa^a<i 

N H O fO 



s§aa< 



%^^a a 

^2 



m 

mm 



TIMR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEW YORK AND FOREIGN CITIES. 53 



Calendar, 1896. 



JANUARY. 


FEBRUARY. 


MARCH. 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 








1 


2 


3 


4 














1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


1 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 




23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


29 


30 


31 














APRIL. 






MAY. 


JUNE. 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 








1 


2 


3 


4 












1 


2 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


0 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


14 


15 


16 


17 


IS 


19 


20 


19 


20 


2 1 


22 


23 


24 


25 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 






24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


80 


28 


29 


10 
























31 





























JULY. 



AUGUST. 



SEPTEMBER. 



s 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 








1 


2 


3 


4 














1 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


12 


13 


11 


15 


16 


17 


18 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 




23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


27 


28 


29 


30 






















30 


31 



























OCTOBER. 



NOVEMBER. 



DECEMBER. 



M 



T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


8 


9 


10 


8 


9 


15 


16 


17 


15 


16 


22 


2i 


24 


22 


23 


29 


30 


31 


29 


30 



T 


W 


T 


F 


S 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 



M 



T 


W 


T 


1 


2 


3 


8 


9 


10 


15 


16 


17 


22 


23 


24 


29 


30 


31 



Eclipses, 1896. 

In the year 1836 there will be four Eclipses, two of the Sun and two of the Moon. 

I. An Annular Eclipse of the Sun, February 13th, invisible at Washing-ton. 

II. A Partial Eclipse of the Moon, February 28th, invisible at Washington, but 
visible generally in Europe, Asia and Africa. 

ITT. A Total Eclipse of the Sun, August 8th, invisible at Washington. 
IV. A Partial Eclipse of the Moon, August 22d, visible at Washington. 



Time Difference 



BETWEEN THE CITY OF NEW YORK AND THE PRINCIPAL 
FOREIGN CITIES. 



LATER THAN NEW YORK. 



H. M. 

Antwerp 5 13.5 

Berlin 5 49.5 

Bremen 5 31 .0 

Brussels 5 13 4 

Buenos Ayres.-l 2.4 

Calcutta 11 49.2 

Constantinople. 6 51.9 



H. M 

Dublin 4 30 5 

Edinburgh.... 4 43 2 

Geneva 5 20 5 

Hamburg 5 35 8 

Liverpool 4 43 .6 

London 4 55.9 

Madrid 4 41.1 



H. M. 

Paris .5 5.2 

Rio de Janeiro.2 3 .2 

Rome 5 45 8 

St. Petersburg 6 57.1 

Valparaiso 0 9.3 

Vienna 6 1.2 

Halifax 0 41.5 



EARLIER THAN N. Y. 

Havana 0 33*5 

Hong Kong. ..11 27.4 

Melbourne 9 24.2 

Mexico, City of. 1 40 5 

Panama 0 22.2 

Yokohama..- ..-9 46.5 



54 



PHASES OF THE MOON, 1896. 



floon's Phases, 1896. 
STANDARD TIME. 



1896. 


PHASE 


D 

r 
14 

22 
bC 

5 
li 
21 

28 

6 
14 

22 
29 

4 

12 

20 
27 

4 

12 
20 
26 

3 
11 
18 

35 

2 
10 
17 
24 

1 

9 

15 
23 
81 

7 

13 
21 
29 

6 

13 
21 
29 

5 
12 
20 
27 

4 
11 

19 

27 


EASTERN TIME 


1 'I; v'I'ii * j rp t XT 1? 

OCilNlrvALi llMii 


Al \ J LI IN i. IV ± IN XlJMLr 


rALilrlt* JLA.01.Ej 


JAN. 


Last Quarter... 
New Moon. .... 
First Quarter.. 
Full Moon 


10 25 morn. 
5 19 eve. 
9 42 eve. 
3 55 morn. 


9 25 morn. 
4 19 eve. 
8 42 eve. 
2 55 morn. 


8 25 morn. 
3 19 eve. 
7 42 eve. 
1 55 morn. 


7 25 morn. 
2 19 eve. 
6 42 eve. 
0 55 morn. 


FEB. 


Last Quarter.. 

First Quarter.. 
Full Moon 


7 38 eve. 
11 13 morn. 

4 15 eve. 
2 51 eve. 


6 38 eve. 
10 13 morn. 
3 15 eve. 
1 51 eve. 


5 38 morn. 
9 13 morn. 
2 15 eve. 
0 51 eve. 


4 38 eve. 
8 13 morn. 
1 15 eve. 
11 51 morn. 




Last Quarter.. 
First Quarter.. 


6 29 morn. 

5 48 morn. 

6 57 morn. 
0 21 morn. 


5 29 morn. 

4 48 morn. 

5 57 morn. 
11 21 eve.* 

*28thD. 


4 29 morn. 

3 48 morn. 

4 57 morn. 
10 21 eve.* 

*28th D. - 


3 29 morn. 

2 48 morn. 

3 57 morn. 
9 21 eve.* 

*28th D. 


APR. 


Last Quarter.. 

New Moon 

First Quarter.. 


7 24 eve. 
11 23 eve. 

5 47 eve. 

8 47 morn. 


6 24 eve. 
10 23 eve. 
4 47 eve. 

7 47 morn. 


5 24 eve. 
9 23 eve. 
3 47 eve. 

6 47 morn. 


4 24 eve. 
8 23 eve. 
2 47 eve. 

5 47 morn. 


MAY. 


Last Quarter.. 

New Moon 

First Quarter.. 


1 0) TY1 ATTI 
1\J flO i-LlKJ X. V±m 

2 47 eve. 
1 21 morn. 
4 56 eve. 


Q Ok tnArn 

1 47 eve- 
0 21 morn. 
3 56 eve. 


Q OK mnnn 

o ~"> mux ii. 

0 47 eve. 
11 21 eve.* 
2 56 eve. 
*19th D. 


•7 OK wiAvn 

11 47 morn. 
10 21 eve.* 
1 56 eve. 
*19th D. 


JUNE. 


Last Quarter. . 
First Quarter.. 


3 2 morn. 
3 43 morn. 
6 41 morn. 
1 55 morn. 


2 2 morn. 
2 43 morn. 
5 41 morn. 
0 55 morn. 


1 2 morn. 
1 43 morn. 
4 41 morn. 
11 55 eve.* 
*24th D. 


0 2 morn. 
0 43 morn. 
3 41 morn. 
10 55 eve.* 
*24th D. 


JULY. 


Last Quarter.. 
First Quarter.. 


8 oiro 

o 60 tjve. 
2 35 eve. 
11 4 morn. 
0 45 eve. 


1 AO tJVtJ. 

1 35 eve. 

10 4 morn. 

1 1 45 morn. 


A 9 1 } aire* 

0 35 eve. 
9 4 morn. 
10 45 morn. 


5 23 eve. 
11 35 morn. 

8 4 morn. 

9 45 morn. 


AUGUST. 


Last Quarter. . . 

New Moon 

First Quarter.. 

Full Moon 

Last Quarter.. 


1 34 eve. 

0 2 morn. 

4 2 eve. 

2 4 morn. 

5 55 morn. 


V Q*k eve. 

11 2 eve.* 

3 2 eve. 

1 4 morn. 

4 55 morn. 

*8th D. 


11 34* morn. 
10 2 eve.* 

2 2 eve. 

0 4 morn. 

3 55 morn. 

*8th D. 


10 34 morn. 
9 2 eve.* 

1 2 eve. 

11 4 eve + 

2 55 morn. 

*otn JJ. TZiCQ x) . 


SEPT. 


First Quarter.. 
Last Quarter.. 


8 43 morn. 
11 9 eve. 
5 49 eve. 
8 58 eve. 


7 43 morn. 
10 9 eve. 
4 49 eve. 
7 58 eve. 


6 43 morn. 
9 9 eve. 
3 49 eve. 
6 58 eve. 


5 43 morn. 
8 9 eve. 
2 49 eve. 
5 58 eve. 


OCT. 


First Quarter.. 
Last Quarter.. 


5 18 eve. 

9 47 morn. 
11 17 morn. 
10 21 morn. 


4 18 eve. 

8 47 morn. 
10 17 morn. 

9 21 morn. 


3 18 eve. 

7 47 morn. 
'9 17 morn. 

8 21 morn. 


2 18 eve. 

6 47 morn. 
8 17 morn. 

7 21 morn. 


NOV. 


First Quarter.. 
Last Quarter.. 


2 27 morn. 
0 41 morn. 
5 25 morn. 
9 44 eve. 


1 27 morn. 
11 41 eve.* 
4 25 morn. 
8 44 eve. 
lltn D. 


0 27 morn. 
10 41 eve.* 
3 25 - morn. 
7 44 eve. 
*llth D. 


11 27 eve.* 
9 41 eve.t 
2 25 morn. 
6 44 eve. 

*4th D. tilth D 


DEC. 


First Quarter.. 
Last Quarter.. 


0 51 eve. 
7 29 eve. 
11 5 eve. 
7 9 morn. J 


11 51 morn. 

6 29 eve. 
10 5 eve. 

6 9 morn. 


10 51 morn. 
5 29 eve. 
9 5 eve. 
5 9 morn. 


9 51 morn. 
4 29 eve. 
8 5 eve. 
4 9 morn. 







a 



TABLE OF DAYS BETWEEN" DATES. 



55 



Easter Sundays and Dominical Letters, 1851=1950. 



1851— April 20, 
1853— April 11, 

1853— Mar. 27, 

1854— April 16, 

1855— April 8, 

1856 — Mai-. 23, 

1857— April 13, 

1858— April 4, 

1859— April 24, 

1860— April 8, 

1861— Mar. 31, 

1862 — April 20, 

1863— April 5, 
1861-Mar. 27, 

1865— April 16, 

1866— April 1, 

1867— April 21, 

1868— April 12, 

1869— Mar. 28, 

1870— April 17, 



E. 1871- 
C. 1872- 
B. 1873- 
A. 1874- 
G. 1875- 
E. 1876- 



1877- 
1878- 
1879 
1880- 
1881- 
1882 
1883- 
18<4- 
1885- 
1886- 
1887- 
1888- 
1889- 
1890- 



Aprll 9, A 
Mar. 31, F. 
April 13, E 
April 5, D. 
Mar. 28, C. 
April 16, A . 
April 1, G 
April 21, F. 
April 13, E. 
Mar. 28, C. 
April 17, B. 
April 9, A. 
Mar. 25, G. 
April 13, E. 
April 5, D. 
April 25, C. 
April 10, B. 
April 1, G. 
April 21, F. 
April 6. E 



I Hi U— Mar. 29, D. 
1892 April 17, B. 

1893— April 2, A. 

1894— Mar. 25, G. 

1895— April 14, F. 

1896 — April 5, D. 

1897— April 18, C. 
1898 -April 10, B. 

1899— April 2, A. 

1900— April 15, G. 

1901— April 7, F. 

1902— Mar. 30, E. 

1903— April 12, I). 

1904— April 3, B 

1905 — April 23, A 

1906— April 15, G 

1907— Mar. 31, F 

1908— A prill 9, D. 

1909— April 11, C 

1910— Mur. 27, B. 



1911- 
1912 

1913- 
19.4- 
1915- 
1916- 
1917- 
1918- 
1919- 
1920- 
1921- 
1922- 
1923- 
1924- 
1925- 
1926- 
1927- 
1928- 
1929- 
19,30- 



- April 16, A 
April 7, F. 
Mar. 23, E. 
April 12, 1) 
-April 4, C. 
April 23, A. 
April 8, G. 
Mar. 31, F. 
April 20, E 
April 4, C. 
Mar. 27, B 
-April 16, A 
April 1, G. 
■April 20. E 
April 12, D. 
April 4, C. 
April 17, B. 
April 8, G. 
Mar. 31, F. 
April 20, E. 



1931— April 5, I), 
19:i2— Mar. 27, B. 

1933- April 16, A, 

1934- April 1, G. 

1935- April21, F, 

1936- April 12, D. 

1937- Mar. 28, C. 

1938- April 17, B. 

1939- April 9, A, 

1940- Mar. 24, F. 

1941- April 13, E. 

1942- April 5, D. 

1943- April25, C. 

1944- April 9, A. 

1945- April 1, G. 

1946- April 21, F. 

1947- April 6, E. 

1948- Mar. 28, C. 

1949- April 17, B. 
19^0— April 9, A. 



Table of Days Between Two Dates. 

A TABLE OF THE NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEEN ANY TWO DAYS WITHIN 

TWO YEARS. 



Day Mo. 


Jan. 


Feb. | 


March . 1 


April. 


May. 1 


6 
a 

>~ 


July. 


1 


1 


32 


60 


91 


121 


152 


1S2 


2 


2 


33 


61 


92 


122 


153 


183 


3 


3 


34 


62 


93 


123 


154 


184 


4 


4 


35 


63 


94 


124 


155 


185 


5 


5 


36 


64 


95 


125 


156 


186 


6 


ti 


37 


65 


96 


126 


157 


187 


7 


7 


38 


66 


97 


12; 


158 


188 


8 


8 


39 


67 


98 


128 


159 


189 


9 


9 


40 


68 


99 


129 


160 


190 


10 


10 


41 


69 


100 


130 


161 


191 


11 


11 


42 


70 


101 


131 


162 


192 


12 


12 


43 


71 


102 


132 


163 


193 


13 


13 


44 


72 


103 


133 


161 


194 


14 


14 


45 


73 


104 


134 


165 


195 


15 


15 


46 


74 


105 


135 


166 


196 


16116 


47 


75 


106 


136 


167 


197 


17 


17 


48 


76 


107 


137 


168 


198 


18 


18 


49 


77 


108 


138 


169 


199 


19 


19 


50 


78 


109 


139 170 


200 


20 


20 


51 


7'.» 


111) 


140 171 


201 


21 


21 


52 


80 


111 


141 172 


202 


22 


22 


53 


8 


112 


142 173 


203 


23 


23 


54 


82 


113 


143174 


20 ! 


24 


21 


55 


83 


114 


144 175 


205 


25 


2.1 


56 


84 


115 


145 176 


206 


26 


26 


57 


85 


116 


146 


177 


207 


27 


27 


58 


86 


117 


147 


178 


208 


28 


28 


59 


87 


118 


148 


179 


209 


29 


29 




88 


119 


149 


180 


210 


30 


30 




89 


120 


150 


181 


211 


31 


31 




90 




151 




212 



244 274 

245 275 

246 276 

247 27' 

248 27: 

249 279 

250 280 

251 281 

252 282 

253 283 

254 284 

255 285 

256 286 

257 287 

258 288 

259 289 

260 290 

261 291 

262 292 

263 293 

264 294 

265 295 

266 296 

267 297 

268 298 

269 299 

270 H00 

271 301 

272 302 

273 303 
... 304 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



609 639 

610 640 

611 641 

612 642 

613 643 

614 644 

615 645 

616 646 
617641 

618 648 

619 649 

620 650 
621651 

622 652 

623 653 

624 654 

625 655 

626 656 

627 657 

628 658 
629,659 
630 660 
631! 661 
632 662 
633,663 

634 664 

635 665 

636 666 
637,667 
638 668 

1669 



The above table applies to ordinary years only. For Leap Year, one day must be 
added to each number of days after February 28. 

Example.— To find the numberof days between July 5, 1893, and April 7, 1894. The 
figures opposite the fifth day in the first July column are 186 ; those opposite the seventh 
day in the second April column are 462. Subtract the first from the second product— 
i. e., 186 from 462 and the result is 276, the number of days. 



56 



READY REFERENCE CALENDAR. 



A Ready Reference Calendar. 

FOR ASCERTAINING ANY DAY OF THE WEEK FOR ANY GIVEN TIME FROM 
1752 * TO 1952 INCLUSIVE. 



Years 1753 to 1952. 



1761 
1801 



.762 
1802 



1803 



1807 



1773 
1813 



I7S4 
1805 



1806 



1758 
1809 



1753 
I8IO 



1766 
1817 



1769 
18:5 



'759 
1821 



'7/8 



17S0 
1829 



1779 1790 
I 81 9 1830 



1774 
1825 



1777 
1823 



1770 
1827 



1783 
1834 



I786 
1837 



1 78l 
1838 



1835 



184: 



1793 
1839 



1797 
1843 



846 1857 

1903 



1799 
185O 

1901 



1854 

1905 



1858 

1909 



1859 

1910 



1802 
1913 



1865 
191 1 



1866 

1906 



1863 1874 
1914 '925 



1869 
1915 



1870 
1921 



1867 

1018 



1873 
1919 



1871 



1878 

1929 



1879 

1930 



1933 



1883 

1923 



1885 
1031 



1886 

1937 



887 



1800 
1941 



1893 
1939 



1899 

1950 



LEAP YEARS. 



1764 



1768 



1776 



1780 
1756 



1760 



1796 



1784 



1804 



1816 



1820 



1824 



1832 



l8 3 5 



1840 



1844 



1848 



1852 



828 1856 1884 



i3"6o 



1864 



1868 



;3'72 



1876 



1880 



1888 



1892 



1896 



1904 



1912 



1916 



1928 



1932 



1936 



1940 



1948 



1952 



1 3 



Note.— To ascertain any 
day of the week, first look 
in the table for the year 
required, and under the 
months are figures which 
refer to the corresponding 
figures at the head of the 
columns of days below. For 
Example: To know on 
what day of the week July 
4 will be in the year 1394, 
in the table of years look 
for 1894, and in a parallel 
line, under July, is fig. 7, 
which directs to col. 7, in 
which it will be seen that 
July 4 falls on Wednesday. 



" 17=12 same as 1772 from Jan. 
1 to Sept. 2. From Sept. 14 to 
Dec. 31 same a3 1780 (Sept. 3— 
13 were omitted).— This Calen 
war is from Whitaker's Lon- 
don Almanack, with some re 
viliont. 



Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednetd. 



Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

3unday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 



Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 



Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 



Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wed need. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saxurday 

Sunday 

Monday 



Sunday 1 
IVfonday 9 
Tuesday 3 
Wednesd. 4 
Thursday 6 
Friday 6 
Saturday 7 
Sunday 8 
Monday 9 
Tuesday 10 
Wednesd. 11 
Thursday 12 
Friday 13 
Saturday 14 
Sunday 15 
Monday IS 
Tuesday It 
Wednesd. 18 
Thursday 19 
Friday SO 
Satnrday 21 
Sunday 29 
Monday S3 
Tuesday 24 
Wednesd. 25 
Thursday 26 
Friday 21 
Saturday 98 
Sunday 29 
Monday 80 
Tuesdaj SI 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. 



57 



Latitude and Longitude Table. 

(LONGITUDE RECKONED FROM GREENWICH.) 



0 ' " H. M. S. 

Acapulco, Mex 16 50 56 N. 6 39 41.8 W. 

Adelaide, Australia.34 55 34 S. 9 14 20.3 E. 

Aden, Arabia 12 46 40 N. 2 59 55.8 E. 

Albany, N. Y., Ob. .42 39 49 N. 4 54 59.2 W. 

Algiers Ob 36 45 3 N. 0 1211.4 E. 

Allegheny, Pa., Ob..40 27 42 N. 5 20 2.9 W. 
Alexandria, Egypt. .31 11 4 5 N. 1 59 26.7 E. 
Amherst, Mass., Ob.42 22 17 N. 4 50 4.7 W. 
Ann Arbor, Mich. ..42 16 48 N. 5 34 55.1 W. 
Annapolis, Md., Ob. 38 58 54 N. 5 5 56.4 W. 

Antipodes Island.... 49 4 ^ 0 S. 1154 52.3 E. 

Apia, Samoa 13 48 56 S. 11 26 59.7 E. 

Aspinwall, S. A., Lt. 9 22 9 N. 5 19 39.0 W. 

Astoria, Ore 46 11 19 N. 8 15 18.8 \V. 

Athens, Greece, Ob.o7 58 20 N. 1 34 55.7 E. 

Attu Island, Alaska.52 56 IN. 1132 49.6 E. 

Bahia, Brazil 13 0 37 S. 2 34 8.4 W. 

Baltimore, Md 39 17 48 N. 5 6 26.0 W. 

Batavia, Java, Ob... 6 7 40 S. 7 7 13.7 E. 

Belize, Honduras. . .17 29 20 N. 5 52 46.7 W. 
Berlin, Prussia, Ob 52 30 17 N. 0 53 34.9 E. 

Bermuda Dock Y'd.32 i9 24 N. 4 19 18.3 W. 

Bombay Ob 18 53 45 N. 45115.8 E. 

Boston State House.42 21 28 N. 4 44 15.3 W. 

Bridgetown, Barb. .13 5 42 N. 3 58 29.3 W. 

Brussels Ob .50 51 10.N. 0 17 28.6 E. 

Buenos Ayres 34 36 30 S. 3 53 28.9 W. 

Calcutta 22 33 25 N. 5 53 20.7 E. 

Callao, Chili, Lt 12 4 3 S. 5 9 3.0 W. 

Cambridge, Mass. . .42 22 48 N. 4 44 31.0 w. 

Canton, China 23 6 35 N. 7 33 46.3 E. 

Cape Cod Lt 42 2 21 N. 4 40 14.6 W. 

C. Hatteras Lt 35 15 14 N. 5 2 5.0 W. 

C. Henry, Va., Lt. . .36 55 29 N. 5 4 2.0 VV. 

Cape Horn 55 58 41 S. 4 29 5.0 W. 

C. Good Hope Lt . . ..34 21 12 S. 1 3 58 0 E. 

Charleston, S. C , Lt.32 41 44 N. 5 19 32.0 W. 

Charlottetwn, P.E.I.46 13 55 N. 4 12 37.5 W. 

Chicago, 111., Ob.... 41 50 IN. 5 50 26.7 W. 

Christiania, Nor. Ob.59 54 44 N. 0 42 53.8 E. 

Cincinnati, O., Ob . .39 8 19 N. 5 37 41.3 W. 

Clinton, N. Y., Ob.. 43 3 17 N. 5 137.4W. 

Colombo, Ceylon.... 6 55 40 N. 519 21.9 E. 

Constantinople 41 0 30 N. 1 56 3.7 E. 

Copenhagen Ob 55 41 14 N. 0 5018 9 E. 

Denver, Col., Ob. . . .39 40 36 N. 6 59 47.6 W. 

Dublin, Ireland, Ob.53 23 13 N. 0 25 22.0 W. 

Edinburgh Ob 55 57 23 N. 0 12 43.1 W. 

Esquimault,B.C, Lt48 25 40 N. 8 13 47.1 W. 

Father Point, Q., Lt.48 31 25 N. 4 33 49.2 W. 

Fayal, Azores 38 32 9 N. 1 54 16.0 W. 

Fernandma, Fla... 30 40 18 N. 5 25 51.1 W. 

Florence, Italy, Ob..43 46 4 N. 0 45 1.6 E. 

Galveston, Tex 29 18 17 N. ' 6 19 9.7 W. 

Geneva, Switz., Ob.. 46 11 59 N. 0 24 36.8 E. 

Gibraltar 36 6 30 N. 0 21 23.3 W. 

Greenwich, Eng 5 28 38N. 0 0 0.0 — 

Halifax, N. S., Ob. .44 39 38 N. 4 14 21.1 W. 

Hamburg, Ger., Ob.53 33 7 N. 0 39 53.7 E. 

Hanover, N. H., Ob.43 42 15 N. 4 49 7.9 W. 

Havana. Cuba 23 9 21 N. 5 29 26.0 W. 

HobartTown,Tas..42 53 25 S. 9 49 20.5 E. 

Hong Kong Ob 22 18 12 N. 7 36 41.9 E. 

Honolulu (Reef Lt.)31 17 55 N. 10 31 28.0 R. 

Key West, Fla., Lt .24 32 58 N. 5 27 12.3 W. 

Kingston, Jam 17 57 41 N. 5 7 10.7 W. 

Lisbon, Port., Ob. . ..38 43 31 N 0 3H 44.7 W. 

Liverpool Ob 53 24 4 N 0 12 17.3 W. 

Madison, Wis., Ob.. 43 137 N. 5 57 37 8 V 



Ob. Observatories 



Lt 



° ' " H. M. S. 

Madras, India, Ob.. 13 4 8 N. 5 20 59.4 E. 

Madrid, Spain, Ob. . 402430 N. 0 14 45.4 W. 

Manila Lt 14 35 41 N. 8 3 49.2 E. 

Marseilles Ob 43 18 19 N. 0 21 34.6 E. 

Melbourne, Vic, Ob.37 49 53 S. 9 39 54.1 E. 

Mexico Citv Ob .19 26 2 N. 6 36 26.7 W. 

Montreal, Que., Ob. 45 3(1 17 N. 4 54 18.5 W. 

Moscow Ob 55 45 20 N. 2 30 16.9 E. 

Mt. Hamilton, Cal. . 37 20 24 N. 8 6 34.1 W. 

Munich Ob 48 8 45 N. 0 46 26.1 E. 

Nain, Labrador 56 32 51 N. 4 6 42.7 W. 

Naples Ob 40 51 45 N. 0 57 0.9 E. 

Nashville, Tenn.Ob.36 8 58 N. 5 47 8.0 W. 

Nassau, Bahamas . 25 5 37 N. 5 9 27.8 W. 

Natal, S. Africa, Ob.29 50 47 S. 2 2 1.2 E. 

New Haven Ob 41 1 i 36 N. 4 5142.1 W. 

New Orleans ( Mint).29 57 46 N. 6 013.9W. 

N.Y. Colum Col. Ob.40 45 23 N. 4 55 53.6 W. 

Nice, France, Ob.. ..43 4317 N. 0 29 12.2 E. 

A orfolk Navy Yard.36 49 33 N. 5 5 11.0 W. 

North Cape 7111 ON. 1 42 40.0 E. 

Northfield. Minn.. . .44 27 42 N. 6 12 35.8 W. 

Ogden,Utah,Ob...41 13 8 N. 7 27 59.6 W. 

Oxford, Eng., Ob... 51 45 34 N. 0 5 0.4 W. 

Panama, Colombia.. 8 57 6 N. 5 18 8.8 W. 

Para, Brazil 1 26 59 S. 314 0.0 W. 

Paris, France, Ob — 48 50 12 N. 0 9 20.9 E. 

Pensacola Lt 30 20 47 N. 5 49 14.1 W. 

PernambucoLt 8 3 22 S. 219 27.8 W. 

Port au Prince 18 33 54 N. 4 49 28.0 W. 

Philadelphia Ob. ...39 57 7 N. 5 0 3^.5 W. 

P. Barro w, Alaska • . .71 27.0 N. 10 25 00.0 W. 

Portland, Me 43 39 28 N. 4 41 1.2 W. 

Prague, Bohemia... 50 5 19 N. 0 5741.4 E. 

Princeton, N. J., Ob.40 20 58 N. 4 58 37.5 W. 

Providence, R.I. Ob 41 49 26 N. 4 45 37.3 W. 

Quebec, Que., Ob... 46 48 17 N. 4 44 49.3 W. 

Richmond, Va 37 32 16 N. 5 9 44.0 W. 

Rio de Janeiro Ob.. 23 54 24 S. 2 52 41.4 W. 

Rochester, N.Y. ,Ob. 43 9 17 N. 5 10 21.8 W. 

Home, Italy, Ob ...41 53 51 N. 0 49 54.7 E. 

Saigon Ob 10 46 47 N. 7 6 48.7 E. 

San Diego, Cal 32 43 6 N. 7 48 38.7 W. 

Sandy Hook Lt 40 27.40 N. 456 0.6 W. 

San Francisco Ob.. ..37 47 55 N. 8 9 38.1 W. 

San Juan de P. Rico. 18 28 56 N. 4 24 29.8 W. 

Santiago de Cuba.. .20 0 16N. 5 3 22.0 W. 

Savannah , Ga 32 4 53 N. 5 24 21.7 W. 

Seattle, Wash 47 35 54 N. 8 9 19.9 W. 

Singapore, India ... 1 17 11 N. 6 55 25.0 E. 

St. John's, N. F 47 34 2 N. 3 30 43.6 W. 

St. Louis, Mo., Ob.. .38 38 4 N. 6 0 49.1 W. 

St. Petersburg Ob... 59 56 30 N. 2 1 13.5 E. 

Stockholm Ob 59 20 33 N. 11214.0 E. 

Suakim, Africa, Lt 19 7 0 N. 2 29 16.6 E. 

Sydney, N. S.W.,Ob.33 51 41 S. 10 4 49.5 E. 

Tokio, Japan, Ob 35 39 17 N. 9 18 58.0 E. 

Utrecht. Neth-r.... 52 5 10 N. 0 20 31.7 E. 

Valparaiso, Chili. ...33 153 S. 44634.8 W. 

Venice, Italy, Ob.... 45 25 58 N. 0 4921.9 E. 

Vera Cruz, Mex., Lt.19 13 29 N. 6 24 31.8 W. 

Victoria, B. C, Lt..48 25 26 N. 8 13 33.8 W. 

Vienna, Austria, Ob.48 13 55 N. 1 5 21.2 E. 

Warsaw, Russia, Ob.52 13 6 N. 124 7.4 E. 

Washington Ob ... 38 53 39N. 5 8 12.0 W. 

Wellington,N.Z.,Ob.41 16 57 S. 11 39 5.5 E. 

West I'oint Ob 41 23 31 N. 4 55 49.3 W. 

Williamstown,Mass.42 42 49 N. 4 52 3.4 W. 

Yokohgxna, Japan . .35 26 24 N. 9 18 36.9 E. 
denotes a Light-house. 



TIDES AND TIDAL WAVES. 



The Tides and Tidal Waves. 

The principal cause of ocean tides is the Moon's nearness as compared with the 
Sun's distance. The Sun is 25% million times heavier than the Moon, but his attractive 
power acts upon the Earth mainly as a whole, while the Moon, being in our immediate 
neighborhood and much smaller in size, acts more intensely upon that limited area of 
the Earth's surface which is nearest and immediately beneath her. Wherever the Moon 
may be in her course, if a great ocean lies directly under her, its waters are lifted up 
and the crest of the liquid mass constitutes high water for that locality. In 24 hours 
and 50 minutes, owing to the Earth's rotation, plus the Moon's orbital motion, that 
same part of the Earth is again directly under the Moon and another similar tide must 
occur. These, the primary tides, being accounted for, it remains for us to explain the 
cause of the secondary tides, which occur exactly half way between in point of time. 
Suppose Ocean A is directly beneath the Moon, and that Ocean B is on the opposite side 
of the Earth. The Moon not only lifts up the waters of Ocean A, causing the primary 
tide there, but the Earth, as a whole, is drawn away from Ocean B and its waters, left 
behind, bulge up, at a point diametrically opposite the primary tide of Ocean A, and 
form the secondary tide. It is manifest, therefore, that two tides are being formed at 
every moment of the day and night, on opposite sides of the Eartn, one immediately 
beneath the Moon, the other at the point farthest from the Moon. When it is high tide 
at two different points of the Earth's equator, two other points half way between must 
be deprived of their waters which have been ebbing either east or west to make the 
primary or secondary. Thus, at any moment, low water occurs 90 degrees east or west 
of high water. 

The tide producing force of the Sun is estimated at 33 to 44 per cent, of that of the 
Moon. At New and Full Moon these forces are united and the force is equal to their 
sum, producing what are called Spring Tides. When the Moon is in her quarters the 
two bodies are 90 degrees apart, and act in opposite directions, and both primary and 
secondary tides are lowered, producing Neap Tides. The Solar Tides are practically of p 
no account except for their modifying influence on the Lunar Tides. 

If there were no land on the Earth's surface and the shoreless ocean were of a 
uniform depth, both primary and secondary tidal wave crests would follow the Moon's p' 
course In regular succession from east to west. But with our actual geography many 
local complications arise. Seas like the Baltic or Mediterranean have so small an area 
that the Moon can only act upon each as a whole, and they have practically no tides. I 
The disturbing action requires an immense expanse of deep water, such as the Great! 
Southern or S. Pacific, and there is assigned the birthplace of our great tidal wave, to 
which many tides in distant seas are referred. One mighty pulse enters the Pacific in a | 
northwesterly direction, and another the Atlantic, both extending to the bottom of the 
ocean, and both to be modified by the depth of water and the form of the coasts. Owing 
to the islands in the Pacific, the tides there become small as the impulse travels north- 
ward, but in the deep trough of the Atlantic the tidal force reaches a velocity of 600 to 
650 miles an hour. The western impulse across the S. Pacific reaches Van Diemen's 
Land in 12 hours, and in 12 hours more dashes against Hindoostan and S. Africa. 
Another 12 hours and the tidal wave has reached Newfoundland on the West and Cape 
Blanco on the East. Turning eastward across the N. Atlantic, the tide in four hours is 
split at Land's End into two waves, one of which slowly proceeds up the shallow English 
Channel, Avhile the othv-r main branch is carried around the north of Scotland and finally 
reaches the mouth of the Thames River 48 hours after leaving the Antarctic Ocean. 
The Atlantic Ocean, being deep and free of islands, produces an independent tide, which 
modifies the tidal impulse from the South, one result being the famous high tides of the 
Bay of Fundy. 

The tides are locally affected by the nature of the coasts and also slightly by the 
changes of atmospheric pressure. 

High Water.— The local time of high water at the following places may be found 
approximately for each day by adding to, or subtracting from, the time of high water at 
New York the hours and minutes given. The interval between tides is approximately 
12 hours, 25 minutes. 



Albany, N. Y., add 9:39 

Annapolis, Md , add 8:57 

Atlantic City, N. J , sub..0:18 

Baltimore, Md., add 10:52 

Block Island, U-. I., sub... 0:53 
Bridgeport, Conn., add... 3:01 

Cape May, N. J., add 0:12 

Eastport, Me., add 3:01 



Jacksonville, Fla., add.. ..0:36 

Key West, Fla., add 1:23 

Nantucket, Mass., add — 4:31 
New Bedford, Mass., sub.0:10 
New Haven, Conn., add.. 3:01 
New London, Conn., add. 1:16 

Newport, R. I., sub 0:22 

Norfolk, Va., add 0:56 



Philadelphia, Pa., add.... 5:3 

Portland, Me., add 3:1(1 on 

Poughkeepsie, N.Y., add. 4:27 of 
Providence, R. I., add... 0:0"i cr 

Richmond, Va., add 8:i1 1 :; 

Sandy Hook, N. J., sub. ..0:3( n: 
Washington, D. C, add. .11:54 a 
Wilmington, N. C, add...0:5f pi 
foci 
Inti 

The Seasons. f 

The Earth's revolution, in its annual orbit round the Sun, causes the latter t(| four 
seemingly describe a complete revolution among the Stars in the course of the year. 1 
the plane of this apparent path had been parallel to the Equator, the days and night 
would be of equal length all over the world, and each locality would have one constan 



TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 



ason, tho character of which would depend on its latitude. But the Equator and 
iv) dlptio (as this apparent path of tho Sun is called), are mutually inclined to euch other 
Hi SKJ^fc degrees ; therefore, the Sun is alternately seen above and below the Equator 
T ;grees, causing Summer and Winter ; giving long days and Summer to the Northern 
( emisphere when the Suu is north of the Equator, and short days and Winter south 
up ! it. 

< This inclination of the two planes causes the Sun to cross the Equator twice in 
ich year, once in Spring and once in Autumn, at which times the days and nights are 
i iuai all over the Globe, and we have for a day or two what would be the constant state 

;he c our climate if the Sun moved in the plane of the Equator. 

From Spring to Autumn the Sun traverses exactly one-half of the Ecliptic, and 
t -om Autumn to Spring the other half ; but these halves are not travelled overin equal 
I ines, the Sun being longer in performing the Summer than the Winter half. This is 
ft wing to the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit and the Law of Areas (so-called by 
I stronomers), which requires that an imaginary line, joining the Earth and Sun, shall 

at .veep over equal areas in equal times. To do this, the Earth, when nearer the Sun, as 
\ t the Winter Solstice, must move morequickly than when farther away, at the Summer 
t olstice ; the effect of this is to detain the Sun about eight days longer in the Northern 

ust han in the Southern Hemisphere. 

ie The atmosphere of the Earth is generally supposed to extend about 40 miles in 
m eight, probably much farther, but at a few miles from the surface becomes too rare to 

upportlife. The condition and motions of the atmosphere play an important part in 
ne etermining the climate, modifying, by absorbing, the heat of the Sun, and when laden 
I nth clouds preventing the Earth from radiating its acquired heat into space, 
lie If the Earth's surface were smooth and consisted entirely of land or water, the 
A aean temperature of our seasons would depend entirely on latitude, and all places on 
of he same parallel would experience the same temperature; but being made up of land 

nd water so unequally distributed, the temperature of the seasons in places of the 
of ame latitude is modified by the surrounding masses of land and water. The low power 
1 >f radiation of water and its great capacity for heat make the ocean a great storehouse 
iy or the heat it has acquired from the Sun ; while the land, which radiates its heat very 
;a [uickly, would soon grow cold. But the winds, laden with heat and moisture from the 
1 pater, pass over the land and compensate for the loss of heat which the latter suffers 
it rora radiation. This is the reason islands enjoy more equable seasons than inland 

0 mintries, being neither so cold in Winter nor so hot in Summer ; 'the same clouded 
a kies wbi<'h retard the cooling of the land by radiation also shielding it from the Sun's 
e leat in Summer. But in the interior of continents, where the winds have lost much of 

1 .heir moisture in their passage from the coast, great extremes are known to prevail 
I between the Summer and Winter temperatures. Beyond the fact of the presence of 
o vater, the oceans and seas are traversed by great currents of warm water from the 
8 tropical regions, and these greatly promote the distribution of heat. 



Terrestrial flagnetism. 

Magnetism may be defined as a property possessed by certain bars of steel, called 
Magnets, of attracting pieces of iron and also other magnets. Every magnet has two 
poles, each pole having exactly opposite properties, such that if one magnet be 
suspended by a thread free to move in any direction it will be found on bringing 
another magnet near to one end of the suspended magnet, if the opposing poles are of 
like properties they will repel each other, but if of unlike they will be attracted towards 
each other. We have an example of this in the Mariner's Compass, in which a magnetic 
needle is so suspended as to be able to move in the horizontal direction, the Earth being 
the other magnet, with its South Pole near the E irth's North Pole, and its North Pole 
near the Earth's South Pole; so that the North Pole of the Compass will always point 
to the Magnetic North Pole of the Earth, which differs from the true or Astronomical 
North by a quantity called the k * Variation." This Variation differs in differ ent places 
on the Earth, and is also liable to slow change, causing it in the course of a long period 
of time to oscillate from East to West of the astronomical meridian. The needle of the 
com pass being constructed to move only in a horizontal direction, shows that component 
of the total magnetic force which determines the declination; but if the needle were 
mounted on a horizontal axis placed on the magnetic meridian and left free to move in 
a vertical plane, it would have been found to "dip," or be inclined at an angle to the 
horizontal plane, the North Pole of the needle being depressed. The extent of this 
inclination varies in different places on the Earth, increasing towards the Poles, so that 
in the Northern Hemisphere, at the Magnetic Pole, the north end of the needle would 
point directly downwards. This North Magnetic Pole was found by Sir James Ross to 
be situated in 97° West Longitude and 70° North Latitude. Between these points are 
found places of no " dip;" such places are said to be situated on the Magnetic Equator, 
a plane not far removed from the Terrestrial Equator. The " dip," like the declination, 
is subject to variations, the true laws of which are not yet fully understood, but many 
observatories have been established for their investigation, and elaborate series of 
t observations made on the motions of variously suspended magnets, furnishing a 
continuous record from hour to hour and year to year of the forces acting upon them. 



60 



TABLE OF EVENTS. 



Chronological Table of Historical Events. 



Years since B. C. 

5899 Creation of the World (Bible Ch.).4004 

4243 The Deluge 2348 

3386 Exodus under Moses 1491 

3078 Fall of Troy 1183 

2773 Carthage founded 878 

2671 Olympic Era began 776 

2648 Foundation of Rome; Era, A.U.C.. 75? 
2483 Jerusalem taken, Nebuchadnezzar. 588 

2404 Expulsion of Tarquins 50 : 

2375 Fall of Leonidasat Thermopylae. . 480 

1950 Caesar invaded Britain 55 

1899 Birth of Christ, 4 yrs before Ch. era 4 

A. D. 

1866 Crucifixion of Christ.. 29 

1825 Jerusalem Destroyed by Titus 70 

1589 London rebuilt by the Romans. ... 306 
1582 Constantine embraced Christianity 313 
1485 The Romans abandoned Britain.... 410 
1088 Egbert, first King of all England.. 827 

829 Battle of Hastings, Oct. 14th 1006 

799 The Crusades began 1090 

680 King John granted Magna Charta.1215 
630 First Representative Parm't., Eng.1265 
480 Battle of Agincourt, Oct. 25th .1415 

464 Joan of Arc burnt 1431 

442 Constantinople taken by Turks-... 1453 

440 Wars of the Roses began 1455 

433 Bible first printed at Mentz 146:3 

424 Caxton set up his printing press... 1471 

423 Almanacs first printed at Buda 1472 

403 Dis. of America by Columbus. 1492 

360 First English Bible (Coverdale's).. .1535 
356 Monasteries dissolved in England.. 1539 

3!0 St. Augustine, Fla., founded 156) 

307 Spanish Armada defeated 1588 

292 Union of the Crowns (Eng. & Scot.). 1603 

290 Gunpowder Plot, Nov. 5th 1605 

288 Jamestown, Va., settled 1607 

279 Death of Shakespeare 1616 

275 Landing of the Pilgrims 1620 

272 Manhattan Island settled 1623 

261 Maryland settled by Roman Cath.,1634 
259 Roger Williams settled Rhode Is. ..1636 

259 Harvard College established 1636 

246 Charles I. beheaded, Jan. 30th 161'J 

242 Cromwell made Lord Protector 1653 

231 New York taken from the Dutch.. 166 1 

2,0 Great Plague of London 1665 

239 Great Fire of London. 1666 

213 William Penn settled Pa 1682 

210 Revocation Edict of Nantes 1685 

2 7 James II. abdicated ....1688 

205 First Newspaper in Amer., Boston. 16' 0 

191 Gibraltar taken by the English 1701 

182 Peace of Utrecht 1710 

181 Accession of House of Hanover... 1714 

150 Scottish Jacobite Rebellion 1745 

150 Rattle of Fontenoy, April 30th 1745 

141 French and Indian War 1754 

130 Black-hole Suffocation in Calcutta.1756 

138 Clive won Battle of Plassey 1757 

136 Canada taken from the French. . . . 1759 

130 Stamp Act declared 176 

122 Tea destroyed in Boston Harbor.. 1770 

120 Battle of Lexington, April 19th 1775 

120 Battle of Banker Hill, Juno 17th. .1775 
119 D clar. of Independence, July 4th.l776 

116 Captain Cook killed 1779 

114 Surrender of Cornwallis, Oct. 17.. 1781 



Years since A. D. 

108 First Settlement in Australia 1787 

106 French Revolution began 1789 

106 Washington first inaugurated. 1789 

102 Whitney invented Cotton Gin 1793 

102 Louis XVI. of France executed.. .1793 

97 Battle of the Nile, Aug. 1st 1798 

97 Irish Rebellion 1798 

94 Union of Great Britain and Ireland.1801 
92 Louisiana purchased from French.1803 
91 Napoleon I. Emperor of France.... 1804 
90 Rattle of Trafalgar, Nelson died. . .1805 
88 Fulton's first steamboat voyage. ...1807 

83 War with Great Britain 181 

82 Perry's Victory on Lake Erie 1813 

81 Invention of print ng machine — 1814 

80 Battle of New Orleans, Jan. 8 1815 

80 Battle of Waterloo, June 18 1815 

76 First steamship crossed Atlantic .1819 

75 Death of George 111 1820 

75 Missouri Compromise 1820fej] 

74 Death of Bonaparte 1821 

72 Monroe doctrine declared, Dec. 2.. 1823 
67 First Passenger Railroad, U. S.. . . 1828 

65 Death of George IV 1830 

65 France discarded the Bourbons 1830 

60 Morse invented Telegraph 1835 

60 Seminole War began 1835 

58 Accession of Queen Victoria 1837 

50 Texas annexed 1845 

49 Elias Howe completed Sew. Mach..l846h; 

. 49 Irish Potato Famine 1846 

49 War with Mexico began 1846 

47 French Revolution 1848 

47 Gold discovered in California 1848 

44 Gold discovered in Australia 1851 

42 Crimean War began 1853 

38 Great Mutiny in Jndia 1857 

38 Dred Scott Decision 1857 

37 First Atlantic Cable operated 1858 

36 John Brown's Raid 1859 

35 South Carolina Seceded I860 ml 

34 Attack on Fort Sumter 1861 [ t( 

34 Rattle of Bull Run, July 21st 1861 

31 Emancipation of Russian Serfs — 1861 
34 Telephone Invented 1861 

32 Slavery Abolished, Jan. 1st, U. S.c .1863 

32 Ratrleof Gettysburg ...1863 

30 Lee's Surrender, April9th 1865 

30 Assassination of Lincoln, April 14.186; 

29 Prussia absorbed Germany 1866 

28 Maximilian of Mexico executed.. .186' 

28 Confederation of Canada 186' 

25 Franco-German War began 1870 

25 Capitulation at Sedan, Sept. 2 1870 

25 France discarded the Bonapartists.1870 re ~ 

24 German Empire re-established 1871 ou 

24 Great Fire in Chicago 1871f 

22 Great Fire in Boston 18' 

18 Edison invented Phonograph 18' 

14 Death of Beaconsfield 1881 

14 Pres. Garfield Shot by Guiteau 1881 

13 English Occupation of Egypt 188- 

7 Death of two German Emperors.. . 188% 

6 Brazil became a Republic 188. 

2 World's Columbian Exposition 189! 

2 Ironclad "Victoria 1 ' sunk 189 

2 Revolution in Hawaii 1 9i|jJ,' 

Death of James G. Blaine, Jan. 27-1811. 1 
2 International Naval Parade, N. Y..189| a 



: ill 



THE GLOBE AND ITS INHABITANTS. 



I 



The Globe and Its Inhabitants. 

POPULATION OF THE EARTH BY CONTINENTS. 

(Estimated by Ernest George Ravenstein, F. R. G. S., for 1890.) 



Area, 
Sq. Miles. 


Population. 


Divisions. 


Area, 
Sq. Miles. 


Population. 


Number. 


per Sq 
Mile. 


Number. 


per Sq 
Mile. 


6,446,000 
6,837,000 
3,555,000 
14,710,000 
11,514,000 


89.250,000 
36,420.000 
380,200,000 
850,000,000 
127,000,000 


13.8 
5.3 
106.9 
57.7 
11.0 


Australasia. 
Polar region 


i .288,000 
4,888,800 


4,730,000 
300,000 


L4 

0.7 


51,238,800 


1,487,900,000 


29.0 
• 



.VISION 3. 



America. 
America. 

rope 

ia 

rica 



Drs. "Wagner and Supan (Perthes, Gotha, 1891), estimate the population of the earth 
follows: Europe (without Iceland, Nova Zembla, Atlantic Islands, etc.), 357,379,000 ; 
ia (without Arctic Inlands), 825,954.000 ; Africa (without Madagascar, etc.) 163,953,000; 
nerica (without Arctic Regions), 121,713,000 ; Australia (the Continent and Tasmania"), 
30,000 : Oceanic Islands, 7,420,000 ; Polar Regions, 80,400 ; total, 1,479,729,400. The total 
3a of the continents and islands is estimated by the same authorities, 52,821,684 
aare miles. 

POPULATION OF THE EARTH ACCORDING TO RACE. 

(Estimated by John Bartholomew, F. R. G. S.) 



Race. 



do-Germanic or Aryan 
mgolian or Turanian.. 

mitic or Hamitic 

gro and Bantu 

jttentot and Bushmen, 
ilay and Polynesian.... 
nerioan Indian 



Location. 



Europe, Persia, etc 

Most of Asia 

N. Africa, Arabia 

Central Africa 

S. Africa 

Australasia & Polynesia 
N. and S. America 



Number. 



545,500,000 
630,000,000 
65,000,000 
150,000,000 
150,000 
35,000,000 
15,000,000 



Total 1,440,650,000 



The population of the Earth at the death of Emperor Augustus, estimated by 
>dio, was 54,000.000. The population of Europe hardly exceeded 50,000,000 before the 
teenth century. Mulhall. 

Mulhall estimated the numberof persons speaking the various European languages 
1890 as follows: English, 111,100,000 : French, 51,200,000; German, 75,200,000 ; Russian, 
000,000; Spanish, 42,800,000 ; Italian, 33,400,000 ; Portuguese, 13,000,000. The number of 
lglish speaking people at the present time is estimated at 124,000,000. 

The human family is subject to forty-five principal governments, which may be 
assified as follows: Absolute Monarchies, China, Madagascar, Morocco, Persia, Russia, 
am, Turkey; Limited Monarchies, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, British Empire, 
enmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal. Roumania, Servia, 
)ain and Sweden and Norway : Republics, Argentine Republic, Bolivia, Brazil, Chili, 
>lombia, Costa Hica, Ecuador, France, Gautemala, Hawaii, Hayti, Honduras, Mexico, 
icaragua. Orange Free State, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, San Domingo, Switzerland, 
■ansvaal. United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela. In addition to these there 
e a few insignificant independent States, and the undefined despotisms of Central and 
mth Africa. 

There are twenty-one Kings or Emperors. The number who have ruled in various 
mntries of Europe since the battle of Hastings, A. D., 1066, has been as follows: 
ngland,35; France, 34; Germany, 39; Russia, 50; Spain, 32; Denmark, 39; Sweden, 53: 
urkey, 35. The Turkish Dynasty dates only from A. D., 1299. The average reign of the 
jove 317 monarchs was about 20 years. 

According to Clark, the equatorial semi-diameter of the earth is 20,926,202 feet, or 
963.296 mHes; and the polar semi-diameter is 20,854,895 feet, or 3,950.738 miles. One 
egree of latitude at the equator is 68.704 miles ; at the pole 69.407 miles. The area and 
intents of the earth, according to the same authority, are : Surface, 196.971,984 square 
liles; contents, 259,944,035.515 cubic miles. The area and cubic contents, according to 
furray (Challenger Expedition), are shown thus: Area— Land, 51,410.700 square miles: 
-titer, 137,199,000 ; total, 188,609,700 square miles. Contents— Land, 21,923,200 cubic miles ; 
'ater, 323,722,00u cubic miles ; total, 345,645.200 cubic miles. 



62 



THE GLOBE AND ITS INHABITANTS. - Continued. 



The Globe and Its Inhabitants. — Continued. 

FERTILE AND UNPRODUCTIVE AREAS. 

The fertile and unproductive portions of the Earth's area are estimated by 

Ravenstein as follows (square miles) : 





Fertile. 


Unproductive. 


Total. 




2,888,000 
9,280,000 
5,760,000 
1,167,000 
4,946.000 
4,228,000 


667,000 
5,430.000 
5,754,000 
2,121,000 
1,500,000 
2,609,000 


3,555,000 
14,710,000 
11,514,000 
3,288,000 
6,446,000 
6,837,000 








• 


28,269,000 


18,081,000 


46,350,000 



THE OCEANS AND SEAS. 

The area and cubic contents of various oceans and seas, according to Murray's 
measurement (Challenger Expedition) are shown in the following table : 



N". Atlantic 

S. Atlantic 

Arctic 

Norwegian Sea — 

Caribbean Sea 

Gulf of Mexico.... 
Mediterranean Sea 

Black Sea 

Baltic Sea 

N. Pacific 

S. Pacific 

China Sea 

Bering Sea 

Indian Ocean 

Red Sea .. 

Southern Ocean... 
Other Seas 



Area. 
Square Miles. 



14,343,000 
10,193,000 
4,781,000 
1,127,000 
1,161,0' 0 
716,000 
813,000 
139.000 
196,000 
26,705,000 
23,604.000 
1,367,000 
859.000 
17.084,000 
159,000 
30,592,000 
3.360 (»00 



Contents, 
Cubic Miles. 



34,804,000 
27,510,000 
3,418,000 
1,162,000 
1,675,000 
628,000 
710,001 
65,000 
13,000 
77,994,000 
63,522,000 
835,000 
622.000 
44,377,000 
68.000 
61,875,000 
1,434,000 



Greatest 
Depth, Feet 
27,366 
18,600 

9,000 
12,030 
19,014 
12,714 
12,900 

6,420 

2,580 
30,000 
19,830 
13,200 

9,000 
18,582 

7,200 
25,200 
25,200 



Mean 
Depth, Feet i 



12,810 
14,250 
3,780 
5,448 
7,614 
4,632 
4,608 
2,472 
342 
15,420 
14,208 
3,228 
3,816 
13,716 
2,250 
12,020 
4,800 



RELATIVE PROPORTION OF FEMALES TO MALES IN THE U. S. 

The whole number of males in the United States in 1890 was 32,067,880 and the whol 
number of females 30,554 370. For the United States, as a whole, therefore, there wer 
for every 100,t 00 males, 95,280 females in 1890. In (880 there were 96,544 females to ever 
100,000 males, while in 1870 there were 97,801 females to every 100.000 males. The female 
exceed the males in 1890 to a greater extent than 5 per cent, in the District of Columbia 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The whole number of States and territories wher 
the females exceed the males in 1890 is 11 as against 17 in 1880. In 1880 there were 5 State 
and territories in which the number of females was less than 50 per cent, of the males 
namely, Idaho, Nevada, Wyoming, Arizona and Montana, while in 1890 there was n 
State or territory where the females did not represent at least 50 per cent, of the males 
In 1890 there were 11 States and territories, mainly in the western division, in which th 
females represented from 50 to 80 per cent, of the males, as against 5 States an 
territories in 1890. 

Rhode Island, which has 277 people to the square mile (gross area), is the mos ip , 
densely populated of the United States The largest number of persons to each dwellin, E, 
house is found in New York, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. £ 

In Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota th 
inhabitants of foreign parentage outnumber the native population. 



lib.. 

The French Congo region, covering 250.000 square miles and having a populatio dir 
of 7,000,000, contains only 300 European residents. jtr 
Statisticians estimate that four billion persons have perished in war since th i 0Tr 
beginning of the Christian era. 



Temperature and Rainfall in the United States. 



ations in States and 
Territories. 



ibama, Montgomery — 

— zona, Preseott 

Kansas, Little Rock 

ifornia, San Francisco.. 

orado, Denver 

inecticut, New Haven.. 

rida, Jacksonville 

3rgia, Atlanta 

ho, Boise City 

nois, Spring-field 

liana, Indianapolis 

va, Des Moines 

nsas, Leavenworth 

ntucky, Louisville 

uisiana, New Orleans-... 

ine, Portland 

ryland, Baltimore 

ssachu setts, Boston 

higan, Detroit 

nnesota, St. Paul 

ssissippi, Vicksburg .... 

ssouri, St. Louis 

ntana, Helena 

braska, Omaha 



* 




inches 


iture. 




u 




© 








a 

H 




$ 










"3 


3 


3 






a 


a 


< 






a 




5 


© 


© 






52.9 


65.7 


J 6.1 




54*2 


62/2 


23.6 


56.6 


14*5 


4o!t 


49.7 


49.4 


55.3 


g9*7 


54L5 


6L3 


13J 


50^9 


39.1 


52^8 


43.2 


52^7 


35.0 


49.0 


38.4 


53.5 


46*9 


57! 1 


6K8 


69.2 


42.7 


43.3 


44.8 


55.3 


46.1 


48.9 


32.6 


48.3 


27.6 


43.6 


57.2 


65.9 


38.0 


56.1 


13.343.3 


32.6 


49.8 



b 5 
al8 
a 5 
b29 
a29 
alt 
bl5 
a 2 
a 28 
a 9 2 
a25 

ar.o 

a29 
a20 
bl5 
al7 
a 6 
al3 
a24 
ail 
b 3 
a23 
a 41 
a 32 



Stations in States and 
Territories. 



Nevada, Winnemucca. . . . 
ISiew Hampshire,Manchester 
New Jersey, Atlantic City, 
isew Mexico, Santa Fe. . 

New York, Albany 

North Carolina, Raleigh... 
North Dakota, Bismarck... 

Ohio, Columbus 

Oklahoma, Sill (Fort) 

Oregon, Portland 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 
Rhode Island, Block Island 
South Carolina, Charleston.. 

South Dakota, Yankton 

Tennessee, Nashville 

Texas, San Antonio 

Utah, Salt Lake City 

Vermont, Burlington.. 

Virginia, Lynchburg 

Washington, Olympia 

Washington, D. C 

W.Virginia, Parkersburg.. 

Wisconsin, Milwaukee 

Wyoming, Cheyenne 



3 



8.9 48. 

42.1 45. 
42.8 51.9 
14.6 49.3 
38.848.2 

52.2 59.3 
19.0 39, 



40.4 
30.8 
48.3 
40.9 
44.4 
56.8 
26.8 
51.1 



52.3 
60.5 
53.1 

53.9 
49.3 

66.3 
46.3 
59.4 



18.951.6 
32.9 45.3 
44.557.3 
51.450.2 
44.6 55.0 



42.1 
32.2 
12.1 



53.9 
45.2 
44.9 



© 
u u 
3 3 



104 a28 

96 all 
99 a 7 

97 al3 

98 al8 
103 b 8 

105 a44 

103 a20 
107 a 9 
102 a 2 

102 a 5 
88 a 4 

104 blO 

103 a34 

104 alO 
104 b 6 
102 a20 
97 a25 

102 a 5 
97 a 2 

104 al4 
97 b 2 

100 a25 

100 a38 



lcluding melted snow, a Indicates temperature below zero, b Temperature above zero. 

Temperature and Rainfall of Foreign Cities. 



Cities. 



f exandria. 
yjgiers 

trakhan.. 

rlin 

rmuda... 

me 

mbay 

rdeaux... 

ussels — 

ida-Pesth 

lcutta.... 

nton 

pe Town. 

yenne 

lerrapongee* 

ristiania... 

nstan'ople 

penhagen. 

hi 

blin 

nburgh... 



!S ©© 



69.0 
64.3 
50.1 
48.2 
72.0 
46.0 
81.3 
57.0 
50.0 
51.9 
82.4 
71.0 
62.0 



41.5 

56.5 
46.6 
77.0 
50.1 
47.1 



IP! 



10 

27 
6 
24 
55 
46 
75 
30 
29 
17 
76 
39 
23 
110 
610 



Cities. 



Florence 

Geneva 

Genoa 

Glasgow ..... 

Havana 

Hong Kong., 
Honolulu.... 

Iceland 

Jerusalem.. . 

Lisbon 

London 

Lyons 

Madeira 

Madrid 

Malta 

Maranham... 
Marseilles. ... 
Melbourne .. 

Mexico 

Milan..: 

Montevideo.. 



© © 



a a 

S 3 a.* 

59.2 

52.7 
61.1 
49.8 
59.1 
73.0 
75.0 
39.0 
62.6 
61.4 
50.8 
53.0 
66.0 
58.2 
66.0 

58.3 
57.0 
60.9 
55.1 
62.0 



' ec © 



_ ©_; 

a St 



41 
32 
47 
44 
91 
101 

'30 
16 

27 
25 
28 
25 
9 

20 
277 
23 
29 



44 



Cities. 



Naples 

Nice 

Para 

Paris 

Pekin 

Port Said 

Prague 

Quebec 

Rio Janeiro.. 

Rome 

Rotterdam .. 
San Domingo 

Smyrna 

S.Petersburg 
Stockholm... 

Sydney 

Trieste 

Valdivia 

Venice 

Vera Cruz... 
Vienna 



3 ^ © ©* 

SSa 3 

_ 
60.3 
58.0 
81.0 
51.3 
53.0 

50.2 
4C.3 
77.2 
60.5 
51.0 
81.3 
60 0 
39.6 
42.3 
65.8 
55.0 
52.0 
55.4 
77.0 
51.0 



J 

li 

fn Southwestern As<-am, wettest place in the world. In 1861 rainfall there was 905 
fOTE. — Mean annual temperature of globe is 50° Fahr. Average rainfall is 



31 
23 
108 
•24 
17 
20 
49 
43 
106 

iso 

19 



inches, 
inches. 



64 



WEATHER SIGNALS. 



Weather Signals, by Flag and Whistle. 

The Weather Bureau, U. 8. Department of Agriculture, furnishes f or the informl 
tion of the general public, " Forecasts," which are prepared daily at 10 A. m. and 10 p. J 
for the following day. These forecasts are so worded as to be readily communicated 1 
the public by means of flags or steam whistles. These flags are to be obtained frol 
dealers, whose addresses can be procured at almost any weather station. They cost ! 
apiece. The necessary information is sent daily by telegraph, without charge, from til 
weather station to a single person in a town or village Avho will employ the signal 
Other applicants will be furnished at their own expense. The Chief of the U. j 
Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C, or the Chief of any of the State Weather Servicl 
may be consulted on the subject by letter. The flags are five in number and aj 
represented herewith : 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. 

White Flag. Blue Flag. White and Blue Black Triangular White, with 

Flag. Flag. Black Centre 





Clear or fair Weather. Rain or Snow. Local Rains. Temperature signal. Cold Wave. 

All but one of these flags are 6 feet square : No. 4 is 6 feet long and 4 feet wide 
the base. Sometimes they are displayed singly, and sometimes two are used together, 

No. 1, white flag, indicates clear or fair weather. No. 2, blue flag, indicat 
rain or snow. No. 3, white and blue flag (parallel bars of white and blue), indicate 
that local rains or showers will occur, and 4, black triangular flag, always refers t 
temperature; when placed above Nos. 1, 2 or 3 it indicates warmer weather; whe r 
placed below Nos. 1, 2 or 3 it indicates colder weather; when not displayed, til 
indications are that the temperature will remain stationary, or that the change i f 
temperature will not vary more than four degrees from the temperature of the sam 
hour of the preceding day from March to October, inclusive, and not more than si 
degrees for the remaining months of the year. No. 5, white flag, with black square : 
centre, indicates the approach of a sudden and decided fall in temperature. This sign 
is not to be displayed unless it is expected that the temperature will fall to fortv-tw 
degrees or lower, and is usually ordered at least twenty-four hours in advance of tl 
cold wave. Where No. 5 is displayed, No. 4 is always omitted. 

The "Inland Storm Signal" (red flag with black centre) is used in the States 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota (except at lake stations), Iowa, Nebraska an 
Wyoming, to indicate the approach of high winds accompanied by snow, wit 
temperature below freezing. When displayed on poles the signals should be arrange 
to read downward ; when displayed from horizontal supports a small streamer shou 
be attached to indicate the point from which the signals are to be read. 

Whistle Signals.— The warning signal is a long blast of from 15 to 20 second 
duration ; after this has been sounded long blasts (from 4 to 6 seconds 1 duration) ref 
to weather, and short blasts (from 1 to 3 seconds' duration) refer to temperature, tho 
for weather to be counted first. For instance : One long biast indicates fair weathe 
two long, rain or snow; three long, local rains; one short, lower temperature • tw 
short, higher temperature; three short, cold wave; one long 1 and one short, fan 
weather, lower temperature; two long and two short, rain or snow, higher tern peratur 
one long and three short, fair weather, cold wave; three long and two short, loc 
rains, higher temperature. 

The several States, with headquarters, in which State Weather Services are 
operation are : 

Md., Baltimore (Del. also). 
Mass., Boston (for New Eng.) 
Michigan, Detroit. 
Minnesota, Minneapolis. 
Mississippi, Vicksburg. 
Missouri, Columbia. 
Montana, Helena. 
Nebraska, Omaha. 
Nevada, Carson City. 
New Jersey, N. Brunswick. 
New Mexico, Santa Fe. 
New York, Ithaca. 
North Carolina, Raleigh. 
North Dakota, Bismarck. 



Alabama, Montgomery. 
Arizona, Tucson. 
Arkansas, Little Rock. 
California, Sacramento. 
Colorado, Denver. 
Florida, Jacksonville. 
Georgia, Atlanta. 
Idaho, Idaho Falls. 
Illinois, Springfield. 
Ind., Indianapolis, Lafayette 
Iowa, Des Moines. 
Kansas, Topeka. 
Kentucky, Louisville. 
Louisiana, New Orleans. 



Ohio, Columbus. 
Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, 
Oregon, Portland orOswegl 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 
South Carolina. Columbia 
South Dakota, Huron. 
Tennessee, Nashville. 
Texas, Galveston. 
Utah, Salt Lake City. 
Virginia, Lynchburgh. 
Washington, Olympia. 
West Virginia, Parkersbur 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 
Wyoming, Cheyenne. 



1! 



<; 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 



65 



1 I, Black Centre. Red, White Centre. Red Pennant. 



Storm Signals. 

orm. Cautionary and Information Signals are displayed at seaports and *akeports 
9 United States. The flags adopted for this purpose are four in number, as shown 



White Pennant. 



Storm. Cautionary. Easterly winds. Westerly winds, 

he signals adopted by this bureau for announcing the approach of windstorms are 
lows : 

Cautionary Signal (displayed only at stations on the lakes).— A red flag (eight 
square) with white centre (four feet square) indicates that the winds expected will 
e so severe but well-found, seaworthy vessels can meet them without danger. 

Storm Signal.— A red flag (eight feet square) with black centre (three feet 
e) indicates that the storm is expected to be severe. 

red pennant (five feet hoist and twelve feet fly) displayed with the flags indicates 
rly winds— that is, from northeast to south, inclusive, and that the storm-centre 
>roaching. 

white pennant (five feet hoist and twelve feet fly) displayed with the flags 
ites westerly winds— that is, from north to southwest, inclusive, and that the storm 
e has passed. 

r hen red pennant is hoisted above cautionary or storm signal, winds are expected 
the northeast quadrant ; when below, from the southeast quadrant. 
r hen white pennant is hoisted above the cautionary or storm signal, winds are 
:ted from the northwest quadrant ; when below, from the southwest quadrant. 
ight Signals.— By night a red light will indicate easterly winds ; a white above 
light will indicate westerly winds. 

he Information Signal consists of a red pennant and indicates that the displayman 
eceived information of a storm covering a limited area, dangerous only for vessels 
t to sail to certain points. The signal will serve as a notification to shipmasters 
important information will be given them upon application to the displayman. 
Ote.— These signals, principally for the information of maritime interests, are 
ict from the system of weather, temperature, and rain signals displayed throughout 
ountry. 

Line of Perpetual Snow. 

^ "he line of perpetual snow varies with latitude, and is as follows in feet above 



Latitude. 


Feet. 


Latitude. 


Feet 


Latitude. 


Feet 




15,260 
14,764 
13,478 




11,484 
9,000 
6,334 




3,» 8 
1,278 










50 











Specific Gravity. 

COMPARED WITH WATER. 



Liquids. 



3r 

Water 

m Sea 

.hoi 

eOil 

)entine — 



....1.0 
....103 
....124 
.... 84 
.... 92 
... 90 
....100 
....101 



102 

aan'sMilk 102 

• 8 " 103 

•;s ' " 104 

er... 101 



Timber. 



Sundries. 



Metals and Stones. 



Cork 24 Indigo 77 Granite 278 

Poplar 38 I<;e 92 Diamond 353 

Fir 55 Gunpowder 93 Zinc 691 

Cedar 61 Butter 94 Cast Iron 721 

Pear 66 Clay 120 Tin 729 



Walnut 

Cherry 72 

Maple 75 

Apple 7!) 

Ash 84 

Beech 85 

Mahogany 106 

Oak 117 

Ebony 133 



Coal 130 Bar Iron 779 

Opium 134 Steel 783 

Honey 145 Brass 840 

Ivory 183 Copper 895 

Sulphur 203 Silver 1,047 

Porcelain 226 Lead 1,135 

Marble 270 Mercury 1,357 

Chalk 279 Gold 1,926 

Glass 289'Platina ...2,150 



66 



LONGEST RIVERS IN THE WORLD. 



Greatest Recorded Altitude in Each 5tate. 
FROM THE RECORDS OF THE U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY. 



State or 
Territory. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut... 

Delaware..-. 

Dist.Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Terr... 

Iowa '.. 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Mai.'e 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi.... 
Missouri 



Name of Place. 



Cheauha Mt 

Mt. Logan 

San Francisco Mt — 

Magazine Mt 

Mt. Whitney , 

Blanca Peak 

Bear Mt 

Dupont 

Ten ley 

Highland 

Enota Mt 

Meade Peak 

Warren 

Haley 

Wichita Mts 

Ocheyedan 

Kanarado . 

Big Black Mt 

Manstield 

Katahdin Mt. 

Great Backbone Mt. 

Mt. Greylock ... 

Porcupine Mt 

Woodstock 

Pontotoc Ridge 

Cedar Gap 



Ht. 



2,407 
19.500 
12,794 
2,800 
14,898 
14,464 
2,355 
282 
400 
210 
4,798 
10,541 
1,009 
1,110 
2,500 
1.554 
3,906 
4,100 
321 
5.200 
3.400 
3,535 
2,023 
1,826 
516 
1,675 



State or 
Territory. 



Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

N. Hampshire 
New Jersey. . . 
New Mexico.. 

New York 

N. Carolina... 
North Dakota 

Obio 

Oklahoma — 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. 
Rhode Island. 
S. Carolina.... 
South Dakota 
Tennessee — 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington... 
West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Name of Place. 



Mt. Douglas 

White River Summit. 

Wheeler Peak 

Mount Washington . 

Kittatinny Mt 

Cerro 'Blanco 

Mt. Marcy 

Mt Mitchell 

Sentinel Butte , 

Ontario 

Goodwin 

Mt. Hood 

Negro Mt 

Durfee Hill 

Rocky Mt 

Harney Peak 

Mt. Leconte 

North Franklin Mt... 

Mt. Emmons 

Mt. Mansfield , 

Mt. Rogers 

Mt. Rainier 

Spruce Mt 

Summit Lake 

Fremont Peak 



H* 

11,8 

4,8 
13,0 

6.2 

I, 6; 

14,2i 
5,3 
6.7' 
2,7! 
1.3 
2,5; 

II. 2. 
2,8: 

& 
3,6> 
7,3< 
6.6 
7,0i 

13,6: 
4,4! 
5,7 

14,4 
4,84 
1,7! 

13,7' 



Note.— The above table gives only points whose heights are matters of record, 
several cases it is well known that there are higher points than those given. F 
instance, the Salmon River Mountains, in Idaho, are known to be much higher th 
Meade Peak, but their elevation is not definitely known. 



Longest Rivers in the World. 



Name. 



Missouri (with the Mississippi con 

nection) 

Missouri (to the Mississippi) 

Nile (Stanley's) 

Nile (old survey) 

Amazon, Brazil 

Mississippi (proper) 

Murray, Australasia 

Yang-tse-Kiang, China 

Hoang-Ho, China 

Obi, Siberia 

Yenesei, Siberia 

Lena, Siberia 

Niger, Africa 

Mackenzie, British America 

Congo, Africa 

Amoor, Siberia 

Parana (with Platte) Argentine — 

St. Lawrence, Canada 

Volga, Russia 

Madeira, Brazil 

Rio Grande, U. S 

Indus, Hindostan 

Danube, Russia 



Mile s. 

4,506 
3,096 
4,100 
3,000 
3,994 
3,200 
3.000 
2,990 
2 800 
2,800 
2,580 
2.500 
2500 
2,n00 
2,500 
2,300 
2,130 
2,060 
2,0o0 
2.000 
1,800 
1,795 
1.630 



Name. 



Sandeo, Hindostan 

Brahmapootra, Thibet 

St. Francisco, Brazil 

Columbia, U. S 

Colorado, U. S 

Yellowstone, IT. S 

Ohio, U. S 

Arkansas, U. S 

Rhine, Germany 

Tennessee, U. S 

Red lti\ er of the North, U. S. A. 

Cumberland, U. S 

Alabama, U. S 

Susquehanna, CJ. S 

James, U. S 

Connecticut, U. S 

Seine, France.-. 

Delaware, U. S 

Potomac, U. S 

Hudson. U. S 

Thames. Eng 

Shannon. Ireland 

Kennebec, U. S 



Mile 



1.60C 
1.50C 
1,40( 
1,090 
1,0 
1,0 
9 

900 
810 

800 
700 
600 
600 
500 
500 
450 
425 
400 
400 
325 
233 
200 



The largest volcano in the world is Etna. Its base is 90 miles in circumference ; i 
cone 11,000 feet high. Its first eruption occurred 474 B. C. 

The largest tree in the world, as yet discovered, is the big cypress of Tula. It is 1 
feet and 4 inches in circumference at its base. 

The largest desert is Sahara, in Africa. It is 3,000 miles long and 900 miles wide 
having an area of about 2,000,000 square miles. 



STATUTES OF LIMITATION. 



07 



Interest Laws and Grace on Sight Drafts. 



ATES AND 
JRRITORIES. 



ama. 
ca... 
ma.. 



ornia 

■ radii 

tecticut 

ware 

<ii' Columbia. 

da 

3|gia 

3 

4>is 

ina 



I ucky 

I siana 

I e 

* land 

,B|achusetts... 

igan 

Jl|iesota 

ssippi 

Jjjhuri 

Jltana 

aska 

ida 

Hampshire . 

Jersey 

Mexico 

York (b).... 

h Carolina. . 

h Dakota... 



homa 

on 

lsylvania.... 

ie Island 

h Carolina.. 
h Dakota... 
lessee 



nont 

inia 

lington.... 
t Virginia. 

onsin . 

miner — . 



Legal 


Allowed by 


Hale 


Contract. 


8 


8 


8 


10 




Any rate. 


6 


10 


7 


Any rate. 


8 


Any rate. 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


in 


8 


K) 


7 


8 


alO 


18 


5 


7 


0 


Q 
O 


6 


8 


6 


10 


6 
5 


O 

8 


6 


Any rate. 


6 


6 


6 


Any rate. 
8 


6 

7 


10 


6 


10 


6 
10 


8 

Any rate. 


7 


10 


10 
6 


Any rate. 
6 


6 
6 
6 


6 
12 
6 


6 
7 


8 
12 


6 


8 


7 


12 


8 


10 


6 


O 


6 


Any rate. 


7 


10 


7 


12 


6 


6 


8 


10 


8 


Any rate. 


6 


6 


6 
10 


6 

Any rate. 


6 


6 


6 


10 


m 


Any rate. 



Penalty lor Usury. 



Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 

None 

None 

None 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

(a) 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

(b) 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 

None 

Forfeiture 
Forfeiture 
(f) 



of all interest, 
of debt 



of principal and interest. 



of contract 

of entire interest... 

of Interest 

of all interest 



of entire interest 

of excess of interest.. • 
of interest and costs (d). 
of excess of interest. . . • 

of interest 

of interest 



of excess of interest. 



of interest 

of principal 

of interest .-. 

of entire interest. 



of interest. 



of one-half principal-., 
of entire int. and costs., 
twice amount and $100 fine 



of interest 

of contract 

of excess 

of entire interest 

of principal and interest, 
of excess of interest 



of interest 

of interest and principal. 

of excess of interest 

of entire interest 



of interest 

of excess over 6 per cent. 



of excess of interest, 
of entire interest.... 



Grace. 
Grace. 
Grace. 
Grace. 
No Grace. 
Grace (c). 
No Grace. 
No Grace. 
No Grace. 
No Grace. 
No Grace. 
No Grace. 
No Grace. 
Grace, 
(e) 

Grace. 

Grace. 

No Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

No Law. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

No Grace. 

Grace. 

No Grace. 

No Grace. 

No Graoe. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

No Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

No Grace. 

Grace. 

No Grace. 

No Grace. 

No Grace. 

Grace. 

Grace. 

No Grace. 

(e). 



i) Loss of interest by tender; 10 per cent, from borrower for school fund, (b) 
ract void; punishable as misdemeanor, (c) Three days on notes and bills of 
ange. (d) Defendant also forfeits lo per cent, a year to school fund, (e) No statute 
;cision ; grace allowed by custom of banks in most cities, (f) Six per cent, on all 
}, County and municipal bonds and warrants. 

Statutes of Limitation. 



ie first figure after each State indicates 
ation, in years, on open accounts; the 
nd. on notes and contracts ; the third, 
idgments.) 

i., 3, 6, 20; Alaska, 6, 6, 10; Ark., 3, 5, 20; 
3,5,5; Cal., 2, 4, 5; Col., 6, 6, 6; Conn., 
7; Del., 3, 6, 20; 1). C, 3, 8, 12; Fla., 4, 5, 
a., 4, 6,-; Idaho, 4, 5, 6; 111., 5, 10, 20; 
6, 10, 20; Iowa, 5, 10, 20; Kan., 3, 5, 5; 
5, 15, 15; La., 3, 5, 10; Me., 6, 6 (witnessed 
, 20), 20: Md„ 3, 3, 12; Mass., 6, 6, 20; 
.,6,6,10; Minn., 6, 6, 10; Miss., 3, 6. 7; 



Mo., 5, 10, 20; Mont., 5. 8, 10; Neb., 4, 5, 5; 
New, 2, 6, 5; N. H.. 6, 6, 20; N. J., 6, 6. 20 (6 
years courts not of lecord); N. M., 4, 6, 7; 
N. Y., 6, 6, 20; N. C, 3, 3, 10; N. D., 6, 6, 20: 
Ohio, fi, 15, 15; Okla., 3, 5, 2; Ore., 6, 6, 10; 
Penn., 6, 6 (judgments renewable indefi- 
nitely); K. I., 6, 6, 20; S. C, 6, 6, 20: S. D., 6, 
6, 20; Tenn.. 0, 6, 10; Texas, 2, 4, 10: Utah, 2, 
4, 5; Vt., 6, 6, 20; Va., 5, 5, 8: Wash., 3, 6, 6; 
\V r . Va., 3, 5, 10; Wis., 6, 6, 20; Wyo., 8, 4, 5 
(may be revived). 



68 



INTEREST RULES. 



Rate of Annual Income of Investments. 

PAR VALUE BEING AT $100, BEARING INTEREST AT 



5 Per Cent. 


6 Per Cent. 


7 Per Cent. 


8 Per Cent. 


u Per Cent- 


in nn 
lu.uu 

9.09 


12 00 


14.00 


16.00 


18.00 


in Qft 


12.72 


14.55 


16*35 


O.OD 


10 00 


11 '66 


13.33 


15*00 


7 69 


9.23 


10.76 


12.30 


13.85 


7 14. 


8.57 


io'oo 


1L42 


12.85 


ft ftfi 


8 00 


9*33 


10*66 


12.00 


0 <40 


7 ^0 


8.75 


10*00 


11.25 


ft nft 


» — ■ I 


8*48 


9.69 


10*90 


D.OO 


7 fl^ 
i .uo 


8*23 


9.41 


10.58 


o.oo 


6.66 


7*77 


8*88 


9*99 


K Aft 
0.1V 


6 48 


7*56 


8.64 


9*72 


K OR 


ft 31 


7.36 


8.42 


9.46 


5 20 


6.25 


7^29 


8*33 


9*38 


o.xo 


6 18 


7.21 


8.24 


9.27 


0.±<3 


ft i^ 


7.17 


8.20 


9.23 


5 10 


6.12 


7*14 


8*16 


9.18 


5*05 


6 06 


7*07 


8*08 


9*09 




ft on 


7*00 


8.00 


9.00 




5 94 


6 93 


7*92 


8 91 


4.90 


5*88 


6.*86 


7.*84 


8.82 


4.85 


5.82 


6.79 


7.76 


8.73 


4.80 


5.76 


6.73 


7.69 


8.64 


4.76 


5.71 


6.66 


7.61 


8.56 


4.54 


5.45 


6.36 


7.27 


8.18 


4.34 


5.21 


6.08 


6.95 


7.82 


4.18 


5.00 


5.83 


6.66 


7.50 


4.00 


4.80 


5.60 


6.40 


7.20 


3.84 


4.t>l 


5.38 


6.15 


6.91 


3.70 


4.44 


5.18 


5.92 


6.66 


3.57 


4.28 


5.00 


5.71 


6.42 


3.44 


4.13 


4.82 


5.51 


6.20 


3.33 


4.00 


4.66 


5.33 


6.00 



Prtce Paid. 



$50 
55 
60 
65 
70 
75 
80 
82^ 



92^ 
95 
96 
97 

973^ 



100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 

no 

115 
120 
125 
130 
135 
140 
145 
150 



10 Per C( 



20.00 
18.18 
16.66 
15.38 
14.28 
13.35 
12.50 
12.12 
11.76 
11.11 
10.80 
10.52 
10.41 
10.30 
10.25 
10.20 
10.10 
10.00 
9.90 
9.80 
9.70 
9.61 
9.52 



8.33 ii 
8.00 il 
7 
7.40 
7.14 i 
6.89 )| 
6.66 \ 



Years in Which a Given Amount Will Double. 

AT SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST. 



Rate. 



4... . 
4*.. 
5.... 

5*6- 



At 
Simple 
Interest. 


Compound- 
ed 

Annually. 


Compound- 
ed Semi- 
Annually. 


Rate. 


At 
Simple 
Interest. 


Compound- 
ed 

Annually. 


100 Years 


69.666 


69.487 




16.67 


11.896 


66.66 


46.556 


46.382 


6y 2 


15.38 


11.007 


50.00 


35.004 


34.8^0 




14.29 


10.245 


40.00 


28.071. 


27.899 




13.33 


9.585 


33.33 


23.450 


23.278 


12.50 


9.006 


28.57 


20.150 


19.977 


8Y 2 

9 


11.76 


8.497 


25.00 


17.673 


17.502 


11.11 


8.043 


22.22 


15.748 


15.576 


9y 2 ...... 


10.52 


7.638 


20.00 


14.207 


14.036 


10 


10.00 


7.273 


18.18 


12.946 


12.775 




8.34 


6.110 



Compou 
ed Sem " 
Annua™ 



11.725 
10.836 
10.075 
9.914 
8.837 
8.346 
7.874 
7.468 
7.121 
5.948 



Interest Rules. 

To find the Interest on a given sum for any number of days at any rate of interim 
multiply the principal by the number of days and divide as follows : 



At 3 per cent., by. 
At 4 per cent., by. 
At 5 per cent., by. 
At 6 per cent., by. 



.120 

. 90 
. 72 



At 7 per cent., by 52 

At 8 per cent., by 45 

At 9 per cent., by 40 

At 10 per cent., by 36 



At 12 per cent., by f 0 

At 15 per cent., by 

At 20 per cent., by 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Weights and Measures. 

Troy Weight.— 24 grains make 1 pennyweight, 20 pennyweights 1 ounce, 12 ounces 
ound. Used for weighing- gold, silver and jewels. 

Apothecaries' Weight —20 grains make 1 scruple, 3 scruples 1 dram, 8 drams 1 
ice, 12 ounces 1 pound. The ounce and pound in this are the same as in Troy weight. 

Advoikdupois Weight. 27^ grains make 1 dram, 16 drams 1 ounce, 16 ounces 1 
ind. 25 pounds 1 quarter, 4 quarters 1 hundredweight, 2,000 pounds 1 short ton, 2,240 
inds 1 long ton. 

Dry Measure.— 2 pints make 1 quart, 8 quarts 1 peck, 4 pecks 1 bushel, 36 bushels 
laldron. 

Liquid Measure.— 4 gills make 1 pint, 2 pints 1 quart, 4 quarts 1 gallon, 31J^ gallons 
irrel, 2 barrels 1 hogshead. 

Time Measure.- 60 seconds make 1 minute, 60 minutes 1 hour, 24 hours 1 day, 7 days 
eek, 28, 29, 30 or 31 days 1 calendar month (30 days make 1 month in computing 
rest), 365 days 1 year, 366 days 1 leap year. 

Circular Measure.— 60 seconds make 1 minute, 60 minutes 1 degree, 30 degrees 1 
l, 90 degrees 1 quadrant, 4 quadrants, 12 signs or 360 degrees 1 circle. 
Long Measure.— 12 inches make 1 foot, 3 feet 1 yard, 5% yards 1 rod, 40 rods 1 
long, 8 furlongs 1 statute mile, 3 miles 1 league. 

Cloth Measure.— 2J4 inches 1 nail, 4 nails 1 quarter, 4 quarters 1 yard. 

Mariner's Measure.— 6 feet make 1 fathom, 120 fathoms 1 cable length, 7J^ cable 

rths 1 mile, 5,280 feet 1 statute mile, 6,085 feet 1 nautical mile. 

Miscellaneous — 3 inches make 1 palm, 4 inches 1 hand, 6 inches 1 span, 18 inches 1 
it, 21.8 inches 1 liible cubit, 2^j feet 1 military pace. 

Square Measure.— 144 square inches make 1 square foot, 9 sauare feet 1 square 
d, 30J4 square yards 1 square rod, 40 square rods 1 rood, 4 roods 1 acre, 640 acres 1 
ire mile. k 

Surveyors' Measure.— 7.92 inches make 1 link, 25 links 1 rod, 4 rods 1 chain, lOsquaro 
ns or 160 square rods 1 acre, 640 acres 1 square mile, 36 square miles (6 miles square) 
wnship. 

Cubic Measure.— 1.728 cubic inches make 1 cubic foot, 27 cubic feet 1 cubic yard, 128 
ic feet 1 cord (wood), 40 cubic feet 1 ton (shipping), 2,150.42 cubic inches 1 standard 
hel, 268.8 cubic inches 1 standard gallon, 1 cubic foot makes about four-fifths of 
ishel. 

Metric Weights.— 10 milligrams make 1 centigram, 10 centigrams 1 decigram, 10 
grams 1 gram, 10 grams 1 dekagram, 10 dekagrams 1 hektogram, 10 hektograms 1 
gram, 1,000 kilograms 1 metric ton. 

Metric Measures.— (One milliliter=cubic centimeter.) 10 milliliters make 1 cent- 
r, 10 centiliters 1 deciliter, 10 deciliters 1 liter, 10 liters 1 dekaliter, 10 dekaliters 1 
toliter, 10 hektoliters 1 kiloliter. 

Metric Lengths.— 10 millimeters make 1 centimeter, 10 centimeters 1 decimeter, 10 
meters 1 meter, 10 meters 1 dekameter, 10 dekameters 1 hektometer, 10 hekto- 
ers 1 kilometer. 

APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS. 

A. meter is about a yard; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a liter is about a quart; a centl- 
er is about £ inch; a metric ton is about same as an ordinary ton; a kilometer is 
at }4 mile; a cubic centimeter is about a thimbleful. A nickel five cent piece of our 
age is a handy key to metric measures and weights. It is two centimeters in diam- 
and weighs five grams. 

PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 



re 

shel 

atimeter 
bic centimeter 
bic foot 
bic inch 
bic meter 
bic meter 
bic yard 
)t 

lion 

lin 

im 

3tar 

h 

ogram 
ometer 
;r 
•r 

ter 



.4047 hectar. 
35.24 liters. 
.3937 inch. 
.0610 cubic inch. 
.0283 cubic meter. 

16.39 cubic cent. 
35.31 cubic feet. 

1.308 cubic yards. 
.7645 cubic meter. 
30.48 centimeters. 
3.785 liters. 
.0648 gram. 
15.43 grains. 
52.471 acres. 

25.40 millimeters. 
2.„05 pounds. 

.6214 mile. 

.9081 quart (dry.) 
1.057 quart (liquid.) 
3.281 feet. 



1 mile 

1 millimeter 

1 ounce (adv.) 

1 ounce (Troy) 

1 peck 

1 pint 

1 pound 

1 quart (dry) 

1 quart (liquid) 

1 sq. centimeter 

1 sq. foot 

1 sq. inch 

1 sq. meter 

1 sq. meter 

1 sq. yard 

1 ton (2,000 lbs.) 

1 ton (2,240 lbs.) 

1 ton (metric) 

1 ton (metric) 

1 yard 



= 1.609 kilometers. 

= .0394 inch. 
= 28.35 grams, 
= 31.10 grams. 

= 8.809 liters. 

- .4732 liter. 

= .4536 kilogram. 

= 1.101 liters. 

= .9464 liter. 

= .1550 sq. inch. 

- .0929 sq. meter. 
= 6.452 sq. cent. 
= 1.196 sq. yarls. 
= 10.76 sq. feet. 

- .8361 sq. meter. 

- .9072 metrio ton. 

- 1.017 metric ton, 

- 1.102 ton (2,000 lbs.) 

- .9842 ton (2,240 lbs.) 

- .9144 meter. 



70 



* WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.— Continued. 



The Metric System has been adopted by Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, etc., and by j 
European nations except Russia and Great Britain, where it is permissive. It w; 
legalized in the United States by act of Congress July 28th. 1866. 

The Meter, the unit of length, is nearly the ten millionth part of a quadrant of 
meridian, of the distance between Equator and Pole. The International Standard Met< 
is, practically, nothing but a length defined by the distance between two lines on a bt 
of platinum-iridium at zero Centigrade, deposited at the International Bureau 
Weights and Measures at Paris, France. 

Tbe Liter, unit of capacity, is derived from the weight of one kilogram of pui 
water at greatest density, a cube whose edge is one-tenth of a meter, and, ther 
fore, the one-thousandth part of a metric ton. 

The Gram, unit of weight, is a cube of pure water at greatest density, whose edge 
one-hundredth of a meter, and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a kilogram, ar 
the one-millionth part of a metric ton . 

FOREIGN MONEY. 

English Money.— 4 farthings make 1 penny, 12 pence 1 shilling, 20 shillings 1 poun 

French Money.— 10 centimes make 1 decime, 10 decimes 1 franc. 

German Money.— 100 pfennig make 1 mark. 

Russian Money.— 100-copecks make 1 rouble- 

Austro- Hungarian Money.— IOu kieutzer make 1 florin. 

Note - France, Belgium, Greece, Italy and Switzerland constitute what is known 
" Latin " Union and their coins are alike in weight and fineness, occasionally differin 
however, in name. The same system has been in part adopted by Spain, Servia, Russi 
Bulgaria and Roumania, but they have not joined the Union. Francs and centimes 
France, Belgium and Switzerland are respectively designated lire and centissimi 
Italy; draehmai and lepta in Greece; dinars and paras in Servia; peseta and centime 
in Spain ; leys and banis in Roumania : leya and stotinkis in Bulgaria. Similarly tl 
Scandinavian countries, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, employ coins of the same weig] 
and fineness, their names being also alike. Most of the South American States possess 
standard coin, equal in weight and fineness to the silver 5 franc piece, termed a " peso 
— Whitaker. 

HANDY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

One quart of wheat flour weighs a pound. One quart of corn meal weighs eightee 
ounces. One quart of white sugar weighs two pounds. Ten medium size eggs wei£ 
one pound. A tablespoonful of salt is an ounce. Eight tablespoonfuls make a gi 
Sixty drops are one teaspoonf ul. A teaspoonful is one fluid dram or four grams. A de 
sertspoonf ul is two fluid drams. A tablespoonful is half a fluid ounce. A wineglassf 
is two fluid ounces. 

WEIGHT OF PRODUCE. 

Number pounds to the bushel according to the laws of the United States. 



Wheat 60 lbs. 

Corn in the ear 70 " 

Corn shelled. 56 

Rye 56 " 

Buckwheat 48 " 

Barley 48 " 

Oats 32 " 

Peas 60 M 

White beans 60 " 

Castor beans 46 " 



Irish potatoes 60 lbs. 

Sweet potatoes 55 " 

Onions 57 " 

Turnips 55 " 

Dried peaches 33 " 

Dried apples 26 " 

Clover seed 60 " 

Flax seed 56 " 

Millet seed 50 »■ 

Hungarian grass seed. 50 " 



Timothy seed 45 It 

Blue grass seed 44 l * 

Hemp seed 44 

Fine salt 167 

Coarse salt 151 

Corn meal 48 

Ground peas 24 

Malt 38 

Bran 20 



To Ascertain the Weight op Cattle.— Measure the girth close behind tl 
shoulder, and the length from the fore part of the shoulderblade along the back to tl H 
bone at thp tail which is in a vertical line with the buttock, both in feet. Multiply tl 
square of the girth, expressed in feet, by five times the length, and divide the produ 
by 21 ; the quotient, is the weight, nearly, of the four quarters, in imperial stones of 
lb. avoirdupois. For example, if the girth be 6 feet, and the length 5J4 feet, we shali 
have 6 x 6 = 36, and 5*4 x 5 = 26J4 ; then 36 x 2634 = 945, and this, divided by 21, gives 
stones exactly. It is to be observed, however, that in very fat cattle the four quarte 
will be about one-twentieth more, while in those in a very lean state they will be on 
twentieth less than the weight obtained by the rule. 

To Measure Grain or Vegetables in Crib.— Multiply the length, breadth ar 
depth in feet together and this product by eight and point off one figure in the produ 
for decimals. The result will be the number of bushels. To get number of bushels <fl 
shelled corn in a crib of corn in the ear, multiply length, breadth and depth togethi J< 
and div'de by two. 

To Measure Wood.— Divide the product of length, breadth and height, expresst I 
in feet, by 128 and the result will be the number of cords in the pile. a 

Quantity of Lumber in a Log.— Multiply diameter in inches at small end t >r 
one-half of itself and this product by the length of login feet, which last produ* 1 " 
divide by 12. 



POINTS OF BUSINESS LAW. 



71 



Brief Points of Business Law. 

n 

t is a fraud to conceal a fraud, 
if gnorance of the law excuses no one. 
(( The act of one partner binds all the others. 
* *. contract made on a Sunday is void 
i \ principal is liable for the acts of his agents. 

\n agent is liable to his principal for errors, 
a \ receipt for money paid is not leg-ally conclusive. 

I V signature made with a lead pencil is good in law. 

\.n agreement without consideration, expressed or implied, is void- 

V contract made with a minor cannot be enforced. A note made with a minor is 
able. 

5ach partner is liable for the whole amount of the debts of his firm. 

V partial payment of an outlawed debt revives the obligation. 

■Jotes obtained by fraud, or made by an intoxicated person, are not collectable. 

II f no time of payment is specified in a note it is payable on demand. 

note which does not state upon its face that it bears interest will bear interest 
r maturity. x 

^.n indorser may avoid liability by writing " without recourse " under his 
ature. 

i in indorser of a note is exempt from liability if notice of its dishonor is not mailed 
J l ;rved within twenty-four hours of its non-payment. 

» n case of death of the maker of a note, the payee of a note is not obliged to notify 
< -ety of its non-payment before the settlement of the maker's estate. 
' Negotiable paper, payable to bearer, or indorsed in blank, which has been lost or 
1( n, cannot be collected by the thief or finder, but a holder receiving it in good 

i before maturity, for value, can hold it against the owner's claims at the time it 

lost or stolen. 

f a note or draft is payable in the State where it was made, the agreement is 
:rned by the laws of that State. When negotiable paper is payable in another State 
that in wnich made it will be governed by the laws of that State. Contracts 
ing to personal property are governed by the laws of the place where they are 
3, but those relating to real estate are governed by the laws of the State where the 
t erty is situated. 

il f negotiable paper, held by a bank as security for the payment of a loan or debt, 
e mes due, and the bank fails to demand payment and have it protested when 
[i mored, the bank shall be liable to the owner for the full amount of the paper. 
)ON'T accept a note until you are certain that it is dated correctly ; sDecifies the 
Lint of money to be paid ; names the person to whom ft is to be paid ; includes the 
Is " or order " after the name of payee, if it is intended to make the note 
tiable; states a place where payment is to be made ; states that the note is "for 
li! e received ;" and is signed by the maker or his duly authorized representative. In 
I iin States fixed phrases are required in the body of the note, sueh as " without 
I [cation or discount;" but as a general rule that fact is understood without the 
peciflcation. 

I )on't accept a deed to property until all the following conditions are complied 
I : 1. It must be signed, sealed and witnessed. 2. Interlineations should be 
I rioned in the certificate of acknowledgment. 3. All the partners must join in a 
I from a partnership. 4. A deed from a corporation should bear the corporate seal 
" Designed by officers designated in the resolution of the directors authorizing it. 

deed from a married woman should be joined in by her husband. 6. A deed from 
1 cecutor should recite his power of sale. 7. The consideration must be expressed. 
, 'me States a deed from a married man must be joined in by his wife. See that a 
| is recorded without unnecessary delay. 

I Iortgages.— A mortgage is a conveyance of property to secure payment of a 

. When the debt is paid the mortgage becomes void. In real estate mortgages 
« ierson giving the mortgage retains possession of the property, receives all profits 
I mys all expenses. A mortgage, like a deed, must be acknowledged before a proper 
A io officer, and recorded in the office of the county clerk, recorder or whatever 
( sr's duty it is to record such instruments. Mortgages must contain a redemption 
i ie and be signed and sealed. The time when the debt becomes due must be plainly 
K d and the property conveyed clearly described, located and scheduled. A 
I dosure is a statement that the property is forfeited and must be sold. If property 
D under foreclosure brings more money than is needed to satisfy the debt, interest 

josts, the surplus must be paid to the mortgagor, 
j hattel mortgages are mortgages on personal property. 
I >on't fail to have a mortgage properly recorded. 

;e sure that installments paid on chattel mortgages are properly indorsed thereon . 
, tattel mortgage is a conditional bill of sale. lie sure that a chattel mortgage 
! uns a schedule of every article embraced under it. See that the goods mortgaged 

roperly insured. Don't give a chattel mortgage payable on demand unless you 

repared to forfeit the chattels at any moment. 



72 



CORPORATIONS. 



Bills of Exchange, Drafts, Acceptances. 

A Bill of Exchange or Draft is an order drawn by one person or firm upon anoth 
payable either at sight or at a stated future time. 

It becomes an "Acceptance " when the party upon whom it is drawn writes acr< 
the face "Accepted," and signs his name thereto, and is negotiable and bankable, t 
same as a note, and subject to the same laws. 

In many States both sight and time drafts are entitled to three days of grace, i 
same as notes: but if made in form of a bank check " pay to," without the words i 
sight,' 1 are payable on presentation, without grace. 

Demand notes are payable on presentation without grace, and bear legal in ten 
after a demand has been made, if not so written An indorser on a demand not€ 
holden only for a limited time, variable in different States. 

A negotiable note must be made payable either to bearer or be properly indore 
by the person to whose order it is made. If the indorser wishes to avoid responsibil 
he may indorse " without recourse." 

A joint note is one signed by two or more persons, each of whom becomes respc 
sible for the whole amount of the note. 

Three days grace are allowed on all time notes after the time for payment expin 
if not then paid the indorser, if any, must be legally notified to be holden. 



Copartnerships. 

Parcnerships may be either general or special. In general partnerships raor 
invested ceases to be individual property. Each member becomes personally liable 1 
the whole amount of debts incurred by the firm, and the firm is liable for all contra 
or obligations made by individual members. 

Special partners are not liable beyond the amount contributed. 

A person may become a partner by allowing people generally to presume that h< 
one, as by having his name on the sign or on the bills used by the firm. 

A share or specific interest in the profits or losses of a business, as remuneration 
services, may (under certain conditions) involve a person in the liability of a partner 

In case of bankruptcy the joint estate is first applied to the payment of partners! 
debts, the surplus only going to creditors of the individual estate- 

A dissolution of partnership may take place under express stipulations in 
articles of agreement, by mutual consent, by the death or insanity of one of the fii 
by award of arbitrators, or by court of equity in cases of misconduct by some mem] 
of the firm. 

A partner signing his individual name to negotiable paper, which is for the use 
the partnership firm, binds all the partners thereby. Negotiable paper of the firm, e\ 
though given on private account by one of the partners, will hold all the partners 
the firm when it passes into the hands of holders who are ignorant of the fact attend 
its creation. 

Partnership effects may be bought and sold by a partner ; he may make contract 
may receive money ; indorse, draw and accept bills and notes; and while this may \ 
for his own private account, if it apparently be for the use of the firm, his partners v I 
be bound by his action, provided the parties dealing with him were ignorant of 
transaction being on his private account ; and thus representation or misrepresentat 
of a partner, having relation to business of the firm, will bind the members in 
partnership. 

In case of death the surviving partners must account to the representatives of 
deceased. 

Corporations. 

Several persons associating together for the accomplishment of any businessfi 
social purposes may legally be organized into a corporation, a form of copartners Pi 
which combines the resources of all the members and yet gives a pecuniary liabil: hi 
limited to the amount of stock owned by each. In the States the power of reg-ulat 
corporations is vested in the commonwealth, and in the Territories this power is ves 
in the general government. The cost of organization is small and consists mostly " 
fees to the Secretary of State. When the stock has been subscribed a meetini * 
usually called, at which each stockholder casts a vote for every share he owns or he * 
a proxy for, for each person who is to be elected a director. It is customary for to 
board of directors to meet as soon after their appointment as practicable and choos ! n 
president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer, after which the corporation is re* '\ 
for business. I 

The laws of nearly all the States on the subject of incorporating stock compar i 
are very similar, and the necessary blank forms may usually be obtained from 
Secretary of State. 



CONSTITUTIONAL LAW. 



Points of Constitutional Law. 



Congress must meet at least once every year. 
Congress may admit as many new States as desired, 
i >ne State cannot undo the act of another. 

My the Constitution every citizen is guaranteed a speedy trial by jury. 
A power which is vested in Congress alone cannot be exercised by a State. 
)ne State niu-t respect the legal decisions and laws of another. 

Senators of the United States are chosen by the Legislatures of the respective 
es by joint ballot. 

Jongress cannot pass a law to punish for a crime already committed. 

\ person who commits a felony in one State cannot rind refuge in another. 

Excessive bail or cruel punishment is forbidden by the Constitution. 

'Jills for revenue can originate only in the House of Representatives, but the 

ite may propose or concur with amendments. 

Treaties with foreign powers are made by the President and ratified by the Senate, 
thode Island and Nevada have each an equal representation with New York in the 
ite. 

.Vriting alone does not constitute treason against the United States. There must 
n overt act. 

Vhen a bankruptcy law is passed by Congress it annuls all conflicting State laws on 
subject. 

["he Territories have each a delegate to Congress who is allowed the privilege of 
te, but not the right to vote. 

!he Vice-President, who ex-offlcio presides over the Senate, has no vote in that body 
pt in case of a tie ballot. 

Congress cannot lay any disabilities on the children of a person convicted of crime 
isdemeanor. 

f the President holds a bill longer than ten days while Congress is in session it 
( mes a law without bis signature. 

" in act of Congress cannot become a law over the President's veto except on a two- 
, Is vote of both Houses 

1 'he House of Representatives may impeach the President for any crime, but the 

I te has the sole power to try all impeachments. 

II lu officer of the United States government is not permitted to accept any title of 
, lity, order or honor, except with the permission of Congress. 

' foney or property lost in the mails cannot be recovered from the government. 
' stering a letter does not insure its contents. 

11 Pactional silver currency is not a legal tender for amounts exceeding five dollars. 

el and copper coins are not leyal tender. 
J amendments to the Constitution of th<; United States require a two-thirds vote of 
T House of Congress, and must be ratified by at least three-fourths of the States. 
I l Member of the House of Representatives is elected for two years, but may be re- 
31 ed to as many terms as his constituents may des re. 

'he President of the United States must be 35 years of aere ; a Senator, 30; a 
lC ressman, 25 ; the President must have been a resident of the United States 
J ;een years. 

} fhen the militia is called out into the service of the general government they pass 
. 3f the control of their respective States and are under the command of the 
I dent. 

1 . naturalized citizen is not eligible to the office of President of ihe United States. 
I de child born in a foreign land to American parents has an equal chance to become 
! dent with one born on American soil, 
ach House of Congress shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifica- 

> of its own members, and a majority shall constitute a quorum for doing business. 
House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for 

. derly conduct, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member. 
. o State may, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep 
y>9 or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact wit li 
ilflier State, or Avith a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded or in 
.Slimminent danger as will not admit of delay. 

Jhe United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a Republican form of 
fyl-nment, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and on application of tho 
ijlature or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against 
.J stic trouble. 

r flO person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime unless on a 
Jjntment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval 
vjs, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger ; nor 

iny person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or 
„ nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to bo a witness against himself, nor 
*, prived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law ; nor shall private 

rty be taken for public use without just compensation. 



74 



MURDEROUS COUNTRIES. 



Brief Points of Criminal Law. 

The exemption of females from arrest applies only in civil matters, not in criminal. 
Every citizen is bound to assist a sheriff in making an arrest, when called upon. 
An offense cannot lawfully be condoned by receiving back stolen property. 
Embezzlement can be charged only against an officer or agent of a corporation or a j 
clerk or servant. 

Grand larceny is the theft of property exceeding $25 in value. When less than that 
the offense is called petit larceny. 

Intoxication is not a legal excuse for crime, but delirium tremens is usually 
considered by the law as a species of insanity. 

A felony is a crime punishable by imprisonment in a State prison. 

An accident is not a crime, unless criminal carelessness can be proven. A man 
shooting at a burglar and killing a member of his family, is not a murderer, 

A police officer is not authorized to make an arrest without a warrant unless he has 
personal knowledge of the offense for which the arrest is made. 

Murder to be in the first degree must be wilful, premeditated and malicious, or 
committed while the murderer is engaged in a felonious act. 

False swearing is perjury in law only when wilfully committed, and when the oath 
has been legally administered. The false statement sworn to must be absolute. 
Qualifying expressions, such as " I have been informed " or " to the best of my belief," 
may save an averment from being perjured. 

Subornation of perjury is a felony. 

The only States in which capital punishment is forbidden by law are Michigan, 
Wisconsin and Rhode Island. ^^^^^ 



Statistics of Crime. 

The census of 1890 gives the whole number of penitentiary convicts in the United 
States as 45,233. Of these 30,546 were white and 14,687 colored. Of the whites 23,094 were 
native born, 7,267 were foreign and the nativity of 185 was unknown. Prisoners in 
County jails June 1, 1890 :— Total, 19.538 ; white, 13,961; colored, 5,577 ; native, 9.634; 
foreign, 3,765 ; nativity unknown, 512. Inmates of juvenile reformatories in 1890:— 
Total, 14,846; white, 12,903; colored, 1,943; native, 11,078; foreign, 1,405; nativity 
unknown, 420. 



Homicide in the United States. 

The census bulletin presenting statistics of homicide in the United States, prepared 
by Frederick H. Wines, gives the following figures. 

Out of 82,329 prisoners June 1, 1890, 7,386 were charged with homicide. Of these 4,425 
were white, 2,739 negroes, 94 Chinese, 1 Japanese and 92 Indians. Of the whites 3 15t 
were natives, 1,213 were foreigners and the nativity of 55 is unknown. Nearly one half 
were unmarried ; 703 widowed ; 144 divorced. Their ages ranged from 11 to 86 years. 
One-sixth were under 24 years and more than half under 33 years of age. Omitting 35 
who were charged with double crimes, 6,958 of them were males and 353 females. 



Suicides. 

Mulhall gives the following statistics of suicide. In European cities the number of 
suicides per 100,000 inhabitants is as follows: Paris, 42; Lyons, 29 ; St. Petersburg, 7 ;\ 
Moscow, 11 ; Berlin, 36; Vienna, 28 ; London, 23; Rome, 8 ; Milan, 6; Madrid, 3; GenoaJ 
31; Brussels, 15; Amsterdam, 14; Lisbon, 2; Christiania, 25 ; Stockholm, 27 ; Constanti-a 
nople, 12 ; Geneva, 11 ; Dresden, 51. 

The average annual rate of suicide per 100,000 persons living in countries of the' 
world, is given as follows: Saxony, 31.1; Denmark, 25.8 ; Schleswig-Holstein, 24.03 
Austria, 21.2; Switzerland, 20.2; France, 15.7 ; German Empire, 14.3; Hanover, 14.0;^ 
Queensland, 13.5; Prussia, 13.3 ; Victoria, 11.5; New South Wales, 9.3; Bavaria, 9.1; New 
Zealand. 9.0; South Australia, 8.9 ; Sweden, 8.1 ; Norway, 7.5 ; Belgium, 6.9 ; England:! 
«nd Wales, 6.9; Tasmania, 5.3 ; Hungary, 5 2; Scotland, 4.0 ; Italy, 3.7; Netherlands, 3.41 
United States. 3.5 ; Russia, 2.9 : Ireland, 1.7 ; Spain, 1.4. 

The causes of suicide in European countries are given as follows : Of 100 cases : mad- 
ness, delirium, 18; alcoholism, 11; vice, crime, 19 ; different diseases, 2 ; moral sufferings,^ 
6; family matters, 4 ; poverty, 4; loss of intellect, 14; consequence of crime, 3 ; unj 
known causes, 19. 

The number of suicides in the United States for five years, 1882-7, is given as 8,226, 
insanity being the principal cause and shooting the favorite method. 

riurderous Countries. 

According to Mulhall, Italy has an average annual crop of 2,470 murders, or a ratw 
of 29 4 per 10,000 deaths ; Spain comes next with 1,200 murders, a ratio of 23 8 ; AustrijB 
600 murders, a ratio of 8.8 ; France, 662 murders, a ratio of 8.0 ; England, 377 inurders,H 
ratio of 7.1. 



WORLD'S FAIRS. 



75 



World's Fairs. 

BRIEF STATISTICS OF THE WORLD'S FAIRS SINCE AND INCLUDING 
THAT HELD IN LONDON IN 1851. 

1851.— The first great international exposition was held in London in 1851. Tt lasted 
144 days ; the buildings and grounds covered 21 acres ; there were 17,000 extiibitors and 
6,039.195 visitors ; 41,933 daily. The receipts were $2,530,C00 and the expenses $1,460,000. 

1855.— The second exposition was held at Paris. It continued 200 davs and covered 
24^ acres. There were 21.779 exhibitors and 5,162,330 visitors : 25 811 a day. The cost is 
conjecturally stated at $1,700,000 ; the receipts were $1,280,000. 

1862. -The third exposition was held in London in 1862. It continued 171 days and 
covered 2:% acres of ground. There were 28.653 exhibitors and 6,211,103 visitors, a daily 
average of 36,325. It cost $2,300,000, and the receipts were $2,040,000. 

liMW.— The fourth was in Paris in 1867. It covered 37 acres and continued 217 davs. 
The exhibitors numnered 50,236 and the visitors 10,200,000 ; 47,470 daily. The cost was 
$1,000,000; the receipts were $2,100,000. 

1873.— The fifth was held in Vienna in 1873. The buildings covered 40 acres and 
were occupied by 42,000 exhibitors. There were 7,254,687 admissions during 186 dajs, an 
average of 39,003 per day. The cost was $11,000,000 ; the receipts were $1,030,000. 

1876.— The Centennial exposition at Philadelphia in 1876 was the sixth. The buildings 
covered 60 acres; there were 60.000 exhibitors and 9,910,996 admissions, a dailv average of 
62,323. The cost is stated at $8,500,000; the receipts are said to have been $3,800,000. 

1878.— The seventh exposition was in Paris in 1878. The buildings covered 60 acres, 
and the exhibitors numbered 32,000. There were 13,000,000 admissions during 194 days, a 
daily average of 67,010. The official report makes no mention of cost or expenses, 
though it is believed the enterprise did not pay. 

1889.— The eighth was at Paris in 1889. The buildings covered 75 acres and 
were occupied by 60,000 exhibitors. The exposition remained open 183 days and was 
attended by the enormous number of 32,354,111 persons, a daily average of 181,170. The 
cost was $11,000,000 ; the receipts were $8,380,000. 

1893.— The ninth, known as the World's Columbian Exposition, was held at Chicago 
May 1 to October 30, 1893. It occupied 666 acres. The principal buildings, their dimensions 
and cost, were as follows : 



Cost. 
$670,500 



Buildings. Size in feet. 
Art Galleries 320x500 I 

Annexes (2) 136x2201" 

Fisheries 162.1x361.1 1 

Annexes (2) 135 diameter ) 

Man u f actu res 787x1.687 1,600,750 

Agriculture 500x800 ) 

Annex 312x550.5 ( 

Machinery 494x842 { 

Annex ...490x551 > 

Machine shop and boiler 

house 86x1,103.6 

Administrat ion 262x262 

Electricity 345x690 

Mines 350x700 

Transport at ion 256x960 

Annex (average) 435x850 

Horticulture 250.8x997.8 

Woman's 198.8x398 

Forestry 208x528 

Leather 150x625 

Dairy 94.1x199.8 



224,750 
,600,750 
691,500 

1,050,750 

75,000 
436.500 
413,500 
266,500 
■ 369,000 

287.000 
138,000 

90,250 
100,000 

30,000 



Buildings. Size in feet. Cost. 

Sawmill 60x100 35,000 

Stock Pavilion 265x960 125,000 

Stock sheds 210,000 

Thirty-three other buildings- 
Music Hall, Choral Hall, Indian 
School, Casino, Assembly Hall, 
Merchant Tailors', "La Rabida," 
Powerhouse, Greenhouse, etc., 

etc 1,203,000 



U. S. Government 351x421 

Battleship 69.25x348 

Illinois State 160x450 

State and foreign buildings (ap- 
proximate) 

Midway Plaisance buildings (ap- 
proximate) 



$8,017,000 
400,1 00 
100,000 
250,000 

2,000,000 



500,000 



$12,267,000 



There were thirty-eight separate State buildings on the grounds. The appropria- 
tions for State buildings or State exhibits were as follows: A lahama, $.'{8.(00: Arizona, 
$30,000 ; Arkansas, $55,000; California, $550,000 : Colorado. $167,000; Connecticut. $75,000 ; 
Delaware, $20,000; Florida, $50,000; Georgia, $100,000; Idaho. $MH).0o<); Illinois, $koo.0OO; 
Indiana, $135 000; Iowa, $130,0(10; Kansas, $Mi5,000; Kentucky. *175,UI0; Louis ana, $36,000; 
Maine, $57,000; Maryland, $60,000; Massachusetts, $175,000; Michigan, $275,000; Minnesota. 
$150000; Mississippi, $25,000; Missouri, $150,000; Montana, $100,(00; Nebraska. $85,000; 
Nevada. $10,000; New Hampshire, $25,000; New Jersey, $130,000 ; New Mexico, $35,000 ; 
New York, $600 000; North Carolina, $45,000; North Dakota, $70.000 ; Ohio. $200,000; 
Oklahoma, $17,500 ; Oregon, $60,000; Pennsylvania, $360,000 ; Rhode Island, $57,500; South 
Carolina, $50,000; South Dakota, $85,000; Tennessee, $25,000; Texas, $40,000 : Utah, 
$50 600; Vermont, $39,750; Virginia, $75,000; Washington. $100.000 ; West Virginia, 
$40,000; Wisconsin. $212.()o0; Wyoming, $W,000. Total, $0,000,350. 

On December 24th, 1890, President Harrison proclaimed the Exposition to the world, 
and invited foreign powers to participate, In rerponno to this invitation the following 
Appropriations were made by the Various foreign governmental Argentine Republic, 



76 



DATES OF COUNTERFEIT COINS. 



World's Fairs.— Continued. 

$100,000; Austria, $102,300; Belgium, $57,000; Barbados, $5,840; Brazil, $600,000; British 
Guiana, $25,000; British Honduras, $7,500; Canada, $100,000; Cape Colony, $50,000 
Ceylon, $65300 ; Colombia, $100,000; Costa Rica, $150,000; Cuba, $25,000; Danish West 
Indies, $1,200 ; Denmark, $67,000; Dutch Guiana, $10,000; Dutch West Indies, $5,000 
Ecuador, $125,000 ; France, $733,000 ; Germany, $800,000; Great Britain, $291,000 ; Greece 
$60,000; Gautemala, $200,000; Hawaii, $40,000; Hay ti, $25,000 ; Honduras, $20,000 ; Indi 
$30,000; Jamaica, $24,300; Japan, $630,000; Leeward Islands, $6,000; Liberia, $7,000; 
Mexico, -^50,000; Morocco, $150,000; New South Wales, $243,325; Netherlands, $100,000; 
New Zealand, $27,500; Nicaragua, $31,000; Norway, $56,280; Orange Free State, $7,5U0 ; 
Paraguay, $100,000; Peru, $140,000; Russia, $46,320 ; Salvador, $12,500; San Domingo, 
$25,000 ; Spain, $200.000 ; Sweden, $108,000 ; Trinidad, $15,000 ; Turkey, $17,466 ; Uruguay, 
$24,000. Total, $5,816,531. 

The total attendance for each month, including paid admissions and free passes, was 
as follows: May, 1,531.984 ; June, 3,577,834 ; July, 3,977,502; August, 4,687,708 ; September, 
5,808,942 ; October, 7,945,430. Total, 27.529.400. 

The principal days of the Exposition, and the paid admissions upon each were as 
follows : 



May 1 . Opening Day 128.935 

May 30. Decoration Day 115,578 

June 8. Infanta Eulalie Day 135,281 

June 15. Germany's Day 165,069 

June 17. Massachusetts Day 148 994 

July 4. United States Day 283,273 

July 20. Sweden's Day 129,873 

August 12 Bohemia's Day 151,971 

August 15 Rajah Rajagan Day 123,530 

August 18. Austria's Day 123,428 

August 19. Great Britain's Day ....168,861 

August 24. Illinois Day 243,051 

August 26 Machinery Day .- 168.036 

September 2. Roman Catholics' Day.148,560 
September 4. New York State Day . 160,883 

September 6. Wisconsin Day 175,409 

September 7. Pennsylvania and Bra- 
zil Day 203.460 

September8. Cymrodorian Day — 180,746 

September 9. California Day 231,522 

September 11. Kansas Day ..160,128 

Septembers. Maryland Day 167,108 

September 13. Michigan Day 160.221 

September 14. Ohio Day 198,770 

September 15. Vermont and Costa 
Rica Day 157,737 



September 16. 
September 19. 
September 20. 
September 21. 
September 23. 
September 26. 
September 27. 
September 30. 



Texas Day 202,376 

Fishermen's Day 174,905 

Iowa Day 180,552 

Sportsmen's Day.... 199,174 
Knights of Honor Day 215,643 
Odd Fellows' Day... .195,210 

Indiana Day 196,423 

Ireland's Day 108,885 



October 5. Rhode Island Day 180,404 

October 7. Poland's Day 222,176 

October 9. Chicago Day 716,881 

October 10. North Dakota and Fire- 
men's Day 309,294 

October 11. Connecticut Day 309,277 

October 12. Italian and Trainmen's 

Day 278.878 

October 13. Minnesota Day 221,607 

October 21. New York City Day 298,9:.8 

October 24. Ma ty Washington Day..243,178 
October 25. Marine Transportation 

Day 252,618 

October27- Coal, Grain and Lumber 

Dealers' Day 250,583 

October 28. Reunion of Cities Day..240,732 
October tO. Closing Day 210,622 



To Detect Counterfeit floney. 

The following simple rules, laid down by Bank Note Examiner George R. Baker, 
will be found of service in the detection of counte* feits : 

1. Examine the form and features of all human figures; if graceful and features 
distinct, examine the drapery. Notice whether the folds lie naturally, and observe 
whether the fine strands of the hair are plain and distinct. 

2- Examine the lettering. In a genuine bill it is absolutely perfect. There has 
never been a counterfeit put out but was more or less defective in the lettering. 

3 Counterfeiters rarely, if ever, get the imprint or engraver's name correct The 
shading in the bHckground of the vignette and over and around the letters forming the 
name of the bank, on a good bill, is even and perfect, on a counterfeit it is uneven and 

impel j ^ wor ] c around the figures of the denomination should be of the same 
character as the ornamental work surrounding it. 

5. Never take a bill deficient in any of these points. 

Dates of Counterfeit Coins. 



Double Eagle, $20.-1850, '51, '80, '84. 
Eagle. SIO.-Exteneivelv counterfeited prior 
to 1805 ; '01 '02, '10, '41, '47, "40, '52, '55, '58, '61, 
'71, '75, 'T9, '80, '81. Hh If- Eagle, $5.— 
1800, '03, '21. '37. '3«, '30, '43. '44, '45, '47, 
'48, '51, '53, '55, '56, '57, '58,' 60, '61, '62, 
'69, '72, '75. '80. '81, '82, '85. Three-dollar 
Piece.— Extensively counterfeited. Quarter 



Eagle, $2.50.-1843, '44, '45, '46, '51, '52, '53, '54, 
'55, '57, '58. '61, '62. Gold Dollar. -185L 
'52. '53, '54, '56, '57, '60, '61. Standard Silvef 
Dollar.— Various dates up to 1873, and all 
dates since 1878. Silver half-dollar.— A j 
dates counterfeited. Latest issues mosj 
deceptive. Silver quarter-dollar.— Afl 
dates counterfeited. 



Public Parks in Leading Cities. 



The following table contains the latest facts for 23 cities of the United States and 13 
uropean cities, upon the relation of public parks to population, city area and death 
tes. The figures are official, and were furnished by the city officials. 



















Death Rate 


Cities. 


Estimated 
Population, 
1894. 


Area of Citv 
Miles. 


Number of 
Parks. 


Total Ares 
Pariis, 
Acres. 


c3 

• ~ - 


Per cent. 
City Area ii 
Parks. 


Population 
to One Acr 
of Park. 


per 1,0 

CO 

(a 

<3 


JO, 1893. 
a 

— c.£ 




110,000 


8.00 


2 


300.00 


150 00 


5.8 


367 


19.03 


8.28 


iltiraore, Md — 
ooklyn, N. Y — 


503,000 


31.54 


a 26 


911.2) 


35.05 


4 5 


552 


20.99 


7.92 


1,003,781 


26 46 


b 16 


631.00 


45.69 


3 7 


1,591 


21.20 


8.80 


iffalo, N. Y 


300,000 


39.04 


c 5 


d 900.00 


180 00 


3.6 


333 


19.03 


8.54 


icago, 111 


1,600,000 


186.50 


25 


2,148.19 


85.92 


1.8 


745 


16.93 


7.72 


icinnati, Ohio ... 


325,000 


24.25 


6 


390.25 


65.04 


2.5 


833 


18.74 


6.60 


jveland, Ohio .... 


330,000 


6 27.27 


9 


213.13 


23.68 


1.2 


1,549 


18 15 


7.85 


;nver, Colo 


150,000 


43.60 


8 


510.00 


63.75 


1.8 


294 


13.87 




itroit, Mich 


265,000 


29 00 


19 


884.38 


46.55 


4.8 


300 


18.92 


4.85 


dianapolis, Ind .. 


120,000 


15.00 


/ 5 


116.00 


23 20 


1.2 


1,034 


16.56 


5.06 


uisville, Ky 


200,000 


14.30 


9 


1,079.18 


119 91 


11.8 


185 


16 33 


4.96 


lwaukee, Wis 


265,(00 


21.04 


7 


402.00 


57.43 


3.0 


659 


17.15 


8.87 


nneapolis, Minn. 


200,000 


55 67 


g 47 


1,552.00 


33.02 


4.3 


129 


9.93 


3.66 


iwark, N. J 


200,000 


17.77 


h 14 


80.00 


5.71 


0.8 


2,500 


24 53 


10.32 


w York, N. Y ... 


1,890,000 


38.90 


i 49 


312.02 


63 67 


12.5 


606 


23.52 


4.63 




160,000 


24.75 


7 


540.00 


77.14 


3.4 


296 


8.60 


3.60 


iladelphia, Pa . .. 


1,170,000 


129.39 


40 


3,175.00 


79.38 


3.9 


306 


21 20 


7.79 




260,000 


38.20 


2 


800.00 


400.00 


3.3 


325 


22.35 


9.65 


Dvidence, R. I .. 


153,000 


16.25 


j 19 


484-19 


30.26 


4.6 


316 


20 92 


6 92 


Chester. N. Y — 


150,000 


18.36 


9 


475 00 


52.78 


4.0 


316 


16.22 


4 63 


1 Francisco, Cal. 


335,0 0 


42.20 


24 


1,190.00 


49.58 


4.4 


281 


18 36 


4 78 




501,000 


61.37 


21 


2,180 00 


103.81 


5.5 


229 


20.80 


6.82 


ishington, D. C 


230,000 


9.55 


k 331 


413 52 


1.25 


6.8 


556 


22.64 


8.28 


aens, G reece .... 


150,000 


I 3.54 


2 


108.72 


54.36 


4.8 


1,380 


16-21 


7.01 


rlin, Germany... 


1,698,321 


24.86 


83 


1,263.10 


15.22 


7.9 


1,345 


21.56 




mingham, Eng . 


487,897 


19 85 


n 13 


264.00 


20.31 


2 1 


1,840 


21 50 


m 


jssels, Belgium. 


486.664 


34.51 


11 


395.36 


35.94 


1.8 


1,231 


20.50 


7.50 


jenhagen, Den.. 


•341,000 


8.69 


4 


82.37 


20.59 


1.5 


4,140 


20.01 




blin, Ireland 


349 594 


39.00 


o 2 


1,900.00 


950.00 


7.6 


184 


26.90 


Q 


nburgh, Scotl'd. 


270,588 


9.63 


r 15 


1,280.00 


85.33 


20.8 


211 


19.70 




sgow, Scotland. 


677,883 


18.53 


t 30 


612 00 


20.40 


4.1 


1,108 


22.90 


s 


mburg^erma'y 


595,000 


23.39 


u 11 


249 57 


22.69 


1.7 


1,983 


20.00 




erpool, Engiand 


517,891 


8.14 


v 20 


743.00 


37.15 


14.3 


697 


27.30 


11.83 


idon, England.. 
3COW, Russia — 


4,349,166 


108 71 


150 


5,000.00 


33-33 


7.2 


860 


21.00 


7.87 


w 941,800 


x 27.87 


V 18 


301.56 


16.75 


1.7 


3,123 


25.50 


10.35 


ckholm, Sweden 


252,937 


12.04 


33 


468.67 


14.20 


6.1 


540 


20.37 


z 



a. Includes 6 parks of 857*4 acres, and 20 squares of 60 acres, b. This does not in- 

0 5e the Coney Island Concourse, 70 acres, and the Parade Ground, 40 acres, recently 
h ught within the city limits ; nor the Ocean Parkway, 53^ miles long, and the Eastern 
f kway, 2^ miles long, each road being 210 feet wide. The area of the city given is 
t old area before the annexation, c. " Besides a number of places." d. "Including 
p k approaches." e. ** Cleveland has recently purchased six parcels of land for parks, 
a regating about 700 acres." /. The street-car company has a park of 166 acres near 

1 city. Armstrong Park, 156 acres, lies near the city. g. " Several of these are very 
I 11. About 18 fair-sized parks." h. "Mostly very small." i. Pelham Park (1,700 
a is) and one-half of Uronx Park (653 acres) lie outside the city limits. Total area of 
p ks belonging to the citv, 5,174 acres, j. " Thirteen small, three large " k. " Besides 
tl !e there are the Kock Creek Park, 1,500 acres, and the Zoological Park, containing 16 
1 «8. Of the 413 52 acres in the city, 341 a3 are improved." /. " Besides the two parks 
tl -e are several squares." m. Death-rate per 1,000 children under five, 77. n. ''The 
ci ioration also possesses two hills, containing 82 acres, ten miles without the city." 
o', ind several small open spaces." q. Death-rate per 1,000 children under five, 76.5. 
r. Includes Queens Park and Arboreum, under Government control, containing 
nl jt 614 and 58 acres respectively." 8. Death rate per 1,000 children under Ave, 64. 
U icludes botanic gardens, 21^j acres, and adjoining highlands of 9^6 acres, also 7 dis- 
i! 1 graveyards open to the public, with an area of 12 acres, and 11 minor open spaces, 
1 i an area of 11 acres." u. "The area of the lakes within the parks not Included in 
!l total." v. "Several are very small; largest public park, 382 acres." w. "916,500 in 
itoity; rest insuburbs." X. " Of which 1,147.20 acres contain houses, and l,25H I lucres 
n fvater." y. "The two great parks, of 272 and 64 acres, outside area of buildings. 

i tie the six largest contain, respectively, 29, 25, 22, 9^, 6^ and 5% acres." z. Death 
a per 1,000 children under one year, 170 16 ; from one to five, 87.93.— The Voice. 



78 



MANUFACTURING IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Flanufacturing in the United States.. 

(Compiled from Extra Bulletin 67, Census of 1890.) 
Average number of employes in all the manufacturing industries, except mining 
and quarrying, in the year 1890, total wages paid, average per hand, number men and 
boys above 16 employed, number of women and girls, percentage of women and girls, 
and average yearly wages. The last five columns are confined to " operatives skilled 
and unskilled." 



State. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana. 

Indian Territory 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



a • >> 


00 


to -c 

jj Jj 

u o c 


o 


Men 
Boys 
e 16. 


< 1 


O CO 33 


< * 




No. 
and 


33,821 


$12,676,029 


$374 


$110 


25,816 


86 


22,17-. 


258 


226 


78 


528 


358,12: 


678 


194 


436 


15,972 


5,749,880 


360 


124 


12,725 


83,642 


51,538,780 


616 


132 


50.569 


17.067 


12,285,734 


720 


236 


12,899 


149,939 


75,990,606 


506 


22 


83,895 


21,906 


9,892,387 


451 


33 


14,586 


23,404 


14,622 264 


624 


140 


15,860 


13,927 


6,513,068 


467 


17 


8,512 


56,383 


17,312,196 


307 


177 


40,903 


774 


324 202 


418 


66 


614 


3". 2, 198 


171,523,579 


549 


65 


213,795 


124,349 


51,749,976 


416 


68 


82,650 


175 


79,830 


456 


28 


146 




25,878,997 


437 


47 


41.418 


32,843 


16,328,485 


497 


13 


23,022 


65,579 


27,761.746 


423 


61 


39,082 


31,901 


13,159,564 


412 


72 


15,998 


75,780 


26,526,217 


350 


134 


40,714 


107,054 


41,526,832 


387 


77 


52,404 


485.182 


23<t,670 509 


494 


10 


250.871 


163,941 


66,34, 798 


405 


79 


118,303 


79,629 


38.1*9,239 


480 


4 


59,610 


15,817 


4,913,863 


310 


174 


11,679 


142,924 


76,327.907 


534 


50 


90,786 


2,696 


1.948,213 


722 


238 


2,105 


23,876 


12,984.571 


545 


61 


17,434 


620 


445.503 


718 


234 


411 


63,361 


2i.248,0f4 


383 


101 


32,762 


186.901 


96,509,703 


506 


22 


106,282 


944 


532.727 


564 


80 


793 


850,084 


466,846,642 


549 


65 


4.">3,5. r >2 


36.214 


7,830,536 


216 


268 


21,252 


1,847 


1,002 881 


543 


59 


1,331 


331,548 


158,768,8*3 


479 


5 


209,451 


195 


71,918 


370 


114 


132 


18.798 


11.535,229 


613 


129 


14,694 




OAE Tfl oon 

dUo 558 .-» .) 


492 


8 


403,607 


85,9*6 
24.662 


37,927.921 


441 


43 


46,655 


6.590,983 


26 r 


217 


15 901 


2,422 


1,< '98.418 


453 


31 


1,769 


42.759 


16,899,351 


395 


89 


30.549 


39,475 


18,586,338 


471 


13 


29,978 


4,980 


2,715,805 


545 


61 


3,363 


24,894 


10,096.549 


405 


79 


J 7,795 


59,59. 


19,644.850 


329 


155 


34,983 


20,366 


12,658 614 


621 


137 


17,181 


21.969 


8.330.997 


379 


1(5 


14,963 


132,031 


51,843.708 


392 


92 


95,224 


1,144 


878.646 


768 


284 


901 



.women 
d Girls 
ove 15. 


?r cent. 
Women 
i Girls. 


en and 
Boys 
ove 16. 


f omen 
d Girls 
10 ve 15. 


O 


a. 51 - 1 c 








o a 


- < 






1,649 


6 


$362 


$233 


0 


0 




9 


2 






382 


3 


341 


'230 


6,968 


12 


651 


306 


1,114 


8V6 


685 


422 


23,095 


21^ 


543 




292 
195 


2009 


12 


485 




2,599 


14 






715 




419 


304 


4,831 


10 


302 


221 


21 


3 


- 401 


182 


23,689 


10 


542 




292 
209 


6,847 


7 


412 




3 


2 






3,396 
1,543 


7 


433 


216 


6 


511 


210 


5,385 


10 


414 


229 


2,836 


15 


433 


213 


1 1 ,92o 


22^ 


380 


265 


14,564 


21% 


449 


221 


88,382 


26 


542 


299 


8,369 


6^ 


393 


215 


4,176 


6^ 


445 


284 


829 




317 


221 


11 ,697 




531 


266 


62 


3 


689 


564 


1,230 


$K 


540 


270 


14 


3 


800 




202 


16,326 


33 


416 




292 


23,022 


18 


554 




274 


9 


1 








107.857 


19 


*582 




'30I 


5,174 


19^ 


230 




144 


83 


6 


517 




266 


24,943 


7 
2 


488 




230 


3 

649 


4 


*603 




*362 


53,778 


12 


5U 




273 


20.940 


31 


498 




286 


•3,476 


18 


271 




192 


123 


6^ 
8 


429 




255 


2631 


387 


205 


1,592 


5 


457 


272 


417 


11 






2,145 


11 


'401 


*292 


5,947 


14 


348 


145 


455 


2y 2 


599 


388 


912 


5 


375 


184 


6,670 


6 


377 


217 


57 


6 


806 


28'^ 



Summary. Number of establishments reporting, 355,401; capital, $6,524,475,3055 
miscellaneous expenses, $630,944,058; average number employes (aggregate) 4 111 832! 
total wages, $2,282,823,265; cost of materials used, $5,158,868,353; value of products, 
$9,3(0,107,624. r 

The average number of men and boys above sixteen employed in all manufacturing 
industries in 1890 was 2.881,439; the total amount paid in wages was $1,436,317 558 and thl 
*Z e I??°X e \ h ? n t d was $498> The average number of women and girls above fifteen was 
505,546; the total wages amounted to $139,283,393, and the average per hand was $275. 



FAT, WATER AND MUSCLE PROPERTIES OF FOOD. 



79 



Comparison of Thermometric Scales. 



Freezing- point 

Vine Cul ti vation . . . 
Cotton Cultivation. 
Ice melts at 32° 



Reau- 
mur. 

0 

8 
16 



Centi- 
grade. 
0 
10 

20 



Fahr- 
enheit. 

50 



Reau- Centi- 

mur, grade. 

Blood Heat 29 3 36.7 

Hatching Eggs 32 40 

Water Boils 80 100 



Fahr- 
enheit. 
98 
104 
212 

temperature of globe, 50° ; alcohol boils, 174° ; -water boils, 212° ; 
lead melts, 594° ; brass melts, 2,233° ; iron melts, 3,47i»°. 

To convert degrees of Fahrenheit into those of Centigrade, deduct 32, multiply by 5 
and divide by 9. 

To convert degrees of Fahrenheit into those of Reaumur, deduct 32, divide by 9 and 
multiply by 4. 

To convert degrees of Reaumur into thosf of Centigrade, multiply by 5 and divide 
by 4. 

Freezing, Fusing and Boiling Points (Fahr.) 

Freezing.- Bromine freezes at — 4°; Anise and Olive Oils, 50°; Rose Oil, 60°; 
Quicksilver, — 39° ; Water, 32°. 

Fusing.— Bismuth metal fuses at 507° ; Cadmium, 592° ; Copper, 2,000° ; Gold, 2,200° ; 
Todine, 239°; Iron, 2,800° ; Lead, 617° : Potassium, 136° ; Phosphorus, 111° ; Silver, 1,870° ; 
dodium, 194° ; Steel, 3.300° ; Sulphur, 194° ; Tin, 446° ; Zinc, 770°. 

Boiling.— Alcohol boils at 174° ; Bromine, 145° ; Ether, 95° ; Nitrous Ether, 57° ; 
Iodine, 347°; Olive Oil, 600° ; Quicksilver, 662° ; Water, 212°. 



Facts About Various Articles of Food. 

The relative, value of food (beef 100) is: Oysters, 22; milk, 24; lobsters, 50; cream, 56; 
codfish, 68; eggs, 72; mutton, 87 ; venison, 8J; veal, 92; fowl, 94; herring, 100; beef, 
100; duck, 104; salmon, 108; pork, 116; butter, 124 ; cheese, 155. 

The percentage of starch in common grains, according to Prof. Yeomans is : Rice 
flour, 84 to 85; Indian meal, 77 to 80; oatmeal, 70 to 80; wheat flour, 39 to 77; rye 
flour, 50 to 61 ; buckwheat, 52 ; peas and beans, 42 to 43 ; potatoes, 13 to 15. 

The percentage of carbon in food is : Cabbage, 3 ; beer, 4 ; carrots, 5 ; milk, 7; pars- 
nips, 8; fish, 9; potatoes, 12; eggs, 16; beef, 27; bread, 27; cheese, 36; peas, 36; rice, 
38 : corn, 38; oatmeal, 42 ; sugar, 42 ; flour, 46 ; bacon, 51 ; cocoa, 69 ; butter, 79. 

One hundred pounds of raw beef . make 67 pounds of roast or 74 boiled ; mutton, 75 
roast ; fowl, 80 roast, 87 boiled ; fish, 94 boiled. 

Easy to digest : Arrowroot, asparagus,, cauliflower, baked apples, oranges, grapes, 
strawberries, peaches. 

Moderate y digestible : Apples, raspberries, bread, puddings, rhubarb, chocolate. 
Hard to digest: Nuts, pears, plums, cherries, cucumbers, onions, carrots, parsnips. 
The percentage of nutrition in food is : Haw cucumbers, 2 ; raw melons, 3 ; boiled 
turnips, 4^$; milk, 7 ; cabbage, 7}£; currants, 10; beets, 14; apples, 16; peaches, 20; 
boiled codfish, 21; roast pork, 24 ; roast poultry, 26 : raw beef, 26; raw grapes, 27 ; raw 
lums, 29; broiled mutton, 30; oatmeal porridge, 75; rye bread, 79; boiled beans, 87; 
boiled rice, 88; barley bread, 88; wheat bread, 90; corn bread, 91; boiled barley, 92; 
butter, 93 ; boiled peas, 93 ; raw oils, 94. 

Hours time required for digestion : Sweet apples, 1% ; sour apples, 2 ; boiled beans, 
; rare roast beef, 3 ; boiled beets, 3% ; fresh wheat bread, 3% ; corn bread, 3)4 ; 
nelted butter, 3% ; raw cabbage, 2 ; boiled cabbage, 4% ; old cheese, 3% ; codfish, 2 ; 
jaked custard, 2% ; domestic dujk, roasted, 4 ; wild duck, 4% ; eggs, hard boiled, 3 l / 2> 
soft, 3, f ried, 3% ; roast goose, 2; boiled lamb, 2^; milk, boiled, 2, raw, 2 l / 2 ; mutton, 
•oast, 3M, broiled or boiled, 3; oysters, raw, 3, roast, 3J4, stewed, 3% ; pork, roast, 5^i 
soiled, 3%, raw, 3; potatoes, boiled, 3 l A, baked, 2 l / 2 \ boiled rice, 1; boiled sago, 1%;, soup, 
egetable, 4, chicken, 3, oyster, 3% ; tapioca, 2 ; boiled soused tripe, 1; trout, \% ; roast 
;urkey, 2; boiled turnips, 3 l / 2 \ veal, broiled, 4, fried, 4%. 



FAT, WATER AND MUSCLE PROPERTIES OF FOOD. 



100 Parts. Water. Muscle. Fat. 

Cucumbers 97 0 1.5 1.0 

Turnips 94.4 1.1 4.0 

Cabbage 90.0 4.0 5.0 

Jow'sMilk 86.0 5.0 8.0 

Apples 84.0 5.0 10.0 

tegs, Yolks of ... . 79.0 15.0 27.0 

•otatoes 75.2 1 4 22.5 

/eal 68.5 10.1 1.65 

iggf. White of.... 53.0 17.0 .0 

,amb 50.5 11.0 35.0 

<eef 50 0 15.0 30.0 

Jbicken 46.0 18.0 32.0 



100 Parts. Water. 

Mutton 44.0 

Pork 38.5 

Beans 14.8 

Buckwheat 14.2 

Barley 14.0 



Corn 
Peas .... 
Wheat .. 

Oats 

Rico .... 
Chooso . 
Butter.. 



14.0 
14.0 
11.0 
13.6 
13.5 
10.0 



Muscle. 
12.5 
10.0 
21.0 

8 6 
15.0 
12.0 
23.4 
14.6 
17.0 

6.6 
05.0 



Fat. 
40.0 
50 0 
57.7 
75.4 
68.8 
73.0 
60.0 
fi'.t. 4 
66.4 
79.6 
19.0 
100. 



80 



Newspapers and Periodicals, 1894. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado , 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indian Territory 

Indiana 

Iowa , 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas ». 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total United States. 

British Columbia 

Manitoba 

New Brunswick 

N. W. Territories 

Nova Scotia 

Ontario 

Prince Edward Island 

Quebec 



Total Canada. 
Newfoundland 



19 



Grand Total 1,942 32 246 14,662 



16 

93 
31 
44 
6 
4 
15 
22 
3 
134 
2 
110 
60 
38 
24 
15 
16 
13 
80 
53 
37 
9 
85 
11 
33 
9 

14 

48 
7 

177 
18 
9 

140 
10 

18 
183 
16 
8 

16 
17 
54 
10 

3 
30 
18 
12 
49 

5 



1,853 
7 
2 
8 
1 
7 

43 
3 

16 



19 



14 



11 



36 



166 

3 

29 
194 
448 
230 
112 
27 
33 
103 
238 
47 
1,070 
31 
546 
814 
635 
226 
141 
106 
135 
358 
565 
438 
150 
675 
63 
559 
1 
8, 
255 
48 
1,114 
163 
118 
775 
73 
141 
9. '5 
37 
97 
224 
222 
551 
34 
63 
184 
183 
114 
450 
32 



14,077 
15 
36 
27 
12 
45 
362 
11 



683 
2 



31 



PQ a 
o 



235 



79 
70 
50 
25 
12 
57 
37 
171 
76 
51 
7 

107 
6 
34 



19 
44 
1 

554 
20 
6 

125 
5 
21 
216 
13 
8 

18 
26 
36 

8 
11 
40 
21 

8 
33 



23 



2,:,oi 

1 

11 
10 



138 ... 



70 



311 2.639 70. 



19 



197 



I'M 



The above table is from American Newspaper Directory for 1894. 



Information for Printers and Publishers. 



81 



Newspaper Measure.— The standard newspaper measure, as now in general use, 
is 13 ems pica. The unit of measurement of all sizes of types is the em quad. 

Leads.— Leads are designated as ** to pica"; a 6-to-pica lead is one-sixth of a 

pica in thickness. Leads of nonpareil thickness or greater are called slugs. 

Weight op Matter.— A quantity of solid matter 13 ems pica wide and 6 inches 
long will weigh about 3% pounds; allowing for the sorts usually remaining in case 
about i% pounds of type would be required to set that amount of ordinary solid mat- 
ter. For leaded matter the weight of type may be reduced about one-quarter. 

How to Estimate for Body Type.— To estimate quantity of type (solid) required 
to fill a given space, multiply the number of square inches by 5% (estimated weight, in 
ounces, of one square inch of matter, including sorts in case), divide the product by 16, 
and the result will be the weight of type required. 

The following table gives number of ems in a space 6 by 13 ems pica, also the average 
number of ems in 4 ounces of type. 



N umber of ems in 


Pearl. 


Agate. 


Wonp. 


Minion 


Brev. 


Bourg. 


Lg. Pr. 


am. Pi. 


Pica. 


6 x 13 ems Pica — 


449§ 
196 


368§ 
165 


313 
132 


2304 
100 


177 

88 


138| 
' 61 


1124 
51 


92 
43 


78 
35 



NEWSPAPER MEASUREMENT. 
The following table shows number ems in a line, number lines necessary to make 
1,000 ems, length in inches, and number ems in regular lengths of columns. 



13 ems Pica, 


CO . 
S3 Oi 


a . 

CO 
CO -J 


II 


Folio 
arto. 
ms in 
mn. 


Folio 
arto. 
ms in 
mn. 


Folio 
arto. 
ms in 
mn. 


Folio 
arto. 
ms in 
mn. 


Folio. 
iCol. 


Folio, 
l Col. 


width of 
Standard Column. 






CO 

M .s 




. 3a s 

oc .-3 


o 


oC . © 


o a 








% 












o S 


§1 












m oft 






oo W 


o W 




28J 


354 




5,040 


6,505 


7,180 


7,900 


8,630 


9,310 




26 


384 


4 


4,325 


5,615 


6,160 


6,785 


7,410 


8,020 




22£ 


45 


4| 


3,175 


4,115 


4,515 


4,970 


5,440 


5,885 




19^ 


514 


5§ 


2,465 


3,200 


3,510 


3,865 


4,220 


4,575 




m 


57§ 


n 


1,950 


2,525 


2,770 


3,050 


3,330 


3,615 




15* 


644 


9 


1,610 


2,085 


2,290 


2,520 


2,755 


2,970 



LEADS FOR NEWSPAPERS. 
Table showing number of leads 13 ems pica long, in one pound, number required to 
lead 1,000 ems of matter, and number of leads in a single column of matter. 



Size of Body Type to be 
leaded with 6-to-pica leads. 


No. Leads 
to Pound. 


No. Leads 
1,000 Ems. 


4 Col. Fol. 
or Quarto. 

Leads in 
| Column. 


1 5 Col. Fol. 
| or Quarto, 
i Leads in 
1 Column. 


1 6 Col. Fol. 
1 or Quarto. 

Leads in 
1 Column. 


1 7 Col. Fol. 
1 or Quarto. 

Leads in 
1 Column. 


1 8 Col. Fol. 
Leads in 
Column. 


1 9 Col. Fol. 
Leads in 
Column. 




60 


26 


132 


170 


185 


206 


224 


241 




60 
60 


29 


125 


162 


179 


197 


215 


233 




34 


108 


140 


154 


169 


185 


201 




60 


40 


99 


128 


141 


155 


169 


183 




60 


45 


88 


114 


125 


138 


150 


163 




60 


52 


84 


108 


119 


181 


143 


1SI 



BOOK WORK MEASUREMENT. 
Table showing number of ems to line, number of lines in 1,000 ems of matter, and 
space in inches filled by 1,000 ems of matter. 



Size of Type. 



Nonpareil — 

Brevier 

Long Primer 
Small Pica .... 
Pica 



21 Ems Pica. 



S 2 



42 
31} 

g| 

23 
21 



2a 


Qj -n 


CO . 


a a 


11 


- <S3 


% 


C W 


w i 


SB 




|3 


24 


2 


46 


321 


3i 


35 


394 


1 


278 


434 




25 


48 


8 


23 



23 Ems Pica. 



c8 

21? 

28j 

36 

40 

434 



0) en 
II 

cW 

J 



25 Ems Pica. 


<» . 


fl- 


11 


ii 


aw 








3 




fc3 




60 


20 




374 


264 


? 


30 


334 




27* 


;v.i 




25 


40 





COPYRIGHT LAW. 



Copyright Law. 



Directions for Securing Copyrights Under the Revised Acts of Congress, 
including tde provisions for foreign copyright, by act of march 3, 1891. 

A printed copy of the title of the book, map, chart, dramatic or musical composi- 
tion, engraving, cut, print, photograph or chromo, or a description of the painting, 
drawing, statue, statuary or model or design for a work of the tine arts, for which 
copyright is desired, must be delivered to the Librarian of Congress or deposited in the 
mail, within the United States, prepaid, addressed Librarian of Congress, Washington, 
D. C. This must be done on or before day of publication in this or any foreign country. 

The printed title required may be a copy of the title page of such publications as 
have title pages. In other cases the title must be printed expressly for copyright entry, 
with name of claimant of copyright. The style of type is immaterial, and the print of 
a typewriter will be accepted. But a separate title is required for each entry, and each 
t itle must be printed on paper as large as commercial note. The title of a periodical 
must include the date and number; and each number of the periodical requires a 
separate entry or copyright* 

Copyright Fees.— The legal fee for recording each copyright claim is 50 cents, and 
for a copy of this record (or certificate of copyright under seal of the office) an 
additional fee of 50 cents is required, making $1, if certificate is wanted, which will be 
mailed as soon as reached in the records. In the case of publications which are the 
production of persons not citizens or residents of the United States, the fee for 
recording title is $1, and 50 cents additional for a copy of the record. Certificates 
covering more than one entry in one certificate are not issued. Not later than the day 
of publication in this country or abroad, two complete copies of the best edition of 
each book or other article must be delivered, or deposited in the mail within the United 
States, addressed Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C, to perfect the copyright. 
The freight or postage must be prepaid, or the publication inclosed in parcels covered 
by printed Penalty Labels, furnished by the Librarian, in which case they will come 
free by mail (not express), without limit of weight, according to rulings of the Post 
Office Department. Books must be printed from type set or plates made in the United 
States; photographs from negatives made in the United States; chromos and 
lithographs from drawings on stone or transfers therefrom made in the United States. 
Without the deposit of copies above required the copyright is void, and a penalty of $25 
is incurred. No copy is required to be deposited elsewhere. The law requires one copy 
of each new edition, wherein any substantial changes are made, to be deposited witn 
the Librarian of Congress. 

Notice of Copyright to be Given by Imprint.— No copyright is valid unless 
notice is given by inserting in every copy published, on the title page or the page 
following, if it be a book; or if a map, chart, musical composition, print, cut 
engraving, photograph, painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, or model or design 
intended to be perfected as a work of the fine arts, by inscribing on some portion 
thereof, or on the substance on which the same is mounted, the following words viz S 

"■Entered according to act of Congress, in the year , by ,in the office of the 

Librarian of Congress, at Washington," or at the option of the person entering the 

copyright, the words: " Copyright, 18—, by .!» The law imposes a penalty of $100 

upon any person who has not obtained copyright who shall insert the notice, "Entered 
according to act of Congress," or "Copyright,''' etc., or words of the same import in or 
upon any book or other article. 

Translations and Dramas.— The copyright law secures to authors and their 
assigns the exclusive right to translate or to dramatize any of their works ; no notice 
or record is required to enforce this right. 

Duration of Copyright and Renewals.— The original term of copyright runs 
for twenty-eight years. Within six months before the end of that time, the author or 
designer, or his widow or children, may secure a renewal for the further term of four- 
teen years, making forty-two years in all. Applications for renewal must be accom- 
panied by a printe 1 title and fee ; and by explicit statement of ownership, in the case 
of the author, or of relationship, in the case of his heirs, and must state definitelv the 
date and place of entry of the original copyright. Within two months from date of 
renewal the record thereof must be advertised in ail American newspaper for four 
weeks* 

Time of Publication— The time of publication is not limited by anv law or 
regulation, but the courts have held that it should take place within a reasonable time 
A copyright may be secured for a projected as well as for a completed work But the 
law provides for no caveat, or notice of interference— only for actual entrv of title 

Assignments.— Copyrights are assignable by any instrument of writina- s'nph 
assignment to be valid, is to be recorded in the office of the Librarian of Cone-rpR* 
within sixty days from execution. The fee for this record and certificate is one dol lar 
and for a certified copy of any record of assignment one d< llar. A copy of the record 
(or duplicate) of any copyright entry will be furnished, under seal of the offioe a r th« 
rate of fifty cents each. Bomce,at tae 

Serials or Separate Publications.— In the case of books published in more than 
one volume, or of periodicals published in numbers, or of engravings photograuhs or 
other articles published with variations, a copyright must be entered for each volume 



INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT. 83 



or part of a book, or number of a periodical, or variety, as to style, title or inscription, 
of any other article. To complete the copyright on a book published serially in a 
periodical, two copies of each serial part as well as of the complete work (if published 
separately), should be deposited. 

Copyright for Works of Art. — To secure copyright for a painting - , statue or 
model or design intended to be perfected as a work of the fine arts, a definite title and 
description must accompany the application for copyright, and a photograph of the 
same, as large as " cabinet size," mailed to the Librarian of Congress not later than the 
day of publication of the work or design. The fine arts, for copyright purposes, include 
only painting and sculpture, and articles of merely ornamental and decorative art 
should be sent to the Patent Office, as subjects for Design Patents. 

No Labels or Names Copyright.— Copyrights cannot be granted upon Trade- 
Marks, nor upon names of companies, libraries or articles, nor upon an idea or device, 
nor upon prints or Labels intended to be used for any article of manufacture. If 
protection for such names or labels is desired, application must be made to the Patent 
Office, where they are registered, if admitted, at a fee of $6 for labels and $25 for trade 
marks 

Foreign or International Copyright.— The provisions as to copyright entry in 
the United States by foreign authors, etc., by act of Congress approved March 3, 1891. 
(which took effect July 1, 1891), are the same as the foregoing, except as to productions 
of persons not citizens or residents, which must cover return postages, and are $1 for 
entry, or $1.50 for entry and certificate of entry (equivalent to 4s. 5d. or 6s. 7d.) All 
publications must be delivered to the Librarian at Washington free of charge. The free 
penalty labels cannot be used outside of the United States. The right of citizens or 
subjects of a foreign nation to copyright in the United States extends by Presidential 
proclamations to Great Britain, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Portugal, 
Denmark, and Italy. Every applicant for a copyright should state distinctly the lull 
name and residence of the claimant, and whether the right is claimed as author, designer 
or proprietor. No affidavit or witness to the application is required. 



CONDITIONS AS TO COPYRIGHT FOR AMERICAN CITIZENS IN 
FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 
International copyright arrangements between the United States and foreign coun- 
tries now include Great Britain and her possessions, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, 
Portugal and Switzerland. 

For an American citizen to secure copyright in Great Britain three conditions are 
necessary: 

1st. The title should be entered at Stationers' Hall, London, the fee for which is 5 
shillings sterling, and 5 shillings additional it a certified copy of entry is required. 

2d. The work must be published in Great Britain or in her dominions simultaneously 
with its publication in the United States. 

3d. Five c< pies of the publication are required— one for the British Museum and 
four on demand of the Company of Stationers for four other libraries. 

Copyright may be secured in France by a foreigner by depositing two copies of the 
publication at the Ministry of the Interior at Paris No fee nor entry of title required 

To secure copyright in Belgium a foreigner may register his work at the Department 
of Agriculture, Industry and Public Works, at Brussels. 

In Switzerland, register of title at the Department of Commerce and Industry at 
Berne is optional, not obligatory, fee two francs. If registered, deposit of one copy is 
required. 

The Librarian of Congress cannot take charge of any copyright entries or arrange- 
ments with other countries. 



INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT. 

The Librarian of Congress makes the following statement to inquiries as to remedies 
for infringement of copyright: 

No question concerning the validity of a copyright can be determined under our 
laws by any other authority than a United States Court. 

This office has no discretion or authority to refuse any application for a copyright 
coming within the provisions of the law, and all questions as to priority or infringement 
are purely judicial questions, with which the undersigned has nothing to do. A certificate 
of copyright is i>rima facie evidence of an exclusive title, and is highly valuable as the 
foundation of a legal claim to the property involved in the application. 

As no claim to exclusive property in the contents of a printed book or other article 
can be enforced under the common law. Congress has very properly provided the 
guarantees of such proper ty which are embodied in the- " Act to revise, consolidate and 
amend the statutes relating to patents and copyriirhfs," approved July 8, 187<>. If you 
obtain a copyright under the provisions of this act, you can claim damages from 
any person infringing your rights by printing or selling thosamo article; hut upon all 
questions as to what constitutes an infringement, or what measuro of damages can bv 
recovered, all parties arc left to their proper remedy In the courts of the United States. 



84 



GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES. 



Total Expenditures of the United States from March 4, 1789, 

to June 30, 1894. 



Year. 


War. 


Navy. 


Indians. 


Pensions. 


1789-' 91 


$632,804.03 




$27,000.00 


$175,813.88 


1792 


1,100,702.09 




13,648.85 


109,243.15 


1793 


1,130,249.08 




27,282.83 


80,087.81 


1794 


2,639,097.59 


61,408.97 


13,042.46 


81,399.24 


1795 


2,480,910.13 


410,562.03 


23,475.68 


68,673.22 


1796 


1,260,263.84 


274,784.04 


113,563.98 


100,843.71 


1797 


1,039,402.46 


382,631.89 


62,396.58 


92,256.97 


1798 


2,009,522.30 


1,381,347.76 


16,470.09 


104,845.33 


1799 


2,466,946.98 


2,858,081.84 


20,302.19 


95,444.03 


1800 


2,560,878.77 


3,448,716.03 


31.22 


64,130.73 


1801 


1,672,944.08 


2,111,424.00 


9,000.00 


73,533 37 


1802 


1,179,148.25 


915,561.87 


94,000.00 


85,440.39 


1803 


822,055.85 


1,215,230.53 


60,000.00 


62,902.10 


1804 


875,423.93 


1,189,832.75 


116,500.00 


80,0.^2.80 


1805 


712,781.28 


1,597,500.00 


196,500.00 


81,854.59 


1806 


1,224,355.38 


1,649,641.44 


234,200.00 


81,875.53 


1807 


1,288,685.91 


1,722,064.47 


205,425.00 


70,500.00 


1808 


2,900,834.40 


1,884,067.80 


213,575.00 


82,576.04 


1809 


3,345,772.17 


2,427,758.80 


337,503.84 


87,833 54 


1810 


2,294,323.94 


1,654.244.20 


177,625.00 


83,744.16 


1811 


2,032,828.19 


1,965,566.39 


151,875.00 


75,043.88 


1812 


11,817,798.24 


3,959,365.15 


277,845.00 


91,402.10 


1813 


19,652,013.02 


6,446,600.10 


167,358.28 


86,989.91 


1814 


20,350,806.86 


7,311,290 60 


167,394.86 


90,164.36 


1815 


14,794,294.22 


8,660,000.25 


530,750.00 


69,656.06 


1816 


16,012,096.80 


3,908,278.30 


274,512.16 


188,804.15 


1817 


8,004,236.53 


3,314,598.49 


319.463.71 


297,374.43 


1818 


5,622,715.10 


2,953,695.00 


505,704.27 


890,719.90 


1319 


6.506,300.37 


3,847,640 42 


463,181.39 


2,415,939.85 


1820 


2,640,392.31 
4,461,291.78 


4,387,990.00 


315,750.01 


3,208,376.31 


1821 


3,319,24306 


477,005.44 


242,817.25 


1822 


3,111,981.48 


2,224,458.98 


575,007.41 


1,948.199.40 


1823 


3,096,924.43 


2,503,765.83 


380,781.82 


1,780,588.52 


1824 


3,340,939.85 


2,904,581.56 


429,987.90 


1,499,326.59 


1825 


3,659,914.18 


3,049,083 86 


724,106.44 


1,308,810.57 


1826 


3,943,194.37 


4,218,902.45 


743,447.83 


1,556,593.83 


1827 


3,948,977.88 


4,263,877.45 


750,624.88 


976,138.86 


1828 


4,145,544.56 


3,918,786.44 


705,084.24 


850,573.57 


1829 


4,724.291.07 


3,308,745.47 


576,344.74 


949,594.47 


1830 


4,767,128.88 


3,239,428.63 


622,262.47 


1,363,297.31 


1831 


4,841,835.55 


3,856,183.07 


930,738.04 


1,170 665.14 


1832 


5,446,034.88 


3,956,370.29 


1,352,419.75 


1,184,422.40 


1833 


6,704,019.10 


3,901,356.75 


1,802,980.93 


4,589,152.40 


1834 


5.696,189.38 


3,956.260.42 


1.003,953.20 


3,364.285.30 


1835 


5,759,156.89 


3,864.939.06 


1,706,444.48 ' 


1,954,711.32 


1836 


11,747,345.25 


5,807,718.23 


5,037,022.88 


2,882, -;97.P6 


1837 


13,682,730.80 


6,646,911.53 


4,348,036.19 


2,672,162.45 


1838 


12,897,224.16 


6,131,580.53 


5.504,191.34 


2,156,057.29 


1839 


8,916,995.80 


6,182,294.25 


2,528,917.28 


3,142,750.51 


1840 


7,095,267.23 


6,113,896.89 


2,331,794.86 


2,603,562.17 


J841 


8,801,610.24 


6,001,076.97 


2,514.837.12 


2,388,434.51 
1,378,931.33 


1842 


6,610.438.02 


8,397,242.95 


1,199,099.68 


1843 


<S,yUO,Orf l.VO 


1 7"?7 711 r.Q 


ot o,3 n. 00 


839,041.12 


1844 


5,218,183.66 


6,498,199.11 


1,256,532.39 


2,032,008.99 


1815 


5,746,291.28 


6,297,177.89 


1,539,351.35 


2,400.788.11 


1846 


10,413.370.58 


6,455.013.92 


1,027.693.64 


1,811,097.56 


1847 


35.840,030.33 


7,900,635.76 


1,430,411.30 


1,744,883.63 
1,227.496.48 
1,328,867.64 
1,866,886.02 
2,293,377.22 
2,401,858.78 
1,756,306.20 
1,232,665.00 


1848 


27.688,334.21 


9,408.476.02 


1.252,296.81 


1849 


14,558.473.26 


9,786.705.92 


1,374,161.55 


1850 


9,687.024.58 


7,904,724.66 


1,663,591.47 


1851 


12,161.965.11 


8.880.581.38 


2,829,801.77 


1852 


8,521,506.19 


8,918.842.10 


3,043,576.04 


1853 


9,910,498.49 


11,067,789.53 


3,880,494.12 


1854 


11,722,282.87 


• 10,790,096.32 


1,550,339.55 





GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES. 85 


Total Expenditures of the United States from March 4, 1789, 






to June 30, 1894. 






Miscellane- 
ous. 


Net ordinary 
expenditures. 


Premium. 


Interest. 


Total expendi- 
tures, includ- 
ing premium. 


Year. 


$1,083,971.61 
4,672,664.38 
511,451.01 
750,350.74 
1,378,920.66 
801,847.58 
1,259,422.62 
1,139,524.94 
1.039,391.68 
1,337,613.22 
1,114,768.45 
1,462,929.40 
1,842,635.76 
2,191,009.43 
3,768,598.75 
2,890.137.01 
1,697,897.51 
1,423,285.61 
1,215,803.79 
1,101,144.98 
1,367.291.40 
1,683,088.21 
1,729,4*5.61 
2,208,029.70 
2,898,870.47 
2,989,741.17 
3,518,936.76 
3,835,839.51 
3,067,211.41 
2,592,021.91 
2,223.121.54 
1,967,996.24 
2.022,093.99 
7.155.308.81 
2,748,544.89 
2,600,177.79 
2,713,476.58 
3,676,052.64 
3,082,234.65 
3,237.416.04 
3,064,646.10 
4,577,141.45 
5,716,245.93 
4,404,728.95 
4,229,698.53 
5.393,279.72 
9,893,370.27 
7,160,664.76 
5,725,990.89 
5,995,398.96 
6.490.881.45 
6,775,624.61 
3,202.713.00 
5,6 5,183 86 
5.911,760.98 
6,711,283.89 

a oorr aau or. 

0,ooO,o(Jo..>.) 

5,650, 85 1.25 
12,885,334.24 
16,043,763.36 
17,888,992.18 
17 504.171.45 
•17,463,068.01 
26 672,144.88 


$1,919,589.52 
5,896,258.47 

I, 749,070.73 
3,545,299.00 
4,362,541.72 
2,551,303.15 
2,836,110.52 
4,651,710.42 
6,480,166.72 
7,411,369.97 
4,981,669.90 
3,737,079.91 
4,002,824.24 
4,452,858.91 
6,357,234.02 
6,080,209.36 
4,984,572.89 
6,504,338.85 
7,414,672.14 
5,311,082.28 
5,592,604.86 

17,829,498.70 
28,082,396.92 
30.127,686.38 
26.953,571.00 
23,373,432.58 
15,454,609.92 
13,808,673.78 
16,300,273 44 
13,134,530.57 
10,723,479.07 
9,827,643.51 
9,784,154.59 
15,330,144.71 

II, 490,459.94 
13.062,316.27 
12.653,095.65 
13,296,041.45 
12,641,210.40 
13,229,533.33 
13,864,067.90 
16.516,388.77 
22,713,755.1 1 
18.425,417.25 
17,514,950.28 
30,868,164.04 
37,243.214.24 
33,849,718.08 
20,496,948.73 
24,139.920.11 
26,196,840.29 
24,361,336.59 
11,256.508.60 
20.650.108.01 
21,895.369.61 
26.418.459.59 

»r,.:^7.454.77 
39.9.'J3.542.61 
37,165,990.1 !) 
44,054.717.60 
40,389.954.50 
44,078,156.35 
61,967,628.42 


$18,231.43 

"82,865.81 

69.713.19 
170 063.42 
420,498.64 
2,877,819.69 


$1,177,863.03 
2,373,611.28 
2,097,859.17 
2,752,523.04 
2,947,059.06 
3,239,347.68 
3,172,516.73 
2,955,875.90 
2,815,65 1. 41 
3,402,601.04 
4,411,830 06 
4,239,. 72. 16 
3,949,462.36 
4,185,048.74 
2,657.114.22 
3,368.968.26 
3,369,578.48 
2,557.074 23 
2,866.074.90 
3,163,671,09 
2,585,435.57 
2.451.272.57 
3,599,455.22 
4,593,239.04 
5,990,090.24 
7,822.923.34 
4,536,282.55 
6,209,954.03 
5,211,730 56 
5,151.004.32 
5,126,073.79 
5. 172. 788.79 
4,922,475.40 
4,943,557.93 
4,306.757.40 
3,975,542.95 
3,486,071.51 
3,098.800.60 
2,542,843.23 
1,912,574.93 
1,373,748.74 
772,561.50 
303,796.87 
202,152.98 
57,863.08 

14,996.48 
399,833.89 
174,598.08 
284,977.55 
773,549.85 
523,583.91 
i oofl 4r,«j ri 

I ,n*>,,Tii^. i»> 

1,040,458.18 
842.7213.27 
1,119,214.72 
2.3*0,765.88 
3.565.5:45.78 
3.782,393.03 
3,69(5,760.75 
4,000,25*7.80 
3.065,832.74 
8,070,926.69 


$3,097,451.55 
8,269,869.75 
3,846, 929.&0 
6,297,822.04 
7,309 600.78 
5,790,650.83 
6.008,627.25 
7,607,586.31 
9,295,818.13 
10,813,971.02 
9,393,499.96 
7,976,252.07 
7,952,286.60 
8,638,907.65 
9,014,348.84 
9,449,177.62 
8,354,151.37 
9,061,413.08 
10.280,747.04 
8,474,753.37 
8,178,040.43 
20,280,771.27 
31,681,852.14 
34,720,925.42 
32,943,661.24 
31,196,355.92 
19,990,892.47 
20,018,627.81 
21,512,004.00 
18,285,534 89 
15;849, 552.86 
15,000,432.30 
14,706,629.99 
20,2(3,702.64 
15,857,217.34 
17,037,859.22 
16,139,167.16 
16,394,842.05 
15,184,053.63 
15,142,108.26 
15,237,816.64 
17,288,950.27 
23,017,551.98 
18,627,570.23 
17,572,813.36 
30,868,164.04 
37,243,214.24 
33.804,714.50 
26.896,782.62 
24,314,518.19 
26,481,817.84 
25,134.886.44 
11,780,092.51 
22,483,560.14 
22.954,059.22 
27.261.182.86 
54,920,784.09 
47,618,220.65 
43,581,944.20 
40,948,3*3. 12 
47,821,191.60 
44,560,315.78 
48,164,487.73 
67,916,273.80 


1789-'91 
1792 
1793 
1794 
1795 
1796 
3797 
1798 
1799 
"1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1813 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1H36 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1863 
1864 



86 



GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES. 



Total Expenditures of the United States from March 4, 1789, 
to June 30, 1894.— Continued. 



Year. 


War. 


Navy. 


Indians. 


Pensions. 





1855 




$14,648,074.07 


$13,327,095.11 


$2,772,990.78 


$1,477,612.33 


1856 


16 963,160.51 


14,074,834.64 


2,644,263.97 


1,296,229.65 


1857 


19,1 9,150.87 


12,651.694 61 


4,354,418.87 


1,310,380.58 


1858 


25,679,121.63 


14,053,264.64 


4,978,266.18 


1,219.768.30 


1859 


23,154,720.53 


14.690,927.90 


3,490,534.53 


1,222,222.71 


1860 


16,472,202.72 


11,514,649.83 


2,991,121.54 


1,100,802.32 


1861 


23,001,530.67 


12,387,156.52 


2,865,481.17 


1,034,599.73 


1862 


394,368,407.36 


42,668,277.09 


2,273,223.45 


853,095.40 


1863 


599.298.600.83 


63,221,963.64 


3,154,357.11 


1,078,991.E9 


1864 


69.1,791,812.97 


85,725,994.67 


2,629,857.77 


4,983,924.41 


1865 


1,031,323.360.79 


122,612,945.29 


5,116,837.08 


16.338,811.13 


1866 


284,449,701.81 


43,324,118.52 


3,247,064.56 


15,605,352.35 


1867 


95,224.415.63 


31,034,011.04 


4,642,531.77 


20,936,551.71 


1868 


123,246,648,62 


28.775,502.72 


4,100,682.32 


23,782,386.78 


1869 


78,501,990 61 


20,000,757 97 


7,042,923.06 


28476,621.78 


1870 


57,655,675.40 


21,780,229.87 


3,407.938.15 


28,340,202.17 


1871 


35,799,991.82 


19.431,027.21 


7,426,997.44 


34.443,894.88 


1872 


35,372,157.20 


21,249,809.99 


7,061,728.82 


28,533,402.76 


1873 


46,323,138.31 


23.526,256.79 


7,951,704.88 


29359,426.86 


1874 


42,313,927.22 


30,932,587.42 


6,692,462.09 


29.038.414.66 


1875 


41,120,645.98 


21,497,626.27 


8,384,656.82 


29,4*6,216.22 


1876 


38,070,888.6* 


18,963,309.82 


5,966,558.17 


28,257,395.69 


1877 


37,082,735.90 


14,959.935.36 


5,277,007.22 


27,963,752.27 


1878 


32,154,147.85 


17.365,301.37 


4,629,280.28 


27,137,019 08 


1879 


40,425.660.73 


15, 125,; 26 84 


5,206,109.08 


35,121,482.39 


1880 


38,116,916.22 


13,536,984.7^ 


5,945,457 09 


56,777,174.44 


1881 


40,466,46055 


15,686 671.60 


6,514.161.09 


50,059,279.62 


1882 


43,570.494.19 


15,032.046 26 


9,736.747.40 


61,345,193.95 


1883 


48,911,382.93 


15,283,437.17 


7,362,590.34 


66,012,573.64 


1881 
loci 




1 1 ,A>t?£,oui .it 


ft iiXi goo on 


t ~ A£>(\ 990 no 
00,43y,/i<iO.Uo 


1885 


42,670,578.47 


16,021,079.67 


6,552,494.63 


56,102,267.49 


1886 


34,824.152.74 


13,907,887.74 


6,099,158.17 


63404,864.0 5 


1887 


38,561,025.85 


15,141,126 80 


6,194,522.69 


75,029,101.79 


1888 


38,522,436.11 


16,926,437.65 


6,249,307.87 


80,288.508.77 


1889 


44,435,270.85 


21,378,809 31 


6,892,207.78 


87,624,779.11 


1890 


44,582,838.08 


22,006.206.24 


6.708,046.67 


106,936,855.07 


1891 


48,720,065.01 


26,113,896 46 


8,527,469 01 


124,415,951.40 


1892 


46,895,456.30 


29,174,138.98 


11,150,577.67 


134,583,052.79 


1893 


49,641,773.47 


30,136,084.43 


13.345,347.27 


159,351,557.87 


1894 


54,357,600.84 


31,527,195.15 


10,286,416.64 


141,177,284.96 


Expenditures of the United States 


Government 


for Period 



before the War, during the War, and since the War. 





War. 


Navy. 


Indians. 


Pensions. 


Expenditures from March 4, 
1789, to June 30, 1861 ; 72^ 

Expenditures from June 30. 
1861, to June 30, 1865 ; 4 

Expenditures from June, 
1865, to June, 1894, 29 
years 

Total expenditures 
from 1789 to 1894, 
105^6 years 


$562,914,213.39 
2,715,782,211.95 
1,640,947,780.69 


$360,042,168.18 
314,229,180.69 
624,130.204.81 


$86,904,164.35 
13,174,276.41 
199,078,148.27 


$80,738,327.06 
23,254,822.53 
1,704,995,792.57 


$4,919,644,206.03 


$1,298,401,553.76 


$299,156,589.' 3 


$1,808,988,943.16 



GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES. 



87 



Total Expenditures of the United States from March 4, 1789, 
to June 30, 1894 Continued. 



Miscellane- 
ous. 



$24,090,425.43 

31,794,038.87 

28,565,498.77 
26,400,016.42 
23,797,544.40 
27,977,978.30 
21,327,287.69 
21,408,491.16 
23.265,965.39 
27,505,599.46 
43,047,658.01 
41.056,961.54 
51,110,223.72 
53,009,867.67 
56,474,061.53 
53,237,461.56 
60,481,916.23 
60,984,757.42 
73,328,110.06 
69,641,593.02 
71,070,702.98 
66,958.373.78 
56,252,066.60 
53,177,703.57 
65,741,555.49 
54,713,529.76 
64,416,324 71 
57,219,750.98 
68.678,022.21 
70,920,433.70 
87,494,258.38 
74,166,929.85 
85,264,825.59 
72,9*2,260.80 
80.664,064.26 
81.403,256.49 
110.048,167.49 
99.841,988.61 
103,732,799.27 
101,403,455.85 



Net ordinary 
expenditures. 



$56,316,197.72 
66,772,527.64 
66,041,143.70 
72,330,437.17 
66,355,950.07 
60,056,754.71 
62,616,055.78 
461,671,494.46 
690,010,878.56 
811,637,220.28 
1,218,439,612.30 
387,683,198.79 
202,947,733 87 
229,915,088.11 
190,493,354.95 
164,431,507.15 
157,583,827.58 
153,201,856.19 
180,488,636.90 
179,619,985.41 
171,529,848.27 
158,216,526.10 
141.535,497.35 
134,463,452 15 
161,619,933.53 
169,090,062.25 
177,142,897.63 
186,904,232.78 
206,248,006.29 
189,547,865.85 
208,840,678.64 
191,902,992.53 
220.190,602.72 
214.938,951.20 
240,995,131.31 
261,637,202.55 
317,825,549.37 
321,645,214.35 
856,213,568.31 
338,751,953.44 



Premium. 



$872,047.39 
385,372.90 
363,572.39 
574,443.08 



1,717,900.11 
58,476.51 

10,813,349.38 
7,001,151.04 
1,674,680.05 

15,996,555.60 
9,016.794.74 
6,958,266.76 
5,105,919.99 
1,395,073.55 



2,795,320.42 
1,061,248.78 



8,270,842.46 
1 7,292,3*52.65 
20,304,224.06 
10,401,220.61 



Interest. 



$2,314,464.99 
1,953,822.37 
1,593,265.23 
1,652,055.67 
2,637,649.70 
3,144,120.94 
4,034,157.30 
13,190,324.45 
24,729,846 61 
53,685,421.69 
77,397,712.00 
133,067,741.69 
143,781,591.91 
140.424,045.71 
130,694,242.80 
129,235,498.00 
125,576,565.93 
117,357,839.72 
104,750,688.44 
107,119,815.21 
103,093,544.57 
100,243,271.23 
97,124,511.58 
102,500,874.65 
105,327,949.00 
95,757,575.11 
82,508,741.18 
71,077,206.79 
59,160,131.25 
54,578,378.48 
51,386,256 47 
50,580,145.97 
47,741,577.25 
44,715,007.47 
41,001.484.29 
36,099,284.05 
37,547,135.37 
23,378,116.23 
27,264,302.18 
27,841,405.64 



Total expendi- 
tures, includ- 
ing premium 

$59,502,710.10 
69,111,722.91 
68,997,981.32 
74,556,935.92 
68,993,599.77 
63,200,875.65 
66,650,213.08 
474,761,818.91 
714,740,725.17 
865,322,641.97 
1,297,555.224.41 
520,809,416.99 
357,542,675.16 
377,340,284.86 
322,865,277.80 
309,653.560.75 
292,177,188.25 
277,517,962.67 
290,345,245.33 
287,133,873.17 
274,623,392.84 
258,459,797.33 
238,660,008.93 
236.964,326.80 
266,947,882.53 
207,042,957.78 
200,712,887.59 
257,981,439.57 
265,408,137.54 
214,126,244.33 
260,226,935.11 
242,483,138.50 
207,932, 179.07 
207.il21.801.13 
299,288,978.25 
318,040.710.66 
365,773,905.35 
345,023,330.58 
383,477.954.49 
366,593,359.08 



Year. 



1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 



Expenditures of the United States Government for Period 
before the War, during the War, and since the War. 



Miscellaneous. 


Net ordinary 
expenditures. 


Premiums. 


Interest. 


Total expendi- 
tures. 


$487,845,595.23 


$2,587,444,468.21 


$5,834,626.94 


$200,621,336.91 


$2,793,900, 132.06 


115,218,714.02 


3,181,759,205.60 


1,717,900.11 


169,003,304.75 


8,352.2180,410.46 


2,016,261,174.90 


6,215,598,349.56 


118,145,486.60 


2,390,935,018.17 


8,724,078,854.33 


$2,649,325,484.15 


$11,984,802,023.37 


$125,698,013.65 


$2,700,5-)9,659.83 


$14,870,950,096.85 



88 



GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS. 



Receipts and Expenditures of the Post Office Department from 
June 30, 1865, to June 30, 1894. 

It will be observed in the foregoing table of government expenditures that there 
is no column showing the expenditures for the postal service. This is accounted for 
from the fact that the receipts in that department have very nearly met the expendi- 
tures, and the small deficiency is included in the column headed " Miscellaneous." For 
instance, the appropriation for the year ending June 30, 1894, was $84,004,314.22, and the 
revenues of the department so nearly paid the expenses that they were only compelled 
to take from the Treasury $8,250,000. 



Year. 



1886. 
1867. 
1868. 
It69. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 



Receipts 

from 
Business. 



$14,436,986.21 
15, -297,026.87 
16,292,600.80 
18.344,510.72 
19,772,220.65 
20,037,045.42 
21,915.426.37 
22,996,741.57 
26,471,071.82 
26,791,360.59 
28,634,197.50 
27,531,555.20 
29,277 516.95 
30,041,982.86 
33.315,479.3-t 



Expendi- 
tures. 



$15,352,079.30 
19,235,483.46 
22,730,592.65 
23,698,131.50 
23,998,837.63 
24,390,104.08 
26.658,192.31 
29,084,945.67 
32.126,414.58 
33,611,309.45 
33.263,487.58 
33,486.322.44 
3U65.084.49 
33,449,899.45 
36.542,803.68 



Received 

from 
Treasury. 



$3,991,666.67 
5.696,525.00 
5,707,115.30 
4.022,140.85 
4.126,200.00 
4,933,750.00 
5,690,475.00 
5,922,433.55 
6,704,646.1(6 
5,088,583.03 
7,013,300.00 
5,307,752.82 
3.297,965.25 
3.597.717.20 



Year. 



1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887. 
1888 
1889 
1890, 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 



Receipts 

from 
Business. 



36,785,397.97 
41,876,410.15 
45,508,692.61 
43,325,958.81 
42,560,843.83 
43,948,422.95 
48,837.609.39 
52,695,176.79 
56,175,611.18 
60,882,097.92 
65,931,785.72 
70,930,47.5.98 
75,896,933.16 
74,980,253.84 



Expendi- 
tures. 



39,592,566.22 
40,482,021.23 
43,282,944.43 
47,224,560.27 
50,046,235.21 
51,004,743.80 
53,006,194.39 
56,468,315.20 
62,317,119.36 
66,259,547.84 
73,059,519.49 
76,980,846.16 
81,074,104.90 
84,212,057.05 



Received 

from 
Treasurv. 



3,297.921.46 
6,595.12 
21,416.85 
140,690.79 
6,066,473.00 
8 751,070.73 
4,746,167.06 
3,386,441.70 
5,745,017.89 
6,100,000.00 
4.441,772.08 
6,260,232.64 
6,727,828.43 
8,250,000.00 



Receipts of U. S. Government, 1861=94, by Fiscal Years. 



Year. 



186 1. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866.. 
1867., 
1868., 
1869., 
1870., 
1871. 
1872., 
1873., 
1874., 
1875., 
1876. 
1877., 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
J887. 



1890. 
1891. 



1893. 
1894. 



$39, 
49. 
69, 
102. 
84, 
179, 
176, 
164. 
180. 
194. 
206. 
216. 
188, 
163. 
157, 
148, 
130. 
130, 
137, 
186, 
198, 
220. 
214. 
195, 
181, 
192, 
217. 
219. 
223, 
229. 
219, 
177. 
203, 
132. 



582,126 
056.398 
059,642 
316,153 
928,261 
046,652 
417,811 
464,600 
048,427 
538,374 
270,408 
370,287 
089,523 
10 <,834 
167,722 
071,985 
956,493 
170,680 
250,048 
522,065 
159,670 
410,730 
706,497 
067,490 
471,93'.* 
905.023 
286,893 
091.174 
832.742 
668,585 
522.205 
452,964 
355,016 
294.248 



7? <° 
a 3 

a o> 



$37,640,788 
109,741,134 
209,464,215 
309,226,813 
266,027,537 
191,087,589 
158,356,461 
184,899,756 
143,098,154 
130,642,178 
113,729,314 
102,409,785 
110.007,494 
116,700,732 
118,630,408 
110,581,625 
113,561,61 1 
124,009,374 
135.264,386 
146,497,595 
144,720.369 
121,586,073 
112,498,726 
116,805,936 
118,823,391 
124,296.872 
130.881,514 
142,606,706 
145,686,249 
1 3,971,072 
161,027.624 
146,945.778 



$1,795,332 
1,485,104 
475,649 
1,200,573 
1,974,754 
4,200,234 
1,788.146 
765,686 
229,103 
580,355 

315,255 



93,799 



31 
1,517 
160,142 
108,157 
70,721 

'i 08,240 
32,892 
1,566 



C <D O 



Q oo O 
"SO 



$33,63 L 
68,400 
602,345 
21,174,101 
11,683,447 
38,083,056 
27.787,330 
29,203,629 
13,755,491 
15,295,644 
8.892.840 
9,412,638 
11,560,531 
5.037,665 
3,979,280 
4,029,281 
405,777 
317,102 
1,505,048 
110 



♦1,8*4,174 
1,067,326 
3,909,411 
30,919,734 
26,438,109 
29,701,345 
16,201,098 
19,094,119 
18,017,683 
16,292,600 
24,482,188 
17,681,765 
20,043,582 
18,927,472 
16,845,555 
18,586,243 
19,007,909 
16,694,471 
21 510,478 
22,995,032 
27,356,714 
36,456,7*3 
38,752,559 
31,795,587 
29,720,041 
26,620,' 27 
35,260,101 
35,876,463 
32,335,803 
30,805,693 
27.403,992 
23,513,748 
21.436.9f-8 
17,720.315 



3 
G 

4) 
> 

03 
+a 
O 

H 



$41,509,930 
51,987,455 
112,697,291 
264,626,772 
333,714,605 
558,032,620 
490,634,010 
405,638,083 
370,943,747 
411,255,478 
383,323,945 
374,106,868 
333,738,205 
289,478,755 
288,000,051 
287,482,039 
269,000,587 
257,763,879 
373,827,184 
333,526,611 
360,782,293 
403,525,250 
398,287,582 
348.519,870 
323,690,706 
336,439,727 
371,403,278 
379,266,075 
387,050,059 
403,080,983 
392,612,447 
354,937,784 
385,819,628 
296,960,336 



Expenditures of the State and Local Governments, 1890. 

Expenditures of— 



States and 
Territories. 



Maine. 

N. Hampshire.. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 
Rhode Island.. 
Connecticut.... 

New York 

New Jersey... 
Pennsylvania. 

Delaware 

Maryland 

D. of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia. 
North Carolina 
South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Ohio , 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin .... 
Minnesota. .. 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 
South Dakota. 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Tennessee. — 

Alabama 

Mississippi — 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico.. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington. .. 

Oregon 

California , 

Total 



$1,012,308 
445,36(5 
401,605 
6,027,407 
769.559 
1,865,132 
9 520,564 
1,564,264 
5,512,128 
112,025 
1,160,722 
4,135,878 
1,867,036 
513,717 
1,052,945 
1,105,527 
1,531,690 
567,684 
3,427,709 
2,265,120 
2,664,452 
2 269,: 
1,769.662 
2,237,219 
1,420,608 
1,969,; 



c _j 

P.-- 



257,452 
1,050,107 
1.318,879 
2.372,184 
1.376,961 
1,093,776 
50V 56 
1,872,446 
2,485,903 
349,461 
355,500 
95,630 
937,932 
143,750 



838,065 
366,538 
99,424 
504,609 
407,076 
3,991,768 



77,105.911 



$434 62 
576 88' 
9,962 
1,620,395 
(a) 

184,766 
8,923 007 
2,528,201 
6,474,703 
46,494 
1,168,039 
(a) 
493,623 
640,931 
258,416 
678,120 
399,475 
152,247 
6,799,574 
6,320,585 
1,876,363 
1,858,450 
1,416,967 
2.202,245 
2,534,245 
2,966,919 
485,627 
537,983 
2,224.241 
2,232 382 
322,859 
482,529 
405,253 
282,657 
250,585 
2,111,879 
263,864 
1,058,454 
255,372 
1,314,810 
50,657 
155,993 
291,550 
382,233 
177,625 
1,303,012 
394,827 
2,929,584 

68,479.220 



sags . 

.JO X O 
S C C— o 

go = « " 

tils? 



-3 2; ojz 

<D ,T3— «. 

£8 £.2.2 

£*o-3 
•2 § S - s J 



$16,663,666 

i.°e:.6i6 

1 625,967 
48.726,695 

4.905,361 
15,430,983 
398,581 

5,243,88b 



1,141,568 



624,544 
894,: 88 

'i6*686,065 
1,067,071 

12,945,391 
3,622,298 
2,301,697 
7,779,250 
364,631 
7,099,302 



1,653 571 



1,428,269 
1,350,795 



1,910,34.-. 



5,523.870 
155^50.212 



$2,145,21i 
1,387,057 
231,046 
10,439,072 
1.544.8* 
1.766,251 
4.343,502 
1,704,465 
2,308,478 
4.034 
112,661 



1,574.373 
271,334 
499,141 
94,231 
1, 720,717 
223.952 
3,352 016 
1,297.417 
1,915,34 
1.969.028 
1,902.478 
1,277,799 
1,828,565 
4:^7,477 
82,083 
116,513 
89,930 
1,945,947 
777,432 
353,775 
979,974 
204,605 
96,460 
2,169,468 
180,407 
193,036 
17.000 
27(5,904 



17,098 
1,044,&36 



2,093,034 
473,433 
1.920,927 





A* 






£ o 


Xi 




3 


w 2 3 






o o * 


1 estirr. 
:es no 
ti detai 


i£ 
s c 


istr 
ivis 
of 


S 3 




■ sS-o 


* a 


_ f- »o 


C £. fl> 


<v a 


Q 4) — Q 


'C C ° 


"3 « ^ 
+2 *- o 


-g O O 00 

CO 








EH 


$1,114,902 


$1,073,060 


^P'i, lOU, IUO 


814,394 


359,000 


o,00<4, iU* 


689,917 


819*787 


2,152 317 


8.286,062 


3,450 000 




917,990 


500.00U 


c «QQ OQQ 

o,Dyi7,yyvf 
8,488,362 


2,123,839 


922 407 


17,392.274 


2,326,000 


3 457.525 


1 * 085*000 


1 ^ 9i.i. 8 1 Q 


12,828,645 


2]975'000 


4A RQQ QQ7 


329,008 


174*521 


J.,Vt>±,ODO 


1,910,663 


495*548 


in hqi ^>l 


906,124 
1,577,347 


c f)4.9 no? 

J ,101,000 


797,418 


1,2^4,991 


840,01 0 


O.OOU,V7 (O 


718,225 


644,976 


3 5>93 70** 

0,*w£0, 1 uo 


460,260 


136.000 


*} flftsl fi89 


967,590 


1,517,000 


7 n^i ?fin 

* .UO J, £OU 


476,503 


612,207 


2 0;i2 593 


10,755,246 


5,305,000 


4U,0£0,0 JU 


5,900.2: J8 


1,410,000 




11,288,529 


3,025,000 


^ 71^ 078 

OO, 1 AO,UlO 


5,446,416 


2,250 000 


17 415 454 


3,711.286 


3,785,000 


14 887 OQfl 


4.033,516 


1.029,121 




6,477.256 


3,660,000 


Ifi l, 8^ 30^ 


5*128,260 


3*410,000 


91 011 2fi0 


f 20,946 


1*497,590 


2,692,246 


1,173,757 


1 J 55,000 


^ 'Mfl 70^ 


3,301,119 


1,460,000 


9.778 968 


4,972,967 


3,244*000 


13 714*175 


2,026,552 


1,4SL213 


8 '188 >HOQ 


1,300,351 


1,500,000 


ft '-104 41 1 


547 880 


1,967,540 


4 O'U 4'>Q 


1,09 .916 


1.271,227 


'? '«59 K(U 
.'.>'»... »' 1 1 


704,586 


578,343 


5 412 765 


3,173.104 


2,597,034 


lO KOA 70U 


1,019,060 


1,104,067 




364,083 


753,000 


2 724 073 


152,918 


277.000 


797 920 


1,681,379 


2,138,000 


6 349 025 


79,186 


302,939 


576 532 


177,484 


647,000 


997*575 


394,677 


191,500 


2.254,128 


162,597 


136,000 


1.047.368 


168,318 


245.000 


6!H),367 


944,190 


. 1,110,CKH) 


5,954,845 


880,:i69 


1,320,000 


3,475,705 


5.119,097 


4,194,412 


23.079.658 


M 39.005,537 


7l,HO2,910 


V19.252,034 



a Has no county financial system, h Amount expended for colleges, academies, 
normal schools and other educational purposes not included. 

The following statement shows the receipts and expenditures of the Federal, State, 
and local governments in 1890. Receipts: U. 8. Government, excluding postal revenues, 
1403,080,982; States, Territories and Distrietof Columbia, $1 16,157.610 ; Counties, pjully 
Sgtimated, 1133,605,493 ; Municipalities, partly estimated, $329,635,200. Total, 1982,890,815. 
Expenditures: U. 8. Government, including postal service deficiencies, $318,040,710; 
States, Territories and District of Columbia, except for public schools, 177,105,911; Coun- 
ts, except for public schools, partly estimated, $114,575,401; Municipalities, except for 
jublic schools, partly estimated, $232,988, 592; Public schools, 139,065,537; Miscellaneous, 
f.5,517,183. Total, $887,293,344. 



90 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF PRECIOUS METALS. 



flonetary Statistics. 

(Compiled from official reports of the Director of United States Mint.) 
GOLD AND SILVER PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1860. 



Year. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Total. 1 


Year. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Total. 


i860. . • .,. 


$•16,000,000 


$150,000 


$46,150,000 


1877 .... 


$46,897,390 


$3Q 7Q3 573 
45 281 38*i 


tSfi fiQO 


jggl ,\" 


43' 000.000 


2,000'000 


45^000 000 


1878 .... 


51,206,360 


Qfi 74^ 


1862!'.-!.. 


39,200,000 


4'500,'000 


43,70o!o00 


1879 


38)899,858 
36,000,000 


40,812,132 


7Q 711 Q<in 


1863!!.. . . 


4o'ooo!ooo 


8,500,000 


48,500^000 


1880 


38,450,000 




1864!!..!! 


46, 100^000 


11^000,000 


57,10o!oOO 


1881 .... 


34,700,000 


43.000,000 


77,700,000 


1805!!.... 


53,225!000 


ll'jJ5O,'OG0 


64',475!000 


1882!!.... 


32,500,000 


46,800,000 


79,300,000 


1806 


53,500,000 


10,000,000 


63,500,000 


1883 


30,000,000 


46,200,000 


76,200,000 


1807 


51,725,000 


13,500,000 


65,225,000 


1884 


30,800,000 


48,800,000 


79,600,000 


1868 


48,000,000 


12,000,000 


60,000,000 


1885 


31,800,000 


51,600,000 


83,400,000 


1869 


49,500,000 


12,000,000 


61,500,000 


1886 


35,000,000 


51,000,000 


86,000,000 


1870 


50,000,000 


16,000,000 


66,000,000 


1887 


33,000,000 


53,357,000 


86,357,000 


1871 


43,500,000 


23,000,000 


66,500,000 


1888 


33,175,000 


59,195,000 


92,370,000 


1872...... 


36,000,000 


28,750,000 


64,750,000 


1689 


32,800,000 


6*,646,000 


97.446,000 


1873 


36,000,000 


35,750,000 


71,750,000 


1890 


32,845,U00 


70,464,000 


103,309,000 


1874 


33,490,903 


37,324,594 


70,815,496 


1891 


33,175,000 


75,416,565 


108,591,565 


1875 


33,467,856 


31,727,560 


65,195,416 


1892 


33,014,981 


82,101,110 


115,116,091 




39,929,166 


38,783,016 


78,712,182 




35,955,000 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD AND SILVER, 1876-1893. 



Year. 



1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 



Gold. 



$103,700,000 
114,000,000 
119,000,000 
109,000,000 
106,500,000 
103,000,000 
102,000,000 
95,400,000 
101.700.000 



Silver. 



$67,753,000 
62,648,000 
73,476,000 
74,250,000 
74,791.000 
78,890,000 
86,470,000 
89,177,000 
81,597,000 



1(EAR. 



1885. 
1886. 
1887. 



1891. 
1892. 
1893. 



Gold. 



$108,400,000 
106,000,000 
105,775,000 
110,197,000 
123,489,000 
118,848,700 
126,183,500 
146,297,600 
155,521,700 



Silver. 



$91,652,000 
93,276,000 
96,124,000 
108,827.000 
125,420,000 
133.212,600 
144,204,900 
197,230,500 
207,895,400 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD AND SILVER IN 1893. 



Countries. 



United States 

Australasia 

Mexico.. 

ttussia 

Germany 

Austria-Hungary. . . 
Sweden and Norway. 

Italy 

Spain 

Greece 

Turkey 

France 

Great Britain 

Canada 

Argentine 

Colombia 



Gold. 



$35,955,000 
35,688,600 
1,305,300 
24,806.200 
1.498-900 
1,502,000 
62,000 
117,000 



7,000 
129,700 
43,300 
927,200 
82,000 
2,892,800 



Silver. 



$77,575,700 
26,507,000 
57,357,600 
601,700 
8,240,100 
2.289,200 
372,600 
1,200,400 
1,923,400 
. 84,200 
263.200 
3,852,600 
327,700 
321,400 
620,000 
2,182,400 



Countries. 



Bolivia 

Ecuador 

Chili..... 

Brazil 

Venezuela 

British Guiana 

Dutch Guiana 

French Guiana 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Central Am. States. 

Japan 

China 

Africa 

India (British) 

Corea 



Gold. 



$67,000 
52,000 

1,436,600 
869,200 
806,100 

2,567,400 
713,800 
998,200 
73,000 
141,600 
163,500 
484,000 

8,426,000 
29,305,800 

3,813,600 
587,900 



Silver. 



$15,488,000 
10,000 
2,281,600 



2,462,700 



2,000,000 
2,409,600 



Coinage.— The coinage executed during the fiscal year 1893 by the mints at Phila- 
delphia, San Francisco, New Orleans and Carson City consisted of 97,280,875 pieces of 
the value of $43,685478.80. Of gold there were coined 2,282,269 pieces, value $30 038*140 
Of this sum $20,444,760 were in double eagles; $6,599,120 in eagles; $2,987,925 in half cables' 
and $6,335 in quarter eagles. The silver coinage aggregated 34,291,176 pieces, of the 
nominal value of $12,560,935.90. Of this sum $5,343,715 were in standard dollars* $3 9 66 630 
half dollars, including $2,501,052.50 in Columbian souvenir pieces; $2,848,618 in quarter 
dollars, including $10,005.75 Columbian souvenir pieces, and $1,101,972.90 in dimes The 
minor coinage, confined to the mint at Philadelphia, consisted of 11,975,715 5-cent nickel 
pieces of the nominal value of $598,785.75, and 48,731,715 one cent bronze pieces of the 
value of $487,317.15,*making an aggregate of minor coinage of $1,086,102 90 

The total coinage of the mints of the United States from their organization to June 
30, 1893, was : Gold, $1,612,405,375.50; silver, $669,929,323.00; minor coins, $25,531 198 07- 
total, $2,307,865,896.57. The mint at Philadelphia was organized in 1793; that at New 
Orleans was organized in 1838, suspended in 1861 and reopened in 1879; that at Charlotte 
N. C, was organized in 1838 and suspended in 1861; that at San Francisco was organized 
in 1854; and that at Carson City in 1870. 



MONETARY STATISTICS.-Continued. 



91 



COINAGES OF NATIONS. 



Countries.] 



United States 

Mexico 

Great Britain 

Australasia 

India* 

France 

Germany 

Russia* 

Austria-Hungary* .. 

Italy 

Spain 

Japan 

Portugal 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Sweden 

Denmark 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

Egypt 

Hong Kong 

China 

Indo-China 

Tunis 

Canada... 

Newfoundland 

Costa Rica 

Brazil 

Bolivia 

Peru 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Hayti 

British West Indies- 
British Africa 

German EastAfrica.. 
S. Africa Republic..., 
Straits Settlements.., 

Monaco 

Morocco 

San Domingo 

Great Comoro 

French Colonies 

Eritrea (Italian Col.). 

Bulgaria 

eylon 

Zanzibar . . . 

Total 



Gold. 



$20,467,182 
284.859 
37,375,479 
25,702,600 

'3.976.'340 
23,855,512 
21,726,239 
2,818,750 
263,329 
9,049,! 
1,194,050 
407,160 



833,432 
547,931 
482,500 
44,840 



149,100 



86,0^3 



$149,244,965 



Silver. 



$39,202,908 
24,081,192 
8,332,232 

"57,93V,323 



1,614,422 
3,857,118 
1,091 
1,479,152 
7,296,645 
540,000 
199,000 
120,600 
253,86' 



279,850 



1,175,000 



6,416 



155,000 
38,000 
241,898 
821,996 
888,000 
2,687,119 



42,000 
300,000 



28,951 
73,136 



170,000 



1,978 
6,436 
567,814 



$152,293,144 



1891. 



Gold. 



$29,222,005 
280,565 
32,720,633 
26,389,044 
117,411 
3,362,450 
14,086,800 
2.110,981 
2,885,561 
126,708 

"i',083J25 
169,560 



386.000 
3,342,000 



2,663,400 



126,279 



75,000 



386,000 



Silver. 



$27,518,857 
24,493,071 
5,141,594 

" 32,670,498 

LI 39.252 
2,690,902 
3,356,394 



12,242,000 
8,523,904 
7,277,040 
367,000 
1134,000 
22.000 
121,750 
144,750 
432,400 
322.468 
1,500.000 
2,854,137 



675,500 
200,000 



499,941 
1,684,500 
3,169,799 



23.000 



81,125 



336,000 



240,000 
183,350 



189,135 



(KUlOO 



$119,534,122 $138,294,367 



1892. 



Gold. 



$34,787,223 
275.203 
67.682,503 
30,784,262 

*87V,225 
8,863.874 
555 909 
§9,482,927 
130.105 
9,381.002 
1,319,525 



245 



386.000 
140,672 



3,231,905 



24,697 



Silver. 



$12,641,078 
26,782.721 
3,790,673 



52,258,747 



1,237 864 
2,920,4 h 4 
§777.410 
22,997 
8.917.860 
12,307.062 
3,075,840 
1,567.800 
120 600 
78.996 
242,207 
183.350 
883,464 
649.5 5 
1,100,000 
3,500,000 
57,900 
471,131 
298,000 



138,091 



2.614,948 
2,378,272 
60,000 



364,814 
49,519 



858,808 



2,509,198 
236,850 



8 167.917.337. $14-3,096.239 

♦Rupee calculated at coining rate. $0.4737. +Silver florin calculated at coining rate, 
$0,482. *Silver ruble calculated at coining rate, $0.7718. §Hungary only. 

COMMERCIAL RATIO OF SILVER TO GOLD. 



1687.- 
1690.. 
1700.. 
1710.. 
1720.. 
1730.. 
1710.. 
175).. 
1760.. 
1770.. 
1780.. 
1790.. 
1800.. 



14 Vi 
15-02 
14.81 
15.22 
15.04 
14 81 
14 94 
U 55 
14 14 
14 62 

14 72 

15 01 
15.68 



1810... 
1812... 
1813.., 
1814... 
1820... 
1830... 
1840... 
1850... 
1853... 
1854... 
1855... 



1857 



15.77 


1858 


15.38 


16 11 


1859 


15 19 


16 25 


1660 


15.29 


15 04 


1WI 


16 60 


15 62 


1892.... 


16.31 


15.82 


L863 


15.87 


1 1 62 


1864 


16 37 


15.70 


1806 


16 11 


15.33 


1K66 .... 


15.43 


15 33 


1867 


15 57 


15.38 


1868 




15.38 


1869 


15 60 


15.27 




15 57 



1871 

1872 

1873.... 

1874 

1875 

1870 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883.... 



15.57 
15.63 
15.92 
16 17 
16 59 
17.88 
17.22 
17.94 
18 40 
18 OS 
18 16 
18.19 
18 04 



1881. 

18*5., 

1886., 

1887. 

1888 

1889. 

1890.. 

1891.. 

1892., 

1M)3+ 



18.B7 
19 41 

20.78 
21.13 
21.99 
22.09 

19 76 

20 92 
23.72 
25.77 



♦Nino months. 



MONETARY STATISTICS.-Continued. 



SITUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL BANKS OF ISSUE IN VARIOUS 
COUNTRIES ON SEPTEMBER 30, 1893. 



Names op Banks. 



Imperial Bank of Germany. . . . 

Bank of Austria-Hungary 

Bank of Belgium 

National Bank of Bulgaria (a).. 

National Bank of Denmark 

Bank of Spain 

Bank of Finland 

Bank of France 

National Bank of Greece 

Italy- 
National Bpnk 

Other institutions of issue. • . . 

Bank of Norway 

Bank of the Netherlands 

Hank of Portugal 

Bank of Koumania 

United Kingdom- 
Bank of England 

Banks of Scotland (b) 

Banks of Ireland (b) 

Imperial Bank of Russia 

Bank of Servia 

Sweden— 

Royal Bank (c) 

Private Banks (c) 

Swiss Banks of issue 

Associated Banks of New York. 



Metallic 
Reserve. 



$178. 
107, 
19, 
1 
14 
68, 
4 

572 



50. 
36. 

6. 
45. 

8. 
11. 

133. 

23. 

13. 
301. 

2. 



177,600 
192.200 
087,700 
698,400 
378,500 
804,500 
940,800 
495,900 
424,600 

180,000 
573,500 
793,600 
181,300 
,781,500 
,811,600 

,015,600 
,149,50 J 
,953,900 
,060,700 
,470,400 

404,000 
574,100 
520,800 
,945,500 



Analysis of the Reserve, 



Gold. 



$41,533,600 



38,194,700 
4,188,100 
327,289,400 



45,490,100 
32,057,300 



11,464.200 
2.412.500 
11,792,300 

133,015.600 
22,967,000 
11,830,900 

297,799,000 
1,679,100 

4,477,600 
2,007,200 
13,664,400 



Silver. 



$65,658,600 



30,609,800 
752,700 
245,206,500 



4,689,900 
4,516,200 



33,717,100 
6,369,000 
19,300 



19,782,500 
2,123,000 
3,261,700 
791,300 

926,400 
2.566.900 
2,856,400 



Bills Payable 
to bearer in 
circulation. 



$265,645,200 
200,874,400 
77,045.600 
193,000 
20,535,200 
177,521,400 
8,607,800 
669,285.400 
22,330,100 

110,589,000 
86,406,100 
13,046,800 
76.312,200 
55,641,900 
27,425,300 

124,832,400 
14,011,800 
29,374,600 

783,773,000 
5,577,700 

11,676,500 
15,111,900 
32,771,400 
13,124.000 



a Situation on September 7. b Situation on July 15. c Situation on August 31. 
VALUE OF GOLD AND SILVER COIN AND BULLION IMPORTED INTO 
AND EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES, FISCAL YEARS 1864-1893. 



Year Ending June CO. 



1864. 
1865. 



1867. 



1870.. 
1871 . 
1872.. 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1875.. 
1876.. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1883.. 



1885. 
1886. 



1891 

1892 

1893 

Total. 



Gold. 



I mports. 



$11,176,769 
6,498,228 
8,196,261 
17,024,866 
8,737,443 
14,132,568 
12,056,950 
6,883,561 
8,717,458 
8,682,447 
19,503,137 
13,696,793 
7,992,709 
-'6,246,234 
13,330,215 
5,624,948 
80,758,396 
100,031,259 
34,377,054 
17,734,149 
22,831,317 
26,691,696 
Z0,743,34y 
42,910,601 
43,934,317 
*10,372.145 
*13.097.146 
*18,516,112 
*50, 162,879 
*22,069,380 



$692,730,387 



Exports. 



$100,661,634 
58,381,033 
71,197,309 
39,026,627 
73,396,344 
36,003,498 
33,635,962 
66,686,208 
49,548,760 
44.856,715 
34,012,420 
66,980,977 
31,177,050 
• 26,590.374 
9,204,455 
4,587,614 
3,639,025 
2,565,132 
32,587,880 
11,600,888 
41,081,957 
8.477,892 
42,952,191 
9,701,187 
18,376,234 
+60,0:33.246 
+17,350,193 
+86,462,880 
+50,305,533 
+108,966.655 



$1,240,077,873 



Silver. 



Imports. 



$1,938,843 
3,311,844 
2,503,831 
5,045,609 
5,450,925 
5,675,308 
14,362,229 
14,386,463 
5,026,231 
12,798,490 
8,951,769 
7,203,924 
7,943,972 
14,528,180 
16,491,099 
14,671,052 
12,275,914 
10,544,238 
8,095,336 
10,755,242 
14,594,945 
16,550,627 
17,850.307 
17,260,191 
*20,514,232 
*24,682,380 
*27,524,147 
*26.278,916 
*28,764,734 
♦34,293,999 



$410,274,977 



Exports. 



$4,734,907 
9,262,153 
14,846,762 
21,841,745 
21,387,758 
21,134,882 
24,519,704 
31,755,780 
30,328,774 
39,751.859 
32,587,985 
25,151,165 
25,329,252 
29,571,863 
24,535.670 
20,409,827 
13,503,894 
16,841,715 
16,829,599 
20,219,445 
26,051,428 
33,753,633 
29.511,219 
26,296.504 
+28,146,510 
+36.716,783 
+36,069,602 
+23.533,551 
+33,800,562 
+41,947,812 



$760,372,381 



Includes that in ores. + Includes that in ores and copper matte. 



BANKING STATISTICS. 



Banking Statistics. 

(From Report of the Comptroller of the Currency.) 
SUMMARY OF THE STATE AND CONDITION OF EVERY NATIONAL BANK 
REPORTING DURING THE YEAR ENDED OCTOBER 3, 1893. 



Dec. 9, 1892. 


May 4, 1893. 


July 12, 1893. 


Oct. 3, 1893. 


3,784 Banks. 


3,a30 Banks. 


3,807 Banks. 


3,781 Banks. 


$2,166,615,720.28 


$2,161,401,858.59 


$2,020,483,671.04 


$1,843,634,167.51 


166,449,250.00 


172,412,550.00 


176,588,050.00 


206,463,850.00 


15,321,000.00 
4,148,600.00 
153,648,180.71 
204,948,159.79 
142,623,106.36 


15,261,000.00 
3,519,550.00 
150,747,862.86 
174,312,119.44 
121,673,794.24 


15,256,000.00 
3,078,050.00 
149,690,701.61 
159,352,677.33 
111,956,506.81 


14,816,000.00 
2,760,950.00 
148,569,950.46 
158,499,6,4.28 

94,740,014.97 


34,403,231.75 


32,681,708.90 


27,211,234.32 


24,229,106.82 


72,294,364.78 


73,386,921.79 


72,750,830.15 


72,322,826.68 


15,926,687.47 


16,646,853.69 


16,632,446.13 


16,828,949.40 


14,204,970.25 
13,913,289.71 
16,755,332.09 


11,746,470.23 
12,935,077.74 
17,546,973.93 


4,892,772.88 
11,933,004.69 
16,707,680.61 


11,071,996.65 
13,981,867.44 
15,359,764.56 


110,522,668.49 
20,488,781.00 


114,977,271-08 
20.085,688.00 


107,765,890.44 
20,135,054.00 


106,181,394.59 
22,402,611.00 


893,909.82 
209,895,260.76 
102,276,335.00 
6,470,000.00 


952,810.90 
207,222,141.81 
103,511,163.00 
12,130,000.00 


952,632.48 
186,761,173.31 
95,833,677.00 
6,660,000.00 


1,026,813.90 
214,703,860.07 
114,709,352.00 

7,020,000.00 


7,282,413.90 


7,467,989.77 


7,600,604.72 


8,977,414.18 


1,268,405.03 


1,556,891.28 


1,019,074.42 


1,262,749.85 


$3,480,349,667.19 


$3,432,176,697.25 


$3,213,261,731.94 


$3,109,563,284.36 


689,698,017.50 
239,931,932.08 
114,603,884.52 


688,701,200.00 
246,139,133.32 
106,966,733.57 


685,786,718.56 
249,138,300.30 
93,944,649.73 


678,540,338.93 
246,750,781.32 
103,474,662.87 


145,669,499.00 


151,694,110.00 


155,070,821.50 


182,959,725.90 


74,176.50 
1,308,137.97 
1,764,456,177.11 
9,673,349.92 


75,075.50 
2,579,556.38 
1,749,930,817.51 
* 9,657,243.4? 


75,072.50 
3,879,673.50 
1,556,761.230.17 
10,379,842.66 


75,069.50 
2,874,697.59 
1,451, 124,330.55 
10,546,135.61 


4,034,240.37 
323,339,449.03 


4,293,739.93 
275,127,229.28 


3.321,271.84 
238,913,573.51 


3,776,438.21 
226,423,979.06 


160,778,117.18 
15,775,618.63 
9,318,249.82 
1,688,817.56 


153,500,923.94 
18,953,306.98 
21,506.247.53 
3,051,379.82 


125,979,422 16 
29,940,438.56 
31,381,451.27 
28,689,265.68 


122,891,098.21 
21,066,737.01 
27,426,937.54 
81,632352.16 


$3,480,349,667.19 


$3,432,176,697.25 


$3,213,261,731.94 


$3,109,563.2*4.36 



RESOURCES. 

Loans and discounts 

U. S. bonds to secure circu- 
lation 

U. S. bonds to secure de- 
posits 

U. S. bonds on hand 

Stocks, securities, etc ...... 

Due from reserve agents . . . 

Due from national banks. . . 

Due from State banks and 
bankers 

Banking house, furniture 
and fixtures 

Other real estate and mort- 
gages owned 

Current expenses and taxes 
paid 

Premiums on U. S. bonds. . . 

Checks and other cash items 

Exchanges for clearing 
house 

Bills of other national banks 

Fractional currency, nickels 
and cents 

Specie 

Legal tender notes 

U. S. certificates of deposit. 

Five per cent, redemption 
fund 

Due from Treasurer other 
than 5 per cent, fund 

Total 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock paid in 

Surplus fund 

Undivided profits 

National bank notes out- 
standing 

State-bank notes outstand- 
ing : 

Dividends unpaid 

Individual deposits 

U. S. deposits 

Deposits of U. S. disbursing 
officers 

Due to other national banks 

Due to State banks and 
bftn Iters 

Notes and bills rediscounted 

Bills payable 

Liabilities, other 

% Total 



94 



BANKING STATISTICS.— Continued. 



AGGREGATE RESOURCES AND LIABILITIES OF ALL STATE BANKS, 
LOAN AND TRUST COMPANIES, SAVINGS AND PRIVATE BANKS, 1892-93. 



RESOURCES. 

Loans on real estate 

Loans on collateral security other 

than real estate 

Other loans and discounts 

Overdrafts 

United States bonds 

State, county & municipal bonds. 

Uailroad bonds and stocks 

Bank stocks 

Other stocks and bonds.. 

Due from other banks & bankers. 
Keal estate, furniture & fixtures.. 
Current expenses and taxes paid. 

Cash and cash items 

Other resources 

Total 

LIABILITIES. 



Capital stock 

Surplus fund 

Other undivided profits 

State bank notes outstanding-.... 

Debenture bonds 

Dividends unpaid — 

Individual deposits 

Savings deposits 

Due to other banks and bankers. 

Other liabilities 

Total 



State 
Banks. 



3,579 banks 



Loan and 
trust Co's 



228 Co.'s 



$43,233,876 181,288,973 



39 092,976 
675.236,292 
5,488,630 
412,654 
2,468,258 
301,325 
98,953 
73 275,186 
103,790,249 
38 600.425 
4.242,164 
137,026,652 
7,457.897 



1,130,725,537 



250,767,709 
74,237,606 
28,900,230 
9,534 



525,502 
706,865,643 



48,259.262 
21,160 051 



1, 130,725.53* 



307,170,395 
74,270,229 
93,917 
18,486,636 
5,842 753 
11,639,330 
668,470 
92.187,712 
53,352,071 
26,245.518 
984,177 
22.216,539 
32,217,786 



726,664,506 



94,867 ,2"8 
50,403.421 
20,368,056 



18,489,542 
67.385 
486,244,079 



2,690,476 
53.534,279 



Savings 
Banks. 



1,030 banks 



$763,579,985 

74,179,877 
209,014,835 
495,781 
129.610,783 
398 606,298 
121,519,071 
44 466,725 
105,169,599 
83,007.108 
34,615,a59 
748.432 
36,956,824 
11,804,470 



,013,775,147 



33,429,188 
137,456,126 
26,017,047 



160,297 
23.649,305 
1,785,150,957 
2,350,368 
• 5,561 859 



726.664.506 2.013,775,14^ 



Private 
Banks. 



848 banks 



$9,772,644 

8.885,376 
54,879,855 

1,509,436 

1,472,148 
792,652 
269,505 
517,866 

1 798,426 
10,551,291 

6,449,149 
527,765 

9,445,188 
972,042 



107,843,343 



26.943,075 
5,488,683 
3,335,118 



68,552,696 

" 1,670,358 
1,853,413 



107.843.343 



Total. 



5.685 banks 



$897,875,478 

429,328,624 
1,013,401,211 
7,587,764 
149,982,221 
407,709,961 
133,729 231 
45.752,014 
272,430,923 
250,700,719 
105,910,451 
6.502,538 
205 645,203 
52,452,195 



3,979,008,533 



406 
267 
78 

18 

1.285 
1,785 
54 

_82 
3.979 



.007,240 
,585,836 
,620.451 
9.534 
,489,542 
753,184 
311,723 
,150,957 
970,464 
,109,602 
008,533* 



PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF RESOURCES AND LIABILITIES AND TOTAL 
RESOURCES OF NATIONAL BANKS COMPARED WITH ALL OTHERS. 



Loans, etc 

United States bonds- 

All other bonds 

Capital stock 

Surplus and profits. 

Deposits 

Total resources.. 



national banks. 



$1,843,634,168 
224,040,800 
148,569,950 
678,540,339 
350.225,444 
1,465,446 904 
3. 10!) 563.284 



All other banks. 



$2,348,193,077 
149.982.221 
859,622,129 
406,007,240 
346,206,287 
3,070,462,680 
3,979,008.533 



STATEMENT SHOWING THE AMOUNT OF GOLD, ETC., HELD BY 
NATIONAL BANKS ON JULY 12, 1893, AND BY OTHER BANKING 
INSTITUTIONS ON OR ABOUT THE SAME DATE. 



Classification . 



Gold Coin 

Gold Treasury Certificates 

Gold (clearing house) Certificates 

Silver, dollars 

Silver, fractional 

Silver, Treasury Certificates 

National bank notes 

Legal tender notes 

United States certificates for legal ten lers. 

Fractional currency 

Specie, not classified 

Cash, not classified 

Total 



National 
banks (3807). 
$95,799,862 
50,550,100 
4,285,000 
7,38 ,457 
6.119,575 
22,626.180 
20.135,054 
95,833.677 
6,660.000 
952,632 



8310,342,537 



All other 
banks (5685). 



$7,618,014 



1,815,624 



*64,512,344 



15.093,221 
116.606,000 



$205,645,203 



Total all 
banks (9492). 



$103,417,876 
50,550,100 
4,285,000 

15,315,656 

22,626,180 
20,135,054 
160.346.021 
6,660,000 
952,632 
15,093,221 
116.606 000 



$515,987,74(1 



^Includes coin certificates and national bank notes. 



BANKING STATISTICS.— Continued. 



95 



AGGREGATE SAVINGS DEPOSITS OF SAVINGS BANKS, NUMBER OF DE- 
POSITORS AND AVERAGE AMOUNT DUE EACH IN 1891-'92 and 1892-'93. 



States. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 
Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Eastern States. 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Dist. of Columbia 
Middle States. 

"West Virginia 
North Carolina .. 
South Carolina .. 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Southern States 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois . 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Minnesota 

Western States. 

Oregon 

Colorado 

Utah 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Washington 

California 

Pacific States 
and Territories 

Total United 
States 



1891-'92. 



Number of 
Depositors. 



146.668 
169,949 
80,740 
1,131,203 
136.648 
317.925 



1,983,133 

1,516.289 
131,739 
248,471 
17,318 
142,135 
1,303 



2,057,255 

8,428 
6.247 
21,397 
4,569 

170 
1,698 
5,557 
1,950 

258 
* 16,392 



84,779 
15,418 

* 73,872 
180,391 

948 

* 71,687 
35,123 

462,218 



* 21,215 

* 13,596 



900 
* 8,955 
* 167,667 



212,333 
4,781,605 



Amount of 
Deposits 



$50,278,452 
72,439,660 
24,674,742 

369,526,386 
66 276,157 

122,582,160 



705,777,557 

588,425,421 
33.807.634 
65,233.993 
3,626,319 
41,977,868 
60,178 



733,131,413 

473,848 

282,425 
4,225,459 

572,523 
31,912 

220,046 
1,695,732 

279,783 
51,854 
1,292,913 



9,126,495 

33,895.078 
3,754,622 

21.106,369 

36,959,573 
138.926 

26,115384 
8.786.879 



Average 
to each 
Depositor. 



$342.80 
426.24 
305 60 
326.67 
485.01 
385 57 



355 89 

388.07 
256.62 
262.54 
209 39 
205.34 
46.18 



356.36 

56 22 
45.21 
197.48 
125.30 
187.73 
129.59 
305.15 
143 48 
200.10 
78.87 



136.89 

399.80 
243 52 
285.72 
204 88 
146.59 
364.29 
250 17 



130,756,831 



2.893,276 
2,427,950 



1 19,449 
1,193,967 
127,312.088 



133,976,730 



1,713.769.026 



282.89 



186.38 
178.58 



166 05 
133 :« 
759 32 



630.97 



358 20 



1892-'93. 



Number of 
Depositors. 


Amount of 
Deposits. 


Average 
to each 
Deposit'r 


155,333 
174,654 
89,115 
1 189 936 
'142^492 
331,061 


$53,397,950 
74.377,279 
27.262,930 

393,019.862 
69l906,'993 

130.686,729 


$343 76 
425 85 
305.93 
330 29 
490.60 
394 75 


2,082,591 


748,651,743 


359.48 


1,593,804 
140,772 
252,980 
18,613 
147,462 
1,400 


629,358,274 
36,488.246 
66,417.794 
3,739,484 
44,495,128 
74.729 


349.88 
259.20 
262 54 
200.90 
301 74 
53.38 


2,155,031 


780,573,655 


362.21 


* 5,149 
6,112 

24,422 

* 8,494 

* 1,321 
1,848 
6,507 
2,583 

844 
* 14,126 


237,707 
301,234 

5,913,139 

1,004.765 
219,448 
73.032 

2,003.854 
356,553 
123 451 

1,778,174 


46.16 
49.28 
242 12 
118 29 
166.12 
39.52 
307 95 
138 04 
146 27 
125.88 


71,406 


12,011,357 


168.21 


85.014 
16,127 
* 84,861 


34,606,213 
4.073.131 
23,498,S04 


404.21 
252 56 
276.90 


1.164 
* 73 108 
4&212 


184.698 
26 426 031 
10i658,564 


158.67 
361 46 

252^50 


303,086 


99,447,141 


328.11 


* 2,461 
* 11,639 
22,815 
1,736 
885 


683,620 
2,217,547 
2,935.849 
4213 248 
186,923 


277.78 
190.52 
128 68 
243 80 
211.21 


* 178,949 


1:8.019,874 


77L28 


218.4&5 


144,467.061 


661.22 


4.830,599 


1,785,150,957 


369 55 



* Partially estimated. 

SAVINGS BANKS, DEPOSITORS AND DEPOSITS IN THE UNITED STATES 
EVERY TEN YEARS SINCE 1820. 



Year. 


Number of 
Banks. 


Number of 
Depositors. 


Deposits. 


Fear. 


Number of 
Hanks. 


Number of 
Depositors. 
1,680,846 
2.:U5.5H2 
4.25K.H1I3 
4,781.805 
4,830.599 


Deposits, 
f .1'.' s i.:i5H 

H19.1(M,U73 
1,52-1,844.500 
1.712.7li!UC.V, 
1,785,150.957 


1820.... 
1830.... 
1840.... 
1850.... 
I860.... 


10 
36 
61 
108 
278 


8,635 
38,085 
78,701 
251,354 
673,870 


$1,138,576 
8,978,304 
14,05 1,520 
48,431, 1W 
149,277,504 


IKHO.. .. 

1800.... 
1892.... 
1893.... 


517 
629 
921 
1,059 
1,030 



BANKING STATISTICS.— Continued. 



POPULATION, BANKING CAPITAL, ETC., OF STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



States and 
Territories. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. . . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Dist. of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina — 

South Carol iua 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Kentucky 



Missouri 

Ohio. 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin , 

Iowa 

Minnesota 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

Oregon 

Colorado 

Utah 

Idaho 

Montana 

Wyoming 

New Mexico 

North Dakota* 

South Dakota 

Washington ..... 

Arizona 

California 

OklahomaTerritory 
Indian Territory... 
Total United States. 



Popula- 
tion 

June 1, 
1893.* 



664,000 
385,000 
333,000 
2,462,000 
367,000 
791,000 
6.311.000 
3,557,000 
5,600,000 
175,000 
1,069 000 
269,000 
1,696,000 
800.000 
1,668,000 
1,184,000 
1,917,000 
437,000 
1.582,000 
1,332.000 
1,160,000 
2,386,000 
1,222,000 
1,905.000 
1,820,000 
2,845.000 
3,804,000 
2,250,000 
4,119,000 
2.237,000 
1,826,000 
1,982,000 
1,498,000 
1,516,000 
1,305,000 
46,000 
373,000 
495,000 
230,000 
108,000 
179,000 
77,000 
165,000 
253,000 
430,000 
485,000 
64,000 
1,317,000 
130,000 
195.000 



Capital, 
Surplus, etc 
All Banks. 



$89,707,745 
102,646,545 
47,883,258 
803,901,450 
142,298,007 
218,071,008 
1,839,989,879 
136,829,792 
635,096,309 
15,630,358 
110,397,805 
22,364,276 
44 329,571 
22,621,943 
13,167 178 
19,010,617 
38,014,463 
8,624,906 
14,144,814 
12,162.893 
38,032,893 
73.245,261 
8,357,230 
78,873,841 
37,523,635 
176,600,771 
246,557,^-36 
78,954,829 
285,184.145 
130.848,877 
97,715,823 
123,873,045 
110,295,4&3 
52,497,761 
81,135,798 
1.074,641 
17,962,442 
39,446,851 
14.040,602 
3,348.828 
23,577,740 
4,598,619 
3,386,024 
10,885,193 
13,499,311 
30,715,357 
1,814,601 
289,584.676 
1,523,792 
891,822 



67,021.000 6.412,939,954 



Average per capita. 



M 
fl 

<S 

m 

$135.10 
266.60 
143.79 
326.52 
387.73 
275.69 
291.55 
87.88 
113.40 
89.31 
103.27 
83.14 
26.13 
28.28 

7.89 
16.06 
19.83 
19.74 

8.94 

9.13 
32.78 
30.70 

6.83 
41.40 
20.62 
62.07 
64.81 
35.09 
69.23 
58.50 
53.51 
62.49 
73.62 
34.63 
62.17 
23.36 
48.15 
79.69 
61.04 
31.01 
131.72 
59.72 
20.52 
43.02 
31.39 
63.33 
28.35 
219.88 
11.72 

4.57 



95.(18 



$43.14 
43.32 
55.08 
122.40 
121.29 
82.57 
83.82 
48.05 
61.96 
44.17 
53.18 
51.66 
12.76 
12.30 
4.25 
6.99 
5.45 
15.11 
6.66 
2.36 
20 09 
27.27 
2.73 
18.79 
13.91 
22.29 
40.35 
23,25 
41.82 
24.90 
23 24 
23.54 
35.92 
22.31 
30.58 
19.89 
37.93 
61.72 
28.93 
26.04 
119.37 
44.71 
15.57 
30.27 
17.43 
38.12 
16.59 
18.73 
7.67 
4.57 



38 64 



^ 8 



$5.48 
9.91 

41.15 
6.56 

10.57 

12.53 
3.34 

' 13.32 
15.40 
2.84 
1.79 
12.41 
2.89 
1.04 
6.77 
10.73 
.51 
3.76 
22.61 
5.17 
36.06 
10.50 
5.95 
6.89 
+31.95 
26.00 
12.88 
23.55 
*12.32 
*31.59 



2.77 
10.32 
5.82 
2.70 
5.25 
3.38 
2.63 
$12.75 
$13.96 
24.43 
11.76 
85.49 
4.05 



15.83 



$6.48 
14.26 

35.31* 
59.85 

8.04 
52.13 

7.80 
25 65 

8.31 

2.09 
30.95 



CO . 

bow 

r a 



1.18 
3.90 



1.77 
4 



9.73 



$85.48 
209.02 
88.71 
168.81 
201.11 
175.17 
113.79 
25.47 
13.36 
24.30 
44.22 
.53 



.30 
.22 
7.28 
1.65 
1.44 
.62 



1.54 



10.23 
2.00 
12.83 

'".io 

17.26 
7.57 



6.81 
5.84 
26.08 

' ' 4.87 

' ' 1.70 



115.37 



29.93 



♦Estimated by Mr. Joseph S. McCoy, Government actuary. ^Includes savings 
and loan-trust companies. ^Includes private banks. 

TOTAL CIRCULATION JULY 1, 1894. 



banks 



Gold Coin $497,873,990 

Standard Silver Dollars 51,191.377 

Subsidiary Silver 58,233,344 

Gold Certificates 66,344,409 

Silver Certificates 327,094,381 

Silver Treasury Notes 134,862,009 



United States Notes $268,772 371 

Currency Certificates 58 935',000 

National Bank Notes 200,754,351 

Total Circulation $1,664,061,232 

Per capita, $24.33. 



FACTS ABOUT OCEAN STEAMERS. 



97 



The Navies of the World. 

(From the Statesman's Tear Book for 1894.) 
The great importance of being- able to establish a comparison between the navies of 
the different powers, has led to an attempt being made in this volume to devise a system 
of classification of warships which should make such a comparison possible. At the 
present time almost every country has a classification of its own ; and therefore the 
estimates of naval strength are given irrespective of formal systems and are based upon 
one uniform plan. Great simplicity has been aimed at. The results in regard to all but 
the least important navies are here brought together. In classifying battleships, three 
factors have been taken into consideration— displacement, age and speed- displacement 
because it implies offensive or defensive power, age as indicating efficiency, and speed 
as determining mobility. No vessel is admitted as a battleship which has less than 11 
knots sea speed, such speed being considered as two knots less than the nominal speed. 
First-class battleships are of 6,000 tons at least, and are not more than 12 years old (1893), 
the date of launch being taken ; second-class battleships (not more than 30 years old) 
and third-class battleships (not more than 27 years old) are admitted down to 5,000 tons 
displacement. Port and local defense vessels are a miscellaneous group of older and 
slower battleships, armoured gun-boats, etc. First-class cruisers, a, are all of 5,000 tons 
or more, armoured or otherwise, with a sea-speed of 15 knots at least ; cruisers of the 
same class, b, are another miscellaneous group, all armoured, but of smaller displace- 
ment or speed than the a ships, some being old vessels excluded on the ground of age 
from the battleship list. These b vessels are admitted as cruisers largely for convoying 
purposes. Second-class cruisers are of 2,000 tons or more, with a sea-speed of at least 12 
knots. With the view of simplification all other vessels of the cruising character- 
sloops, unarmoured gun vessels, torpedo gun-boats, etc., are grouped as third-class 
cruisers; those indicated by the letter a have a sea-speed of at least 10 knots; the b vessels 
are slower. Torpedo boats are divided into three classes— first-class (including destroy- 
ers and division boats) over 125 feet in length ; second-class, from 100 feet to 125 feet ; 
third-class, from 80 feet to 99 feet ; boats of less than 80 feet being considered as useful 
only for harbour purposes, are not counted. It remains to be added that the estimates 
include vessels in hand, ordered to be built, or provided for. 



Great Britain.. 

France 

Russia 

Italy 

Germany 

Netherlands... 

Spain .. 

Austria 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

Portugal 

Turkey 

Greece 

United States- 
Brazil 

Argentine 

Chile 

China 

Japan 



Battleships. 
Class. 


Port Defense Vessels. 


1st Class 
Cruisers. 


2d Class Cruisers. 


3d Class 
Cruisers. 


Torpedo 
Craft. 
Class. 


Totals. 


1 


h 


3 


a 


b 


a 


b 


1 


2 


3 


25 


9 




18 


23 


12 


63 


103 


86 


85 


33 


18 


486 


23 


8 




19 


8 


10 


37 


47 


65 


45 


US 


38 


451 


16 
9 






25 


6 


7 


3 


31 


12 


53 


6 




180 


*3 




4 


4 


5 


15 


31 


8 


lno 


31 


*4 


219 


4 


8 




14 


1 


8 


9 


22 


3 


77 


C4 




212 








2! 




6 


5 


10 


67 


0 


11 


3 


133 


'i 






2 


8 


2 


6 


24 


25 


11 


27 


1 


108 


1 


*5 




10 


1 




4 


16 


12 


24 


5 


26 


106 






16 






1 


10 


8 




16 


2 


63 








5 








4 


14 




6 


3 


31 




i 




6 




3 


'i 


6 


14 


*6 


4 


2 


42 












l 




1 


25 


5 


3 


1 


40 


'i 


1 i 




7 


i 


u 


o 




! 2 


9 


1) 


7 


1(17 




2 




3 




4 


16 


0- 


6 


6 


43 


'o 






17 




o 


13 


7 


14 


2 




1 


07 




*2 




9 






3 


4 


18 


3 


5 




44 






2 




3 


•> 




5 


8 


4 




31 


i 
l 






1 




I 


6 


2 


8 




6 


8 




i 




9 




3 


9 


12 


85 




26 


13 


m 












ft 


9 


15 


7 


T 


<H 







Facts about Ocean Steamers. 

The '* Savannah " wns tho first steamship that crossed the Atlantic. Sho made the 
first irin in 1819, taking 25 days. 

The cost of a steamship like the " Majwtic " is nearly 12,000.000. 

The great steamships consume about 300 tons of coal in 24 hours, equal to about 400 
pounds a minute. Tho average expense of a singlo voyage, New York to Liverpool and 
t turn, is about $75,000. 



93 



THE MILITIA OP THE UNITED STATES. 



Our Citizen Soldiers. 

Table showing the number, condition Und efficiency for service of the Militia of the 
United Skates, from a recent publication issued by the military information bureau of 
the Wai Department. 

STATES HOLDING ENCAMPMENTS. 



Official Designation or State Troops. 



Alabama State Troops 

Arkansas State Troops 

Connecticut, National Guard of 

Florida State Troops 

Georgia Volu nteers andVolunteers Colored 

Illinois National Guard 

Indiana Legion 

Iowa National Guard 

Kentucky State Guard 

Louisiana State National Guard 

Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 

Michigan National Guard 

Minnesota, National Guard, State of 

New Hampshire National Guard 

New York, National Guard, State of 

North Carolina State Guard 

Ohio National Guard 

Oregon National Guard 

Pennsylvania, National Guard of 

Brigade of Rhode Island Militia 

South Carolina State "Volunteer Troops.... 

Texas Volunteer Guard 

Vermont, National Guard, State of 

West Virginia National Guard 

Wisconsin National Guard 



A u tnorizpa 


Organized 


Strength. 


Strength. 


4. (Joy 


2,960 


iNot flxea. 


981 


4,383 


2,751 


i,0U4 


1 A11 


xsot nxeu. 


3.535 


1 9,400 


1 4,777 




2,633 

O OIK 


5,000 


3,500 


1.331 


Not hxed. 


1,249 


6,173 


5.566 


3,641 


<s,oUl 


2 570 


1 801 


L663 


1,255 


15,000 


12,810 


5.000 


1,782 


9,460 


6,125 


2,16'i 


1,575 


B 10,752 


8,614 


1,570 


1,476 


Not fixed. 


5,440 


6 3,000 


2,784 


784 


784 


1,438 


900 


2,862 


2,721 



Percentage 
Attending 
Camp. 



67 6 

27 0 
93 38 
66 66 
Not stated 

76.6 

76 6 
2 70 0 

68.7 

17 6 

91.0 

73.0 

;4o.o 

86.0 
3 80 0 
4 82 0 

90.9 

48.0 

98 2 

81.0 
1.5 

48.0 

98.0 



80.0 



I iable to 
Military 
Duty. 



160,000 
213.734 

97 990 
*60,000 
264.021 
650,000 
481,192 
262,799 
405 000 
138 439 
391.323 
250,001 
150,000 
*34,C00 
650.000 
235,000 
600,000 

44,444 
790,451 
130,566 



300,000 
44,164 



*306,043 



NO CAMP, BUT REPORTS RECEIVED FROM OFFICERS 



Maine, National Guard of the State of 


2,845 
Not fixed. 

2.114 s. 

2.400 
Not fixed. 

3,312 


827 

232 
1,064 
2,118 
1,794 
1,563 • 


No camp. 
No camp. 
No camp. 
No camp. 
No camp. 
No camp. 


Hi : 


Dist. of Columbia, National Guard of the. . 


169,000 
42,000 


REPORTS RECEIVED FROM ADJUTANT-GENERALS OF STATES. 




7.515 
Not stated. 
Not stated. 


4,944 
479 
3,221 


No camp. 
No camp. 
No camp. 


179,558 
40,500 
220,000 



FROM ANNUAL RETURN OF MILITIA FOR JANUARY, 1894. 



Delaware, National Guard of the State of.. 




330 
1,666 
1,705 
2,415 

526 
1,086 

493 
3,915- 

779 
1,702 

415 

470 

469 
None. 
None. 
None. 




28,' 80 
120,000 




















350,000 

25,000 
125,000 


























284 887 
32,189 
86,156 
12.000 
7,600 
25,0(t0 




















































25.000 






112,190 




8,634.040 



2. Of the one brigade attending camp. 

">. Not including JTaval Militia. 



3. Only one-half 



1. Not including 861 Nava. Militia. 
Guard at camp each year. 4. Of the two regiments ordered to camp. 
6. Enlisted; number of officers not fixed by law. 

The figures in the second and last columns are from " An Abstract of the Militia Force of the 
United States for the year 1893," and differ in some cases from those given in reports of encampments 
and officers on duty in the States. Figures obtained from those sources are marked (*). 



WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



99 



The Decisive Battles of History. 

Marathon, 490 B. C- -The Persians, under Datis, were defeated by the Athenians, 
under Miltiades. Free government preserved. 

Syracuse, 414 B. C— The Syracusans and their allies, the Spartans, under Gylippus, 
defeated the Athenians. 

Arbela, 331 B. C— The Macedonians and Greeks, under Alexander the Great, 
defeated the Persians. End of the Persian Empire. 

Metaurus, 2o7 B. C— The Romans, under Caius and Marcus Livius, defeated the 
Carthaginians under Hasdrubul. 

Phillipi, 42 B. C— Brutus and Cassius were defeated by Octavius and Antony, and 
the fate of the Republic decided. 

Actium, 31 B. C— The fleets of Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavius, 
and imperialism was established in the person of Octavius. 

Winfield- Lippe, 9 A. D.— Teutonic independence was established by the defeat 
of the Roman legions, under Varus, by the Germans under Arminius (Hermann}. 

Chalons, 451 A. D.— The confederate armies of Romaas and Visigoths defeated the 
Huns, under Attila, called the 41 Scourge of God." 

Tours, 732 A. D.— Charles Martel defeated the Saracens and rescued Christendom 
from Islam. 

Hastings, 1066 A. D.— William the Conqueror defeated the English army commanded 
by Harold, and a new regime was established in England by the Wormans. 

Siege of Orleans, 1429 A. D.— The French, under Joan of Arc, defeated the English. 
Defeat of the Spanish Armada. 1588 A. D.— England saved from Spanish invasion. 
Lutzen, 1632 A. D.— Gustavus Adolphus killed, and the religious liberties of 
Germany decided. 

Blenheim, 1704 A. D.— The English and their allies, under Marlborough, defeated 
the French and Bavarians, under Marshall Tallard. 

Pultowa, 1709 A. D.— The Russians, under Peter the Great, defeated Charles XII., 
of Sweden. 

Saratoga, 1777 A. D.— Critical battle of the American Revolution. The Americans, 
under General Gates, defeated the British. 

Valmy, 1792 A. D.— The French, under Kellermann, defeated an invading army of 
AuPtrians, Prussians and Hessiaus, under the Duke of Brunswick. The first success Of 
the Republic against foreigners. 

Trafalgar, 1805 A. D.— The great naval battle of Trafalgar was fought October 
21st, of this year, when the English defeated the French and destroyed Napoleon's hopes 
of a successful invasion of England. 

Waterloo, 1815 A. D. — The allied armies of Russia, Austria, Prussia and England, 
under the Duke of Wellington, defeated the French, under Napoleon. 

Siege OF Sebastopol, 1854-5 A. D.— The Russians succumbed to Hie beleaguering 
armies of France, Turkey and England, and the result delayed the expansion of the 
Russian Empire. . _ 

Gettysburg, July, 1863 A. D— The decisive battle of the War of the Rebellioa. The 
Union forces, under Meade, defeated the Confederates under General l-.ee. 
Sedan, 1870 A. D. — The decisive battle of the Franco-German War. 



Wars of the United States. 

NUMBER OF U. S. TROOPS ENGAGED. 



Wars. 



Revolution 

Northwestern Indian War 

War with France 

War with Tripoli 

Creek Indian War 

War of 1812 

Seminole Indian War 

Rack Hawk Indian War 

Cherokee Disturbance 

Creek Indian Disturbance 

Florida Indian War 

Aroostook Disturbance 

Mexican War - ....... ■ 

Apache, Navajo and Utah War, 

Seminole Indian War 

War of the Rebellion 



Began. 



Ended. 



Apr. 19, 
Sept. 19, 
July 9, 
Juno 10, 
July 27, 
June 18, 
Nov. 20, 
Apr. 21, 



1775 
1790 
1798 
1801 
1813 
1812 



1817 
1831 

im 
1836 
1835 
1838 

Apr. 24, 1816 
1849 
1856 
1861 



May 5, 
Dec. 23, 



Apr. 11, 
Aug. 3, 
Sept. 30, 
June 4, 
Aug. 0, 
Feb. 17, 
Oct. 21, 
Sept. 31, 

Sept. no, 
Aug. 14, 

Jujy 4, 



1783 
1795 
1800 
1805 
1814 
1815 
1818 
1882 
1837 
1837 
1843 
1839 
1818 
1855 
1858 
1885 



Regulars. 
1.30,711 



| Militia and 
,Volunteers. 
mm) 



600 
85.000 
1,000 
1,339 

'""935 
11,169 

'36,»54 
1,500 



13,181 

471,622 
6,911 
5,126 
9,191 
12,483 
29.953 
1.500 
73,776 
1,061 
3.687 



Total. 

aosTTbi 

8,983 
*4,593 
♦3,830 
13,781 
666,622 
7,911 
6,465 
9,494 
13.418 
41.122 
1,500 
112,£W 
2,561 
3.687 
2.778.8( (4 



* Naval forces engaged. 



100 



The Civil War of 1861-65. 

MEN CALLED FOR BY THE PRESIDENT AND FURNISHED FROM EACH 

STATE. 



States and Territories. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado Territory 

Dakota Territory 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Colombia... 

Florida 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska Territory — 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

New Mexico Territory. 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Tennessee 

Texas • 

Vermont 

Washigton Territory... 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Indian Nation 

Colored Troops* 



btal. 



Aggregate. 



Quota. 



780 



44,797 



13,935 
13,973 



244,496 
19^,788 
79,521 
12,931 
100,782 

73,*587 
70, 
139,095 
95,007 
26,326 



122,496 



35,897 
92,820 
507,148 



1,560 

306,322 



885,369 
18,898 
1,560 



32,074 



34,463 
109,080 



,763,670 



Men 
furnished 



2,576 
8,289 
15,725 
4,903 
55,864 
206 
12,284 
16,534 
1,290 
259,092 
196,363 
76,212 
20.149 
75,760 
5,224 
70,107 
46,638 
146,730 
87,364 
24,020 
545 
109,111 
3,157 
1,080 
33,937 
76,814 
448,850 
6,561 
3,156 
313,180 
1,810 
337,936 
23,236 
31,092 
1,965 
33,288 
964 
32,068 
91,327 
3,530 
99,337 



Paid 
commutation 



2,778,304 



1,515 

' 1,386 

338 

""55 
784 
67 
2 

3,265 

'2,007 
3,678 
5,318 
2,008 
1,032 



4,196 
18,197 



6,479 

Sin 



1,974 
'5,097 



86,724 



Total. 



2,576 
8,289 
15.725 
4, 
57,379 
206 
13,670 
16,872 
1,290 
259,147 
197,147 
76,309 
20,151 
79,025 
5,224 
72,114 
50,316 
152,048 
89,372 
25,052 
545 
109,111 
3,157 
1,080 
34,629 
81,010 
467,047 
6,561 
3,156 
319,659 
1,810 
366,107 
23,699 
31,092 
1,965 
35,262 
964 
32,068 
96,424 
3,530 
99,337 



,865,028 



Aggregate 
reduced to i 
3 years' 
standard. 



1,611 

7,836 
15,725 
3,697 
50,623 
206 
10,322 
11,506 
1,290 
214,133 
153,576 
68,630 
18,706 
70,832 
4,654 
56,776 
41,275 
124,104 
80,111 
19,693 
545 
86,530 
2,175 
1,080 
30,849 
57,908 
392,270 
4,432 
3,156 
240.514 
1,773 
265,517 
17,866 
26,394 
1,632 
29,068 
964 
27,714 
79,260 
3,530 
99,434 



2,320,369 



* The colored soldiers organized under the direct authority of the General Govern- 
ment and not credited to any State were recruited as follows: Alabama 4,969 ; Ar- 
kansas, 5,526 ; Colorado, 95 ; Florida, 1,044 ; Georgia, 3,486 ; Louisiana, 24,052 ; Mississippi, 
17,869; North Carolina, 5,035 ; South Carolina, 5,462 ; Tennessee, 20,133; Texas, 47; Vir- 
ginia, 5,723. There were also 5,896 negro soldiers enlisted at large or whose credits are not 
specifically expressed by the records. Of the number of colored troops credited to the 
states 5,052 were obtained, under the provisions of Section 3, act of Congress approved 
July 4, 1864, from the States that had seceded. 

The number of casualties in the volunteer and regular armies of the United States, 
during the war of 1861-05, according to a statement prepared by the Adjutant-General's 
office, was as follows : Killed in battle, 67.058 ; died of wounds, 43,012 ; died of disease, 
199,720; other causes, such as accidents, murder, Confederate prisons, etc., 40,154 ; total 
died, 349,941 ; total deserted, 192,105. Number of soldiers in the Confederate service who 
died of wounds or disease (partial statement), 133,821. Deserted (partial statement), 104.- 
428. Number of United States troops captured during the war, 212,608; Confederate 
troops captured, 476,169. Number of United States troops p.iroled on the field, 16,431 ; 
Confederate troops paroled on the field, 248,599. Number of United States troops who 
died while prisoners, 30,150 ; Confederate troops who died while prisoners, 30,152. 



NAVAL BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR. 



101 



Principal Battles of the Civil War. 



From "Regimental Losses In the American Civil War," by Wm. F. Fox, Lieut. Col. U. S. V. 
As to the loss in the Union armies, the greatest battles in the war were : 



Date. 


Battle. 


Killed. 


Wounded.* 


Missing. 


Aggregate. 






3,070 
2,725 
2,246 
2,108 


14,497 
13,413 
12,037 
9,549 
9,762 
9,749 
9,077 
9,600 
8,452 
8,408 
7,802 
8,513 


5,434 
2,258 
3,383 
753 
5,919 
4,774 
1,816 
1,769 
4,263 
2,885 
3,717 
1,185 


23,001 
18.399 
17,666 
12,410 
17,287 
16,179 
12,737 
12,653 
14,462 
13,047 
13.249 
11.386 






September 19-20, 1863.... 


Petersburg (assault). .. 


1,606 
1,656 
1,844 
1,284 
1,747 
1,754 
1,730 
1,688 



* Wounded in.these and the following returns includes mortally wounded, 
t Not including South Mountain or Crampton's Gap. 

% Including Chantilly, Rappahannock, Bristol Station and Bull Run Bridge. 
§ Including Knob Gap and losses on January 1 and 2, 1863. 

The Union losses at Bull Run (first Manassas), July 21, 1861, were : killed, 470 ; wound- 
ed, 1.071 ; captured and missing, 1,793; aggregate, 3,334. 

The Confederate losses in particular engagements were as follows : Bull Run (first 
Manassas), July 21, 1861, killed, 387: wounded, 1,582; captured and missing, 13; aggre- 
gate, 1,982. Fort Donelson, Tenn., Feb. 14-16, 1862, killed, 466 ; wounded, 1,534 ; captured 
and missing, 13,829 ; aggregate, 15,829. Shiloh. Tenn., April 6-7, 1862, killed, l, r ,23 ; wound- 
ed, 8,012; captured and missing, 959; aggregate, 10,694. Seven Day's Battle, Virginia. 
June25-July 1, 1862, killed, 3,478 ; wounded, 16.261 ; captured and missing, 875; iig-grrt-g;ite. 
20,614. Second Manassas, Aug. 21-Sep. 2, killed, 1,481 ; wounded and missing, 7 627 ; cap- 
tured and missing, 89 ; aggregate, 9,197. Antietam campaign, Sept. 12-20, 1862, killed, 
1,886; wounded, 9,348 ; captured and missing, 1,367; aggregate, 12,601. Fredericksbut 
Dec. 13, 1862, killed, 596 ; wounded, 4,068 ; captured and missing, 651 ; aggregate, 5,315. 
Stone's River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862, killed, 1,294 ; wounded. 7.945 ; captured and missing, 
1,027; aggregate, 10,266. Chancel lorsville, May 1-4, 1863, killed, 1,665 ; wounded, 9,081 ; 
captured and missing, 2,018 ; aggregate, 12,764. Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863, killed, 2.592 ; 
wounded, 12,706 ; captured and missing, 5,150 ; aggregate, 20,448. Chicamauga, Sept. 19-20, 
1863, killed, 2,268 ; wounded, 13,613 ; captured and missing, 1,090 ; aggregate, 16.971. 

" Gettysburg was the greatest battle of the war ; Antietam the bloodiest. The 
largest army was assembled by the Confederates at the Seven Days' fight ; by the 
Unionists at the Wilderness." 



Principal Naval Battles of the Civil War. 

1862, Feb. 6.— Fort Henry, Tenn., captured by Commodore Foote. 

Feb. 8.— Roanoke Island, N. C, captured by Commodore GoldsborOugh and General 
Burnside. 

Feb. 16.— Fort Donelson, Tenn., combined forces of General Grant and Commodore 
Foote. 

Mar. 8.— Confederate ram Merrimac sank U. S. frigates Cumberland and Congress, 

Hampton Roads, Va. 
Mar. 9.— Federal Monitor disabled the Merrimac. 
April 6.— Pittsburg landing. 
April 8.— Capture of Island No. 10. 

April 11.— Fort Pulaski, Ga., captured by land and naval forces. 
April 24.— Forts Jackson, St. Phillip and New Orleans. 
May 13.— Natchez, Miss., captured by Admiral Farragut. 
July 1.— Malvern Hill. 

1863, Jan. 11.— Fort Hindman, Ark., Admiral Barter. 

Jan. 11.— U. S. Steamer Hatteras sunk by\Jonfederate Alabama. 
Jan. 17.— Monitor Weehawken captured Confederate ram Atlanta. 
May 18.— Vicksburg, Miss., Admiral Porter. 
July 8.— Port Hudson, Miss., captured. 
July 8.— Natchez, Miss. 

1864, June 19.— U. S. Steamer Kearsarge sank the Alabama off Cherbourg, France. 
Aug. 5.— Mobile, Ala., Admiral Farragut. 

1865, Jan. 15.— Fort Fisher, N. C. captured by General lerry and Commodore Porter. 

(4 During the Civil War the Federal Navy was increased in two years to over 400 
vessels, the greater part of which were used in blockading Southern ports; many 
Confederate cruiners, however, escaped the blockade and destroyed a large number 
I)f Northern merchant vessels. 



103 



FACTS WORTH KNOWING. 



Facts Worth Knowing. 

Sound moves about 743 miles per hour. 
The Chinese invented paper 17o B. C. 
The first watches were made in 1746. 

The number of Indians in the United States in 1890 was 249,273. 

home was founded by Romulus 752 B. C. 

Postage stamps were first used in England in 1840; in United States in 1847. 
The first printing press in the United States was introduced in 1629. 
Japanese children are taught to write with either hand. 

Every President of the United States has been either a lawyer, a soldier, or both. 

There are over 1,100,000 railroad curs and 33,000 locomotives in the United States. 

Only one person in 1,000 dies of old aere. 

Of e ery 1.000.000 people in the world' 800 are blind. 

An inch of rain means 100 tons of water on every acre. 

There are at least 10,000,000 nerve fibers in the human body. 

A needle passes through eighty operations in the course of manufacture. 

There are about 180,000 suicides in the world everv year. 

The canals of the United States are 4,468 miles in length. 

Wool is manufactured into nearly 32,000 different kinds of goods. 

Italy produced 675,000,000 gallons of wine in 1893. 

It is estimated that there are 400,000,000 mummies of human beings in Egypt. 
The dark ages were from the sixth to the fourteenth century. 
The value of a ton of pure gold is $602,799.21. 
Slavery in the United States was begun at Jamestown in 1619. 
The largest bell in the world is at Moscow, Russia, and weighs 432.000 pounds. 
The highest denomination of United States legal tender notes is $10,000. 
The first theatre in the United States was at Williamsburg, Va., 1752. 
The first cotton raised in the United States was in Virginia, in 1621 ; first exported, 
1747. 

Glass was made in Egypt 3,000 B. C; earliest date of transparent glass, 719 B. C; glass 
windows were introduced into England in the eighth century. 

The first illumination with gas was in Cornwall, England, 1792; in the United States, 
at Boston, 1822. 

Printing was known in China in the sixth century ; introduced into England about 
1474; America, 1536. 

The great wall of China, built 200 B. C, is 1,250 miles long, 25 feet high, and 25 feet thick 

at the base. 

The first American library was founded in 1638, at Harvard College, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

The first steam engine used on the Western Continent was brought to this country 
from England in 1753. 

The highest natural bridge in the world is at Rockbridge, Virginia, being 200 feet 
high to the bottom of the arch. 

The longest tunnel in the world is St. Gothard, on the line of the railroad between 
Lucerne and Milan, being 9J^ miles in length. 

The highest active volcano is Popocatapetl. It is 17,784 feet in height, and its crater 
is three miles in circumference and 1,000 feet deep. 

The grade of titles in Great Britain stands in the following order from the highest : 
Prince, Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, Baron, Baronet, Knight. 

Amsterdam, Holland, is built upon piles driven into the ground. It is intersected 
by numerous canals, crossed by nearly three hundred bridges. 

Coal was used as fuel in England as early as 852, and in 1234 the first charter to dig 
for it was granted by Henry III. to the inhabitants of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The smallest known insect, PteratomusPutnamii, a parasite of the ichneumon, is 
but one-ninetieth of an inch in length. 

The thickness of human hair varies from the 250th to the 600th part of an inch; 
blonde hair is the finest, and red the coarsest. 

A sickle blade found at Karnack, near Thebes, and believed to date from about 2,000 
B. C is regarded as the oldest bit of wrought iron in the world. 

Tobacco was discovered in San Domingo in 1496; in Yucatan by the Spaniards in 1520. 
It was introduced into France in 1560, and into England in 1583. 

It is claimed that crows, eagles, ravens and swans, live to be 100 years old ; herons, 
59; parrots, (i0; geese, 50 ; sparrow hawks. 40; peacocks, canaries and cranes, 24. 

The oldest catacombs are those of the Theban kings, 4,000 vears. The catacombs of 
Rome contain the remains of about 6,000.000 human beings ; those of Paris, 3,000,000. 

The first English newspaper was the English Mercury, pamphlet shaped, issued in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign. The Gazette of Venice was the original model of the modern I 
newspaper. Tho Acta Dlurna (' k t)ay'a Doings"), published in the later days of the 
Roman Empire, was the first newspaper the world ever had. 

# In China all land belongs to the State, and a trifling sum per acre, never altered 
through long centuries, is paid as rent; this Is the only tax in the country, and it 
amounts to but about sixty cents per head, v 



FACTS WORTH KNOWING. 



103 



The " Seven Wonders of the World " of ancient times were : The Pyramids of 
Egypt, Pharos of Alexandria. Walls and Hanging- Gardens of Babylon, Temple of 
Diana at Ephesus, the Statue of the Olympian Jupiter, Mausoleum of Artemisia and 
Colossus of Rhodes. 

The Great Eastern, the largest ship ever built, was designed and constructed by 
Scott Russell, at Maxwell, on the Thames. Work upon her was commenced in May, 
1854, and 6he was launched January 13, 1858. Her total length was 600 feet ; breadth, 118 
feet; total weight when launched, 12,000 tons. Her first long trip was made to New 
York in 1859-60. A few years ago she was broken to pieces and sold to junk dealers. 

The highest building in the world, not counting the Eiffel Tower and the Washing- 
ton Monument, is the Cologne Cathedral. The height from the pavement to the top of 
the cupola is 511 feet. It is 511 feet long and 231 feet wide. It was begun August 15th, 
in the year 1248, and was pronounced finished August 14th, 1880, over 600 years after the 
the corner stone was laid. 

The great pyramid of Cheops is the largest structure ever erected by the hand of 
man. Its original dimensions at the base were 764 feet square, and its perpendicular 
height in the highest point, 488 feet ; it covers 4 acres, 1 rood and 22 rods of ground, and 
has been estimated by an eminent English architect to have cost not less than 33,000,000 

Eounds sterling. It was begun 2170 B. C. It is estimated that about 5,000,000 tons of 
ewn stone were used in its construction, and the evidence shows that these stones 
were brought from quarries in Arabia, about 100 miles distant. 

The grandest temple of worship in the world, as well as the largest, is St. Peter's 
Cathedral at Rome. It stands on the site of Nero's circus, in the northwestern part of 
the city, and is built in the form of a Latin cross. The total length of the interior is 612^ 
feet; transept, 446^ feet; height of nave, 152^ feet; diameter of cupola, 193 feet; 
height of dome from pavement to too of cross, 448 feet. The great bell alone, without 
the hammer, weighs 18,600 pounds. The foundation was laid in 1450 A. D. Forty-three 
Popes lived and died during the time the work was in progress. It was dedicated in 
1826, but was not entirely finished until 1880. It's cost was about seventy million dollars. 

Bartholdi's statue, ' l Liberty Enlightening the World," on Bedloe's or Liberty Island, 
in New York Harbor, is the largest statue ever built. It was presented to the United 
States by the French people in 1885. Eight years were consumed in construction. Its 
! weight is 440,000 pounds, of which 146,000 pounds are copper, the remainder iron and 
steel. The height of statue is 152^ feet. The electric light held in the hand is 305 feet 
above tide water. The head is 14J4 feet in diameter. The index finger is 8 feet in length, 
and the nose 3M feet. It was unveiled in 1886. 

The longest stone bridge in the world is at Lagang, China, completed in May, 1885. 
It crosses an arm of the China Sea, and is nearly six miles in length. It was constructed 
under the sole supervision of native engineers. It is composed entirely of stone, and 
has 300 arches, each 70 feet high. The largest truss iron bridge in the world crosses the 
Firth of Tay, Scotland. It is 18,612 feet in length, and contains 85 spans. The longest 
wooden bridge in the world crosses Lake Ponchartrain, near New Orleans. It is a 
trestle-work 21 miles long, built of cypress piles saturated with creosote to preserve 
them. The highest bridge in this country is over Kinzua Creek, near Bradford, Pa. It 
was built in 1882, has a total span of 2,051 feet, and is 301 feet above the creek bed. 

Brooklyn Bridge, over the East River, was begun January 2, 1870, and opened to 
traffic May 24, 1883. It cost over $15,000,000. Its dimensions are : Width, 8a feet ; length 
of river span, 1,54 5 feet 6 iuches ; length of each land span, 930 feet ; length of Brooklyn 
approach, 971 feet; length of New York approach, 1,562 feet 6 inches; total length of 
carriageway, 5,989 feet; total length of bridge with extensions, 6,537 feet. The New 
York tower contains 46,945 cubic yards masonry. The Brooklyn tower contains 38,214 
cubic yards masonry. Size of towers at high water line, 140 by 59 feet. Total height of 
towers above high water, 278 feet. Clear height of bridge in center of river span above 
high water at 90 degrees Fahr., 135 feet. Number of cables, 4. Diameter of each cable, 
1534 inches. Length of each single wire in cables, 3,578 feet 6 inches. Strength of each 
cable, 12,000 tons. Each cable contains 5,296 parallel (not twisted) galvanized steel, oil- 
coated wires, closely wrapped to a soli j cylinder. 

Tbe corner stone of the Washington Monument, the highest in the United States, 
nnd until 1889 the highest in the world, was laid July 4, 1848. Robert E. Winthrop, then 
•Speaker of the House, delivered the oration. After the work had steadily progressed 
Iforsix years, the funds of the monumental society became exhausted, and from 1854 
until 18' 9 practically nothing was done on the building. At that time the monument 
was about 175 feet high. In 1879 Congress voted an appropriation of $200,000 to complete 
the work. From that time the work was pushed steadily forward until December 6, 
1884, when the aluminum apex was 555 feet, 5% inches from the foundation, and the 
work was declared finished. The foundation is 146^ feet square ; total weight of stone 
ised In work, 81,120 tons. 

The Capitol building at Washington, D. C, is the largest building in the United 
States. The corner stone was laid December 18, 1793. by President Washington, assisted 
! >y other prominent Masons. It was partially destroyed by the British in 1814. The 
iresent dome was begun in 1*55 and finished in 1863. The flag of the United States first 
loated from it December 12, 1863. The cost of the entire building has been over $13,000,000. 
ts length is 715 feet 4 inches; width, 324 feet. It covers 3% acres of ground. Thodis- 
ance from the ground to the top of the dome is 307^ feet; diameter or dome, 135^ feet. 



104 



TAX EXEMPTION LAWS. 



Property Exempt from Taxation by the Tax Laws of the State! 

and Territories. 

Property of TJ. S., State, County and Municipality is exempt in most States. 

Alabama.— Household furniture up to $150, books, maps, charts, etc., excep 
professional libraries, tools of trade up to $25, certain farm products, all school anc 
church property. 

Alaska.— Same as Oregon. 

Arizona.— Churches, cemeteries, charitable institutions, schools, and libraries $ 
properties of widows and orphans up to $1,000 for a family, where total assessment doesl 
not exceed $2,000. 

Arkansas— School and church property in actual use, property used exclusively 
for public or charitable purposes. 

California.— Growing crops, school and church property. 

Connecticut.— Household furniture up to $500, property of honorably discharged 
soldiers and sailors up to $1,000, tools of trade up to $200, school and church property, 
parsonages up to $500, public libraries, private libraries up to $200, certain farm products. 

Colorado.— Real estate of schools and churches in actual use, public libraries. 

Delaware. — Household furniture, books, maps, charts, etc., belonging to churches 
or charitable institutions and all professional books, tools of mechanics or manufac- 
turers in actual use, stock of manufactories on hand and imported merchandise, prod- 
ucts of farms, vessels trading from ports of the State, all school and chureh property. 

Florida.— Household property of widows with dependent families and cripples un- 
able to perform manual labor up to $400, all public libraries, church and school propert j\ 

Georgia.— Public libraries, church and school property. 

Idaho.— Household property up to $200, tools of trade, growing crops, books, school 
property, church property in actual use and not rented. 

Illinois.— Church property in actual use, property of agricultural societies, U. S. 
public buildings, cemeteries and certain other public property. 

Indiana.— Public libraries, school property (with land not to exceed 320 acres), 
church property in actual use. 

Iowa.— Kitchen furniture and bedding, public libraries, private libraries up to $300, 
tools of trade up to $300, certain farm products, school property including residences of 
teachers and land up to 640 acres, church property in actual use. 

Kansas.— Household furniture up to $200 for each family, private libraries up to 
$50 and all public libraries, sugar manufactories, school buildings including land not to 
exceed 5 acres, church property in actual use including land not exceeding 10 acres. 

Kentucky.— Articles manufactured in family for family use, public libraries, certain 
farm products, all church and school property. 

Louisiana.— Household furniture up to $500, public libraries, school and church 
property, and until 1899 certain specific manufacturing property. 

Maine.— Household furniture up to $200 for each family, libraries of benevolent or 
educational institutions, a mechanic's tools necessary for his business, certain farm 
products, vessels being constructed or repaired, school property, church property in 
use and parsonages up to $6,000 each. 

Maryland.— Libraries of charitable or educational institutions, tools of mechanics 
or manufacturers 1 use by hand, all unsold farm products, school and church property. 

Massachusetts.— Household furniture up to $1,000, all farming tools, mechanics' 
tools up to $300, public libraries, vessels engaged in foreign trade, school property, 
church property in actual use. 

Michigan.— Household furniture, public libraries, private libraries up to $lfo, $-00 
of personal property besides special exemptions, church property in actual use and 
school property. 

Minnesota.— Each taxpayer entitled to exemption on $100 personal property select- 
ed by himself, public libraries, church and school property. 

Missouri.— Cemeteries, church property, school property including land not to 
exceed 1 acre in the city and 5 acres in the country. 

Mississippi.— Household furniture up to $250, certain farm products, tools of trade, 
cemeteries, school and church property, and until 1900 certain specified manufactories. 

Montana.— Books of educational institutions, school property and church property 
in actual use. 

Nebraska.— Libraries of schools and charitable institutions, school and church 
property in actual use. 

Nevada.— Household furniture of widows and orphans, property of educational 
institutions established by State laws, church property up to $5,000. 

New Hampshire.— Certain farm products, school and church property. 

New Jersey.— Household furniture of firemen, soldiers and sailors up to $500, 
libraries of educational institutions, school and church property. 

New York.— Buildings erected for use of college, incorporated academy or other 
seminary of learning; buildings for public worship, schoolhouses, real and personal 
property of public libraries ; all stocks owned by State, or literary or charitable institu- I 
tions; personal estate of incorporate company not made liable to taxation : personal 
property and real estate of clergymen up to $1,500; also many special exemptions. 



THE ITALIAN CORAL INDUSTRY. 



105 



Property Exempt from Taxation.— Continued. 

New Mexico.— Public libraries, school and church property, mines and mining claims 
for ten years from date of location, irrigating ditches, canals and flumes, cemeteries. 

North Carolina.— Each taxpayer entitled to $25 exemption on personal property 
of his own selection, public libraries, property used exclusively for educational pur- 
poses, church property in actual use. 

North Dakota.— Books, maps, etc., church and school property. 

Ohio. -Personal property up to $50, libraries of public institutions, church and 
school property, cemeteries. 

Oregon.— Household furniture up to $300, books, maps, etc., church and school 
property. 

Pennsylvania.- Household furniture, books, maps, etc., tools of trade, products of 
manufactories, all products of farms except horses and cattle over four years old, water 
craft, property of all free schools, church property in actual use. 

Rhode Island.— School property and endowments, buildings and personal estates 
of incorporated charitable institutions, church buildings in use and ground not to 
exceed 1 acre. 

South Carolina.— Household furniture up to $100, all necessary school and church 
buildings and grounds not leased. 

South Dakota.— Household furniture up to $25, all books, etc., belonging to 
charitable, religious or educational societies, school property, church buildings in actual 
use and parsonages. 

Tennessee — Personal property to the value of $1,000, articles manufactured from 
the products of the State in the hands of the manufacturers, all growing crops and un- 
sold farm products, school and church property. 

Texas.— Household furniture up to $250, books, maps, etc., school and church 
property. 

Vermont.— Household furniture up to $500, libraries, tools of mechanics and farm- 
ers, machinery of manufactories, hay and grain sufficient to Winter stock, school and 
church property. 

Virginia.— Public libraries and libraries of ministers, all farm products in hand of 
producer, church and school property. 

Washington.— Each taxable entitled to $300 exemption from total valuation, free 
and school libraries, church property up to $5,000, public schools, cemeteries, fire engines. 

Wisconsin.— Kitchen furniture, all libraries, growing crops, school property with 
land not exceeding i0 acres, church property in actual use. 

West Virginia.— Public and family libraries, unsold products of preceding year of 
manufactories and farms, colleges, academies, free schools, church property in use, 
parsonages and furniture. 

Wyoming.— Public libraries, church and school property. 



The Italian Coral Industry. 

The Journal of the Society of Arts says : " Genoa, Leghorn and Naples are the princi- 
pal ports of Italy at which coral is worked up in establishments of more or less import- 
ance. The manufacturers, or rather those who are engaged in the coral-working 
industry, buy it from the fishermen, who obtain it during the Summer months— that is 
to say, from March to October— on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Formerly the 
Italian fisherman sought for coral on the French coast, from Nice to Marseilles, and also 
in Algeria; but for some years past the French goverment having imposed a tax of 
1,000 francs on foreign boats engaged in the coral- fishing industry in French waters, 
this business has shown a decided falling off. Moreover, a large amount of coral has 
been imported into Italy from Spain, Cape Verde Islands, Japan, and sometimes from 
Dalmatia, although as regards the latter place the fishing for coral has been abandoned 
for some time past. It appears from a report recently presented to the Austrian Fish- 
ery Society of Trieste by the secretary, Mr. G. Hutterott, that prior to 1880 the product 
of the Italian coral fishery was insignificant; for example, a boat engaged in this busi- 
ness during six months of the year on the coast of Sardinia, with a crew of from ten to 
twelve men, frequently took no more than 30 kilograms of coral (about 66 pounds 
avoirdupois); a greater quantity than this was considered an excellent take. In 1880, 
however, the condition of the coral fishery was entirely changed, and very large quan- 
tities were taken, due to the discovery of a coral reef at Sciaccia, in Sicily, and it was no 
uncommon thing for the fishermen to obtain in one day as much coral as previously 
they had been only able to obtain during the whole of tho season. In this year the value 
of the coral fished amounted, according to the statistical returns of the director-general 
of the Italian mercantile marine, to about 3,000.000 lire (about $580,000). Consequently 
upon this enormous take there was a decided fall in prices, and, moreover, the supply of 
DOi al exceeded the demand, but of late years there has been a great falling off in the 
inr.ount fished. A very good description of coral is that found in Sardinian waters, 
n incipally in the Straits of Bonifacio, and is much esteemed on account of its good 
;olor. The Sciaccia coral is not so highly valued as the above, as the branches are not so 
arge and the color is not so vivid. 11 



106 



FACTS ABOUT THE BIBLE. 



Official Statement of the Single Tax Principle. 

We assert as our fundamental principle the self-evident truth enunciated in the 
Declaration of American Independence, that all men are created equal and are endowed 
by the Creator with certain inalienable right-*. 

We hold that all men are equally entitled to the use and enjoyment of what God has 
created and of what is gained by the general growth and improvement of the com- 
munity of which they are a part. Therefore, no one should be permitted to hold natural 
opportunities without a fair return to all for any special privilege thus accorded to him, 
and that that value which the growth and Improvement of tho community attaches to 
land should be taken for the use of the community ; that each is entitled to all that his 
labor produces ; therefore, no tax should be levied on the products of labor. 

To carry out these principles, Ave are in favor of raising all public revenues for 
national, State, county, and municipal purposes by a single tax upon land values, 
irrespective of improvemenis, and all the obligations of all forms of direct and indirect 
taxation. 

Since in all our States we now levy some tax on the value of land, the single tax can 
be instituted by the simple and easy way of abolishing, one after another, all other tax- 
es now levied and commensuratelyincreasingthetax on land values until we draw upon 
that one source for all expenses of government, the revenue being divided between 
local governments. State government, and the general government, as the revenue 
from direct taxis now divided between the local and State governments, or by a direct 
assessment being made by the general government upon the States and paid by them 
from revenues collected in this manner. 

The single tax would : 

" 1st. Take the weight of taxation off the agricultural districts where land has little 
or no value irrespective of improvements and put it on towns and cities where bare laud 
rises to a value of millions of dollars per acre. 

4, 2d. Dispense with a multiplicity of taxes and a horde of tax-gatherers, simplify 
government and greatly reduce its cost. 

"3d. Do away with the fraud, corruption, and gross inequality inseparable from our 
present methods of taxation, which allow the rich to escape while they grind the poor. 

kl 4th. Give us with all the world as perfect freedom of trade as now exists between the 
States of our Union, thus enabling our people to share through free exchanges in all 
the advantages which nature has given to other countries, or which the peculiar skill of 
other peoples has enabled them to attain. It would destroy the trusts, monopolies, and 
corruptions, which are the outgrowths of the tariff. 

lk 5th. It would, on the other hand, by taking for public use that value which attaches 
to land by reason of the growth and improvement of the community, make the holding 
of land unprofitable to the mere owner and profitable only to the user. It would thus 
make it impossible for speculators and monopolists to hold natural opportunities un- I 
used or only half used, and would throw open to labor the illimitable held of employ- t 
ment which the earth offers to man. It would thus solve the labor problem, do away 1 
with involuntary poverty, raise wages in all occupations to the full earnings of labor, 
make overproduction impossible until all human wants are satistied, render labor-saving | 
inventions a blessing to all, and cause f uch an enormous production and such an equit- 
able distribution of wealth as would give to all comfort, leisure, and participation in 2 
the advantages of an advancing civilization." 

With respect to monopolies other than monopoly of land, we hold that when free 
competition becomes impossible, as in telegraphs, railroads, water and gas supplies, etc., 
such business becomes a proper social function which should be controlled and managed 
by and for the whole people concerned through their proper government, local, State, 
or national, as may be. 



Facts about the Bible. 

The King James version of the Bible contains 3,566,480 letters, 773.446 words, 31,173 
verses, 1,189 chapters, and 66 books. The middle book is Micah ; the middle (and small- 
est) chapter Psalm 117 ; the middle verse the 8th of 118th Psalm. The largest book is that 
of the Psalms ; the largest chapter is Psnlm 119 ; the largest verse is the 9th of the 8th 
chapter of Esther. The word " and " occurs 46,227 times ; the word " Lord " occurs 1.855 
times ; the word " reverend " occurs but once, in the 9th verse of the lllth Psalm. The 
21st verse of the 7th chapter of Ezra contains all the letters of the alphabet except j. 

The seven Bibles of the world are the Koran of the Mohammedans, the Eddas of the 
Scandinavians, the Try Pitikes of the Buddhists, the Five Kings of the Chinese, the Three 
Vedas of the Hindoos, the Zendavesta of the Persians, and the Scriptures of the Christ- 
inns The Koran is of most recent date, being not older than the seventh century of 
the Christian era. The Eddas of the Scandinavians were first published in the four- 
teen ih century. The author of the Pitikes of the Buddhists lived and died in the sixth 
century B. C. The Five Kings of the Chinese cannot be traced to a period earlier than 
the eleventh century B.C. The Three Vedas are the most ancient books of the Hindoos, 
and in the opitiion of eminent authorities they are not older than eleven centuries B. C. 
Zoroaster, whose sayings are contained in the Zendavesta, was born in the twelfth 
century B. C. Moses lived and wrote his Pentateuch fifteen centuries B. C. 



MINERAL PRODUCTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 107 


The Mineral Production of the United States, 1892 and 1893. 

(Compiled tor The Mineral. Industry, Vol. 2, by Richard P. Rothwell, editor " The Engineering 

and Mining Journal.") 


Product. 


Customary 
Measures. 


1892. 


1893. 


Quantity. 


Value at 
Place of 
Produc- 
tion. 


Quantity. 


Value at 
Place of 
Produc- 
tion. 


Customary 
Measures. 


Metric 
Tons. 


Customary 
Measures. 


Metric 
Tons. 


Antimony ore 

Asphalt'm & ashp't rock 


Short tons... 
Pounds 


100 
850 
47,040 
28,476 
9,800 
12,588,196 
379,480 


91 
771 
42,675 
25,833 
8,891 
5,687 
172 


$5,000 
51 000 
254^016 
. 142,380 
49,000 
940,365 
64,512 
44,589,500 
5,999,150 
1,153,600 
89,727,982 
124,230,532 
23,421,117 
6,450 
110,272 


120 
850 
84,944 
26,6S2 
11,041 
8,699,000 
848,399 


109 
771 
31,701 
24,161 
10,106 
3,946 
158 


$6,000 
41,000 
174,720 
133,160 
55,205 
652,425 
87,100 
40,000,000 
5,180,797 
1,152,839 
98,091,670 
118,595,834 
14,688,495 
3,500 
95,440 
1,822,500 
140,589 
16,000 
85,000 
190,000 

345^920 
562,500 
46,800 
30,000,000 
2,250,000 
8,000 
60,000 
55,000 
100,000 
18,000 
546,000 
14,000,000 
28,750 


Cement, hydraulic — ( 


Barrels of 300- 
400 lbs 


I 8,211,181 
S 547,440 
46,850,405 
114,220,101 
12,010,829 
8 600 
13^250 




7,503.385 
596,531 
48,041,834 
113,436,871 
9,792,330 
3,893 
16,000 
54,000,000 
1,747 
1,620 
17,000 
38,000 
9,700 
45,580 
250,000 
1,709 
60,000,000 
3,750,000 
1,143 
9,150 
110,000 
75,000 




'47,352,696 
116,059,045 
12,204,203 
•3 903 
12,021 




Coal, anthracite 

Coal, bituminous 


Long tons . . . 
Short tons... 
Short tons... 


48,818,356 
115,263, 04 
9,949,986 
•1.766 
14,515 
24,492 
1,585 
1,646 
17,274 
88,612 
8,800 
41,350 
226,799 
1,550 
5,443,164 
3,810,375 
1,037 
9,297 
99,792 
34 




Short tons... 
Long tons . . . 

<i <« 
Short tons. . . 
« << 

<< M 

Barrels,2001bs 
Long tons . . . 
Short tons . . . 
Long tons . . . 
Short tons. . . 


1,504 
1,650 
16,000 
37,000 
9,000 


1,364 
1,677 
16,258 
87,5% 
8,165 


189,994 
16,500 
80,000 
185,000 
54,000 
804,800 
695,492 
41,950 
88,500,000 
2,097,600 
9,814 
129,586 
65,000 
100,000 
20,000 
650,000 
14,800,000 
40,000 
7,800 
30,229,128 
8,322,021 
3,500 
87,902 
1,000,000 
188,000 
857,000 
5,900.000 
21,000 
3,396,625 
750,500 
423,449 
16,500 
8,400 
54,750 
472,485 
89,385 
107,580 
2,200,000 
396,610,582 


Infusorial earth* tripoli 
Limestone for Iron flux. 


256,259 
1,323 
70,000,000 
4,560,000 
1,402 
19,117 
125,000 


232,458 
1,200 
6,350,200 
4,633,416 
1,272 
19,425 
113,400 
84 






75,000 




Long tons . . . 


50,000 


50,805 














Cubic feet . . . 
Pounds 


3,500 
130,000 
50,512,136 
902,723 
900 
1,398,863 




2,175 
None. 
50,349,228 
981,340 
1,500 
896,603 






59 

7,000,982 
917,257 
816 
634 
457,849 




Phosphate rock 

Plumbago, crude 

Plumbago, refined 


Bbls., 42 gals. 
Long tons . . . 
Short tons... 

Pounds 

Long tons . . . 


6,978,403 
997,140 
1,365 
406 


30,223,505 
3,434,690 
7,500 
39,503 
830,000 
200,000 
285,000 
5,717,748 
18,000 
2,780,600 
737,400 
366,825 
12,500 
450 
26,880 
337,625 
81,475 
105,925 
LJ875,006 


PyriteB 


Longtons ... 
Bavels,2801bs 
Short tons... 
In squares . . . 


'106,250 
11,784,954 
8,400 
953,000 


109,957 
1,542,133 
8,085 


95,000 
11,435,487 
3,000 
871,500 


96,526 
1,452,388 
2,721 








Soda, natural sulphate. . 


Short tons... 

<< <« 
Gross pounds 
Short tons... 


23,208 
8,800 
1,680 
1,825 

41,925 
4,205 
1,090,000 

27,500 


21,054 
2,994 
1,524 
1,656 

88,034 
3,815 


20,100 
2,500 
90 
1,344 
36,500 
3,830 
900,000 
25,000 


18,235 
2,268 
82 
1,219 

33,113 
3,475 




24,946 


22,678 












371,376,935 


Metallic. 
Aluminum, value N. Y. 
Antimony, value S. Fran 

Gold, coiiiing value. . . . . 
Pig iron, value N. Y — 

Platinum, crude 

Quicksilver, value S. F . 
Silver, coining value. . . . 
Spiegeleisen &ferroman 


Pounds 

Short tons... 

Troy ounces. 
Long tons . . ■ 
Short tons... 

Pounds 

Troy ounces. 
Fla8ks,T6Xlbs 
Troy ounces. 
Long tons . . . 
Pounds 


295,000 
200 

825,500,000 
1,596,375 
8,977,869 
205,630 
96,152 
850 
27,993 
65,000,000 
179,131 
148,400 
84,082 


134 
181 
147,647 
•49,652 
9,122,413 
186,548 
•43,614 
•11 
971 

•2,022,195 
182,015 
65 
76,279 


191 750 
36,'000 
36 716 400 
32i997;071 
134,668,035 
16,450,400 
57,691 
1,750 
1,119,720 
84,038,500 
6,647,290 
29,827 
7,7a5,993 


312,000 
350 

322,585,500 
1,739,081 
7,043,384 
193,928 
25,893 
300 
30,164 
60,500,000 
81,118 
None. 
76,255 


142 
318 
146,324 
•54,091 
7,156,782 
175,931 
•11,745 
4 9.3 
1,046 
•1,881,732 
82,424 


202 800 
63;000 
34,677 940 
35!»50!o00 
93,888,309 
14,467,029 
12,429 
9,300 
1,108,527 
78,220,450 
2,893,229 




Short tons... 


69,178 


6,214,782 








820,740,427 






267,707,795 


Est. prod'ts, unspecified 








7,500,000 
724,821.009 






6,000,000 
645,084,730 


♦Kilograms. 



108 PRODUCTION OF IRON AND STEEL. 



Iron and Steel. 

(Compiled from the Bulletins of the American Iron and Steel Association.) 

The total production of pig- iron in the United States for the calendar year 1893 was 
7,124,502 gross tons, against 9,157,000 tons in 1892, 8,279,870 tons in 1891, and 9,202,703 tons in 
1890. The total production in the first half of 1894 was 2,717,983 gross tons, against 
2,581,584 tons in the second half of 1893, an increase of 156,399 tons. As compared with 
the first half of 1893, however, the production in the first half of 1894 shows a large 
decline, the total for the first half of 1893 being 4,562,918 tons, or 1,844,935 tons more than 
the production in the first half of 1894. The total production for each half year since 
1892 has been: First half 1892, 4,769,683 tons; second half 1892, 4,387,317 tons ; first half 
1893, 4,562,918 tons ; second half 1893, 2,561,584 tons ; first half 1894,2,717,983. The output 
of pig iron by States for the calendar years 1891, 1892 and 1893, is shown in the following 
table : 



States. 
Massachusetts . 
Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey.... 
Pennsylvania.. 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

Georgia 

Alabama.. 

Texas 

West Virginia. 



1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


8,900 


7,946 


7,853 


21,811 


17,107 


12,478 


315,112 


310,395 


191,115 


92,490 


87,975 


74,305 


3,952,387 


4,193,805 


3,643,022 


123,398 


99,131 


151,773 
302,856 


295,292 


342,847 


3,217 


2,908 


2,843 


49,858 


9,950 


39,675 


795,673 


915,296 


726,888 


18,662 


8,613 


6,257 


86,283 


154,793 


81,591 



States. 



Kentucky . 
Tennessee , 

Ohio 

Indiana ... 

Illinois 

Michigan . 
Wisconsin 
Missouri ... 
Minnesota 
Colorado. . 
Oregon .... 



Totals 



1891. 



44,844 
291,738 
1,035,013 
7,729 
669.202 
213,145 
197,160 
29,229 
1,226 
18,116 
9,295 



8,279,870 



1892. 



56,548 
300,081 
1,221,913 
7,700 
949,450 
184,421 
174,961 
57,020 
14,071 
32,441 
7,628 



47,501 
207,915 
875,265 
5,567 
405,261 
117,538 
131,772 
32,360 
10,373 
45,555 
4,' 



9,157,000 I 7,124,502 



On the 30th of June, 1894, there were but 108 iron furnaces in blast, as contrasted 
with 408 out of blast ; on December, 31, 1893, there were 137 in blast and 381 out of 
blast. The number of furnaces in blast June 30, 1893, was 226; December 31, 1892, 253 ; 
June 30, 1892, 256. 

The total stocks of pig iron unsold in the hands of makers or their agents, and not 
intended for their own consumption, including stock held by the American Pig Iron 
Storage Warrant Company under control of makers, for four half-yearly periods, are 
shown in the following table : 



Dec. 31, 
1892. 


June 30, 
1893. 


Dec. 31, 
1893. 


June 30, 
1894. 


14,093 
45,627 
23,083 
113,115 

3,404 
58,893 
68,318 

5,230 

6,321 
25,818 
62,376 
30,263 
16,353 
31,322 

1,900 


12,222 
44,866 
11,268 
151,858 
2,178 
59,421 
73,188 


16,623 
42,976 
20,417 
193,286 
2,525 
92,416 
69,067 


15,387 
36,033 
15,659 
118,398 
3,703 
80,978 
70,261 


5,580 
25,562 
67,454 
45,891 
14,770 
32,845 

1,938 


5.381 
25,452 
111,737 
29,028 
16,360 
34.298 
2,502 


9,263 
22,982 
43,198 
51,411 
17,639 
30,824 

1,300 


506,116 


549,141 


662,068 


517,036 



States. 

New England 

New York 

New Jersey , 

Pennsylvania 

Maryland 

Va., N. C, Ga. and Texas , 

Alabama 

West Virginia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Ohio 

Michigan, Indiana and Minnesota 

Illinois and Wisconsin 

Missouri and Colorado 

Pacific States 

Totals 



The following table gives the production of Bessemer steel ingots in the first half of 
1894 compared with the first and second half of 1893. In the figures for the periods men- 
tioned are included the production of Bessemer steel by the Clapp-Griffiths works and 
Robert-Bessemer works : 



States. 


Ingots, Gross Tons. 


First Half 
1893. 


Second Half 
1893. 


Total 
1893. 


First Half 
1894. 




.1,337,079 
. 220,059 
232,980 
301,9.9 


789,141 
94,770 
115,162 
124,557 


2,126,220 
314,829 
348,141 
426,496 


1,129,559 
252,080 

, 171,048 
114,767 




2,092,057 


1,123,629 


3,215,686 


1,667,454 



EXPORTS OF ZINC. 



109 



Iron and Steel Continued. 

Tho following table gives the production of Bessemer steel rails of all weights and 
sections, including street rails, in the first half of 1894, compared with the first half and 
second half of 1893. In this statement are not included street and other Bessemer rails 
which were rolled from purchased blooms in any of the half years mentioned : 



States. 



Pennsylvania. ... 

Illinois 

Other States 

Totals 



Rails, Gross Tons. 



First Half 
1893. 


Second Half 
1893. 


Total 
1893. 


First Half 
1894. 


429,059 


210.372 


639,431 


284,061 


170,263 


61,997 


232,260 


95,955 


104,918 


59,744 


164,662 


19,388 


704,240 


332,113 


1,036,353 


399,404 



World's Supply of Tin. 



The amount of the world's supply of tin for the calendar year 1893 is given officially 
in the annual report of Dr. D. T. Day, chief of the division of mineral resources, United 
States Geological Survey. The total amount for the year was 67,232 tons, classed as 
follows: English production, 8,650; Straits shipments to Europe and America, 39,874; 
Australian shipments to Europe and America, 5,579 ; Banca sales in Holland, 5,418, and 
Billeton sales in Java, 5,211. The total value of tin and tinplates imported and entered 
for consumption in the United States during the year was $20,808,864. In blocks, bars or 
pigs and grain tin the quantity and value were 38,304,008 cwt., $5,675,128, and in tinplates, 
sheets, etc., 545,472,209 cwt., $15,127,736. 

World's Copper Output. 

The production of copper throughout the world in 1893 has been given at 17,250 tons 
for Germany, 160 tons for the Argentine Republic, 1,425 tons for Austria-Hungary, 7,500 
for Australia, 2,500 for Bolivia, 4,000 for Canada, 6,090 for Cape Colony, 54,270 for Spain 
and Portugal, 147,210 for the United States, 21,350 for Chili, 400 for England, 2,040 for 
Newfoundland, 2,500 for Italy, 18,000 for Japan, 8,480 for Mexico, 460 for Peru, 5,000 fox- 
Russia, 750 for Sweden and 2,850 for Venezuela. This makes a total of 303,975 tons, 
against 310,845 in 1892, 279,491 in 1891, and 269,630 in 1890. The average price per ton was 
1,093 francs in 1893, 1,150 in 1892, 1,277 in 1891, and 1,135 in 1890. 



Exports of Copper from the United States. 



Year Ending June 30. 



1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 1 
1885 
1886 
1887 



1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 



Total. 


France. 


United 
Kingdom. 


Netherlands 


Germany. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


503,160 




2,520 
22,512 




16,374 
196,988 


5,123,470 


95,349 


22,935 


14,304,160 


1,586,695 


430,753 


714,115 


2,013,947 


13,461.553 


8,207,840 


1,398,074 


315,041 


3,611,972 


11,297,876 


9,306,522 


544,186 


390,204 


2,718,921 


17,200,739 
4,206,258 


8,485,007 


180,859 


11,227 


2,480,967 


11,510,928 


931,902 


1,203,501 


2,978,601 


4,865,407 


2,917,171 


336,500 


465,750 


184,885 


3,340,531 


4,344,500 


210,747 


144,024 


116,747 


8,221,363 


2,533,526 


512,403 


72,423 


90,310 
234,270 


16,939,090 


6,101,301 


1,282,115 
3,953,762 


220,183 


44,672,493 


9,863,838 


1,014,559 


1,346,686 


24,239,258 


21,287,307 


9,653,926 


5,321,027 


4,267,652 


19.580,923 


8,510,723 


6,644,922 


4,209,186 


1,167,172 


25,303,337 


12,377,214 


5,238,769 
8,158,587 


1,195,476 


204,470 


14,334,043 


12,799,252 


2,444,727 


709,772 


20,237,409 


7,698,783 


5,102.854 


498.887 


696,069 


34,554,517 


6,474,829 


7,976,889 


3,915,420 


1,187,762 
3,186,281 


56.453,736 


11.751,263 


8,089,664 


8,530,677 


37,642,464 


19,911,540 


12,716,800 


12,817,032 


7,718,346 


195,047,642 



a Prior to 1884 sheets are included. 

Exports of Zinc from the United States 

The total exports of zinc during the fiscal years 1873 to 1894 have been 
73,953; 1874,43,566; 1875,38,090 



1873, Pounds 

1876,134,542; 1877,1,419,922; 1878,2.545,320; 1879, 2,132,949: 
]88,',1, 489,552 ; 1883, 852, 883 ; 1884,126,013; 1885, 101,685; 



1880,1,368,302; 1881,1,491,786; jno;, i^od.oo* j jlooo, <x>*,ooo , ioot, j<w,uio , joou, iui,uou j iooo, 
770,558 ; 1887, $63,199; 1888,48,616; 1889,79,867; 1890,3,511,302; 1891,1,677,088; 1892,11,769,046; 
1893, 7,796,686 ; 1894, 5,627,618 lbs. 



no 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE. 



Imports and Exports of Merchandise. 



Articles. 



IMPORTS FREE OF DUTY. 

Animals 

Articles returned 

Art works 

Books, maps, etc 

Chemicals, drugs and dyes 

Cocoa, or cacao, crude 

Coffee 

Cork wood or cork bark 

Cotton, unmanufactured 

Farinaceous substances 

Fertilizers 

Fruits, including nuts 

Furs and fur skins, undressed 

Hair 

Hats, bonnets, etc 

Hides and skins 

Household effects, etc 

India rubber and gutta percha, crude . . 

Ivory, animal 

Mattings for floors, etc 

Oils 



Ores, silver-bearing 

Paper stock, crude 

Silk, unmanufactured. 

Spices, unground 

Sugar and molasses 

Tea 



Textile grasses 

Tin, bars, blocks, or pigs, grain or 

granulated 

"Wood, unmanufactured 

All other free articles 



Total free of duty. 



IMPORTS DUTIABLE. 

Animals 

Art works 

Books and other printed matter 

Breadstuff's: Barley 

All other... 

Bristles 

Cement. 

Chemicals, drugs and dyes 

Clocks and watches 

Coal, bituminous 

Cotton, manufactures of 

Earthenware 

Feathers and artificial flowers . . 

Fish 

Flax, hemp, jute, etc.: Raw 

Manufactures of 

Fruits, including nuts 

Furs, and manufactures of 

Glass and glassware 

Hat6, bonnets, etc 

Hay; 



Hops 

Iron and steel : Iron ore 

Manufactures of: Tin plates, etc 
All other 

Jewelry and precious stones 

Lead, and manufactures of 

Leather, and manufactures of 

Malt liquors 

Marble and rtone 

Metal, metal compositions, etc 

Musical instruments 

Oils 



Faints and colors .• 

Paper, and manufactures of 

Provisions 

Bice 

Salt 



Seeds 

Silk, manufactures of 

Spirits, distilled 

Sugar and confectionery 

Tin. bars, blocks, pigs, grain or granu- 
lated 



$3,287,538 
5,857,510 

338,1 
1,161,251 
26,625,435 
2,142,061 
74,724,882 
902,047 
1,194,505 
941,998 
1,613 
5,951,362 
2,088,167 
2,431,518 



25,127,750 
2,732,972 
12,387,131 
591,502 



1,749, 

6,951,719 

5,925,04' 
19,333,229 

2,984,198 
12,084,666 
12,654,640 
483,212 

7,014,495 

4,439,624 
12,766,892 



256,487,078 



$3,936,505 
1,308,597 
2.913,942 
7,723,838 
305,886 
1,284,724 
1,459,838 
13,029,237 
2,082,940 
3,929,245 
26,805,942 
6,476,299 
1,827,964 
3,235,S60 
20,468,475 
25,705,553 
12,795,055 
5,328,056 
7,713,921 
4,197,877 
1,082,885 
1,155,4?2 
1,507,653 
21,222,653 
21,155,140 
12,000,026 
549,257 
11,296,322 
1,361,990 
1,006,577 
8,327,020 
1,721,428 
1,878,614 
1,294,811 
2,542,383 
1,774,391 
8,005,271 
948,131 
4,438,431 
85,122,706 
1,928,087 
81,249,815 



1890. 



Year Ending June 30. 

1892! 



$3,496,655 
4,231,952 
400,128 
1,115, 

26,814,390 
2,312,781 

78,267,432 
1,213,876 
1,392, 
1,108,726 
1,213,989 
6,867,670 
2,165,213 
3,866,231 



21,881,886 
2,735,099 
14,854,512 
848,105 



1,828,214 
7,748,572 
5,261,448 
2-i.325.531 
2,973,994 
11,559,142 
12,317,493 
697,680 

6,898,909 
4,242,085 
14,028,835 



265,668,629 



$3,270,277 
1,796,372 
2,878,717 
5,629,8-19 
404,423 
1,286,219 
2,172,952 
14,787,688 
2,114,284 
3,087,760 
29,918,055 
7,030,301 
2,639,292 
3,710,382 
19,844,087 
28,421,279 
13,878,801 
5,388.603 
7,352,513 
3,398,657 
1,148,445 
1,053,616 
2,415,714 
20,928,150 
20,751,351 
13,541,586 
657,658 
12,436,080 
1,427,608 
1,297,637 
4,234,082! 
1,703,129 
1,531,739 
1,343,457 ' 
2,816,860 
2,011,314 
2,012,120 
950,925 
S.530,631 
38,086,374 
2,214,200 
89,734,684 



$2,465,110 
4,466,279 
395,858 
1,655,514 

31,639,714 
2,817,168 

96,123. 
1,249,008 
2,825,004 
549,760 
1,525,384 

10,422,814 
2,822,166 
2,265,714 
1,549,725 

27,930,759 
2,920,050 

18,020,804 
886,302 
1,489,093 
2,369,432 
8,953,608 
5,019,533 

19,076,081 
2,889 

45,333.773 

13,828,993 

15,305,699 

7,977,545 
5,270,972 
26,196,562 



306,241,352 



$2,480,255 
2,014,510 
2,571 
3,222,593 
1,261,856 
1,357 " 
4,021,998 

15,677,317 
2,284,906 
3,588,273 

29,712,624 
8,381,388 
3,119,493 
4,794,242 
5,981.006 

24,024,094 

15.560,322 
7,006,683 
8,364,312 
672,935 
415,461 
1,797,406 
2,430,159 

35,746, 

17.494,102 

13,830,868 
2,500,886 

12,683,303 
1,765,702 
1,362,713 
7,222,670 
1,444,755 
1,532,462 
£439,127 
8,031,454 
2,108,891 
4,113,910 
928,889 
2,385,92*. 

87,880,143 
2,209,736 

52,792,512 



$1,675,803 
4,3-17,920 
306,069 
1,880,668 

31,528,331 
3,221,041 
126,801,607 
1,368,244 
3,217,521 
257,739 
1,431,285 
9,649,578 
3,352,429 
1,685,562 
1,897,190 

26,658,133 
2,921,893 

19,833,090 
893,139 
1,637,473 
3,329,244 
9,606,065 
5.448,263 

25,059,325 
2,740,087 
106,720,226 

14,373,222 

10,478,122 

8,667,870 
5,569,991 
15,442,528 



1893. 



$1,425,720 
4,649,055 
428,946 
2,077,589 

36,566,034 
4,017,801 

76,668,983 
1,641,294 
4,688,799 
327,878 
1,231,969 

10,026,227 
4,049,173 
2,005,796 
2,262,472 

27,020,77f 
3,512,66' 

17,904,66' 
1,083,539 
1,665,106 
3,596,261 

11,100,74" 
6,272,298 

29,836,986 
3,002,002 
116,947,430 

13,857,482 

18,806,918 

12,358,999 
6,042,889 
18,807,709 



457,999,058 4-14,544,211 



$2,575,S13 
2,030,599 
2,115,41" 
1,592,040 
3,039,408 
1,455,058 
3,855,572 

14,433, ~ 
1,930,538 
4,373,079 

28,i2S,841 
8,708,598 
2,738,013 
4,585,450 
2,045,972 

26,293,217 

11,294,328 
6,841,702 
8,758,964 



715,151 
883,701 
2,592,401 
12,315,562 
16,105,185 
12,9?2,938 
3,653,378 
13,300,321 
1,709,960 
1,385,810 
6,574,483 
1,031,485 
1,604,720 
1,372,052 
3,342,304 
1,796,096 
2,663,350 
713,901 
779,793 
81,172,894 
1,871,110 
004,072 



$3,210,475 
2,360,765 
2,117,430 
921,605 
1,691,092 
1,508,258 
3,760,444 

16,271,005 
1,997,982 
3,014,202 

33,500,293 
9,529,431 
2,530,918 
4,942,172 
2,564,637 

28,130,694 

13,661,195 
0,518,634 
8,021,741 



904,755 
1,085,407 
1,242,797 
17,565,640 
16.885,094 
15,805,208 
5,792,624 
15,987,995 
1,940,370 
1,737,938 
7,118,059 
994,866 
2,067,123 
1,406,761 
8,880,981 
2; 124,593 
2,440,591 
692,493 
661,462 
38,958,9*8 
2,000.319 
1,354,174 



1894. 



$1,090,687 
3,453,621 
238,382 
1,875,254 

27,430,057 
2,402,382 

87,167,993 

. 985,913 
3,010,205 
220,459 
1,139,294 
8,890,602 
2,639,994 
839,972 
2,017,678 

15,838,888 
2,774,894 

15,162,333 
374,685 
1,874,647 
2,250,207 
6,631,011 
3,048,094 

16,234,182 
2,004,701 
126,619,1 

14,143,107 

10,579,173 



5,966,598 
12,891,184 



379,796,006 



$1,310,379 
1,484,168 
1,584,182 
358,744 
1,622,573 
929,231 
3,265,087 

10,119,917 
1,200,620 
3,704,046 

22,346,479 
6,879,199 
2,454,688 
4,643,7d0 
1,576,763 

19,230,001 
9,862,062 
4,979,224 
5,216,653 



761,937 
484,415 
388,720 
11,969,518 
8,624,855 
5,342,780 
6,595,792 
9,416,145 
1,510,7^0 
1,288,929 
4,486,329 
619,459 
1,699,511 
t>80,099 
2,628,064 
1,797,847 
2,014,896 
592,722 
1,067,487 
24,811,850 
1,499,374 
2,252,151 

2,624,188 



f'nf PORTS AND EXPORTS OF MERCH A NDISE.— Continued. 



11! 



Imports and Exports of Merchandise.— Continued. 



Articles. 



imposts dutiable.— Continued. 

Tobacco: Leaf 

Manufactures of 

Toys 

Vegetables 

Wines 

Wood, and manufactures of 

Wools : Unmanufactured 

Manufactures of 

All other dutiable 

Total dutiable 



Total value of imports of mdse. 
Per cent, of free of duty 



Year Ending June 30. 



DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

Agricultural implements 

Animals : Cattle 

All other 

Books, maps, engravings, etc 

Breadstuffs: Corn and meal 

Wheat and wheat flour... 

All other 

Carriages and cars 

Chemicals, drugs and dyes 

Clocks and watches 

Coal 

Copper : Ore 

Manufactures of 

Cotton: Unmanufactured 

Manufactures of 

Fertilizers 

Fish 

Flax, hemp, jute, manufactures of 

Fruits, including nuts 

Furs and fur skins 

Grease, and all soap stock 

Hides and skins 

Hops 

India rubber, and manufactures of 

Instruments 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of — 

Leather, and manufactures of 

Marble and stone 

Musical instruments 

Naval stores 

Oil cake and oil-cake meal 

Oils: Animal 

Mineral, crude 

Refined or manufactured 

Vegetable 

Paper, and manufactures of 

Paraffin and paraffin wax 

Provisions: Meat products 

Dairy products 

Seeds 

Soap 

Spirits, distilled 

Sugar and molasses 

Tobacco: Unmanufactured 

Manufactures of 

Vegetables 

Wood, and manufactures of 

All other articles 

Total value of exports of domestic 

merchandise 

Total value, of exports of foreign 
merchandise 



1889. 



$10,868 
3,742 
LS65 
2,269 
7,706. 
11,284 
17,974, 
52,564 
16,823. 
488,644 



745,131,652 
34.42 



3,623,769 
16,616,917 
1 757,; — 
l!712;079 
33,852,762 
86,949,186 
3,074,713 
3,090,521 
5,542,755 
1,355,319 
6,690,479 
7,518,258 
2,348,954 
237,775,270 
1«,212,644 
988,569 
5,969,735 
1,644,485 
5,071,584 
5,034,435 
82^.876 
909,798 
2,823,832 
831,748 
1,033,388 
21,156,077 
10,747,710 
657,052 
998,068 
5,965,851 
6,927,912 
1,117,856 
5,083,132 
44,830,545 
1,585,783 
1,191, 
2,029,602 
93,403,418 
10,719,026 
3,874,50-1 
839.358 
2,218,101 
2,117,533 
18,901, ~" 
3,708,600 
1,419,&52 
26,910.672 
16,592,790 




730,282,609 



12,118,760 



3,859,184 
31,261,131 
2,376,99' 
1,880,094 
43,554,894 
102,312,074 
9,058,959 
4,746,678 
6,224,504 
1,695,136 
6,856,088 
6,053,236 
2,349,r " 
250,968,792 
9,999,27 
1,618,681 
6,040,826 
2,094,807 
4,059,547 
4,661,934 
1.506,819 
1,828,635 
1,110,571 
1,090,;— 
1,429,785 
25,542,208 
12,438,847 
961,316 
1,105,134 
7,444,446 
7,999,926 
1,086,643 
6,744,235 
44,058,854 
5,672,441 
1,226,686 
2,408,7*9 
123,182,650 
13,081,850 
2,037,888 
1,109,017 
1,633,110 
3,029,413 
21,479,556 
3,876,045 
1,357,095 
28,274,529 
197098,870 



845,293,828 



12,531,850 



1891. 



$ 13,284,162 
3,478,979 
2,279,121 
7,076,374 
10,007,060 
14,611,214 
18,231,372 
41,060. 
^^309^853 
478,074,844 

844,916,1% 

43.35 



8,219,130 
30,445,249 
2,489,837 
1,820,470 
18,599,664 
106,125,888 
3,396,104 
4,901,120 
0,545.354 
1,580,164 
8,391,026 
7.260,893 
4,614,59' 
290,712,898 
13,604,85' 
2,182,274 
4,996,621 
1,504,740 
2,434,7! 
3,230,705 
2,038,886 
1,333,655 
2,327,474 
1,236,443 
1,575,444 
28,909,614 
13,278,84 
845,154 
1,326, 
8,191,013 
7,452,094 
1,281,783 
5,876,452 
46,150,282 
4.302,936 
1,299,169 
3,714.649 
129,153,091 
9,803,780 
2,500,899 
1,137,263 
1,887,431 
7,099,788 
21,033,759 
4,186,713 
1,335,975 
26,270,010 
18,597.676 



1892. 



1893. 



$10,332,423 
2.926,1.61 
2,476,132 
2,883,227 
8.944,503 
11,276,44 
19,6S8,108 
35,565,879 
15,435,390 
369,402; 

827,402,462 

55.35 



3,794,983 

35,099,095 
1,399,126 
1,943,228 

42,510,421 
230,761,415 

20,091,281 
3,264,435 
6,693,855 
1,229,616 
8,649,158 
6,036, 
7,226. 
258,401,241 

13,220,2 
2,657,120 
4,522,762 
1,998,003 
6,626,145 
3,586,339 
1,298,598 
1,223,895 
2,420,502 
1,416,067 
1,388,117 

28,800,930 

12,081,781 
707,536 
1,164,656 
7^89,933 
9,713,204 
978,688 
5,101,840 

39,704,152 
5,334,955 
1,382,251 
3,965,263 
130,003,266 

10,358,893 
6,252,282 
1,068,207 
2,401,117 
1,935,981 

20,670,045 
4,069,380 
1,898,145 

25,788,967 

20,837,027 



$14,702 
2,910 
2,883 
5,580 
10,205 
10,509, 
21,064 
38,048, 
2 0,179, 
421,856 



44o!$11.00l,798 



,711 
,400,922 
51.31 



4,657,333 
20.032,428 
1,495,557 
1,808,873 
25,380,592 
109,029,317 
5,902,745 
2,575,672 
6,754,068 
1,204,181 



2,154,146 
2.149,641 
£894,992 
6,739,425 
12,187,502 
6,107,438 
19,439.350 
15,299,234 



275,199,145 
654.995,151 
57.98 



5,027,828 
33,455,092 
2,213,092 
2,618,625 
30,981,680 
128.078,801 
7,114.077 
3,349,605 
7,399,451 
1,302,778 



10,004,1381 11,912436 
4,591,338 2.455. * 



4,525,573 
188,771,415 
11,809,355 

3,927,843 

4,750,769 

1,778,740 

3,918,799 

3,099,579 

1,067,723 

1,497,003 

2,095,80' 

1,009,406 

1,345,621 
30,106,4.82 
11,942,154 
856,509 

1,S24,107 

7,287,301 

9,6R8,773 
535,816 

4,567,391 

37,574,007' 37,082,442 
4,505,355 1 6,460,599 
1,540,880: 1,904,218 
4,515,534 3.8:>0.<r.O 
128,:-CiU,098 I35,084,0i0 
9,571,493 ; 9,578,193 
3,993,729 7.941,985 



19,097,140 
210.809.289 
14,340,683 
5,038,445 
3,492,183- 
1.742,02-1 
2,220,965 
4,233,485 
1,380,290 
3,9?2,487 
3.844.194 
1,401,792 
1,733,9S6 
29,214,393 
14.281,930 
1,054,704 
972.115 
6,790,948 
8,807,807 
40,223 
4,415,064 



,007,233 
',721,107 
2,303,370 



1,189,720 
5,670,936 
2,209,265 



22,891,899 24,085,234 

4,050,555: 3,849,452 

1,897,997| 1,740,604 

26,666,435 27.642,051 

21,255,467 23,599,532 



1015,732,011 831,030. 7S5 869.307.941 



14,546,137; 16,634,409 22,935,606 



Imports and Exports of Gold and Silver Coin and Bullion. 

Imports.— Year ending June 80,1891: Gold, $18,232,567: Silver, $18,026,880. Year eudin* June St), 
1892: G'dd, $49,699,451; Silver, $19,»55,<H6. Year ending June 30, 1893 : Gold, $21,174,381; Silver, $23, 193, 252. 
fear ending June 30, 1894: Gold, $72.449,119 ; Silver, $13,286,552. 

EXPORTS. — Year ending June 30, 1891: Gold, $86,362,654 ; Silver, $22,590,988. Year ending June 30, 
1892: Gold, *5i i, 1 95,327 ; Silver, $.'12,810,559. Year ending June 30. 1893: Gold, $RN,6S0,844: Sllvur, 
$40 737,319. Year ending June 30, 1894: Gold. $76,978,061; Silver, $50,451,265. - 



112 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE- Continued. 



Imports and Exports of Merchandise, Fiscal Years 1894 and 1893. 



Countries from which Imported, 
and to which exported. 



Europe— Austria-Hungary 

Azores and Madeira Islands 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Gibraltar 

Greece 

Greenland, Iceland, etc 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Koumania 

Russia, Baltic and White Seas. . ., — 

Russia, Black Sea 

Servia 

Spain 

Sweden and Norway 

Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe 

"United Kingdom— England 

Scotland 

Ireland 

North America— Bermuda 

British Honduras 

Canada— Nova Scotia.N.Bruns'ck, etc 

§uebec, Ontario, etc 
ritish Columbia 

Newfoundland and Labrador 

Central American States— Costa Rica 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Salvador 

Mexico 

Mlquelon, Langley, etc 

West Indies— British 

Danish 

Dutch 

French 

Haiti 

Santo Domingo 

Spanish— Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

South America— Argentine Republic. . 

Bolivia . 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guianas— British 

Dutch 

French 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Asia— China , 

East Indies— British 

Dutch 

French 

Hongkong 

Japan 

Korea 

Russia, Asiatic 

Turkey in Asia 

All other countries in Asia 

Total Oceanica 

Total Africa 

All other countries- 
British Possessions, all other 

German Oceanica 

Spanish Possessions, all other 

All other islands and ports 

Grand total 



Imports. 



$6,896,341 
10,234 
8,609,711 
194,900 
47,550,274 
09,387,835 
11,104 
798,281 
170,215 
18,006,675 
10,690,979 
2,030,966 



$10,054,501 

2?;on 

11,166,196 
235,855 
70,076,215 
96,210,203 
181,220 
1,283,557 
110,618 
26,250,241 
17,448.948 
2,689,731 



1,636,920 
1,214,350 
22,360 
4,255,875 
3,112,066 
11,450.270 
1,637,218 
89.327,408 
11,375.564 
6,669,954 
444,595 
112,966 
4,473,712 
22,921,523 
3,435,813 
535,815 
2,287,384 
2,225,586 
765,138 
1,564,472 
2,920,469 
28,727,096 
117,255 
13,018,108 
510,470 
62,687 
18,318 
835,197 
8,200,852 
75,678,261 
3,135,634 
3,497,030 



79,360,159 
3,536,197 
2,234,887 
816,484 
4,223.970 
1,078,541 
23,400 
1,001 
491,384 
1,419,573 
8,464,481 
17,134,928 
14,782,745 
11,325,641 



3,031,479 
2,703,617 
23,808 
5,694,553 
4,176,384 
10.010,728 
2,215,464 
154,281,905 
18,657.007 
9,920,857 
759,846 
155,171 
5,706,714 
29,186,239 
2,884,510 
408,879 
2,309,358 
2,554,710 
684,912 
1,100,236 
1,355,730 
33,555,099 
67,691 
16,023,592 
547,626 
271,594 
8,340 
736,021 
2,390,315 
78,706,506 
4,008,623 
5,239,095 
5,476 
76,222,138 
3,995,441 
3,572,918 
960,228 
5,029,178 
1,079,710 
35,965 



819,168 
1,623,380 
3,625,118 
20,680,535 
25,908,554 
8,090.583 



i Increase, 
d Decrease 



d $3,158,160 
d 16,777 
d 2.550,455 
d 10,955 
d 28,525,941 
(I 26,S2:?,.%8 
d 170,110 
d 485,270 
159,602 
d 8,243,566 
d 6,757,969 
d 658,765 



d 1,394,559 
d 1,489,267 
d 1,448 
d 1,438,678 
d 1,064,318 
d 4,560,458 
d 578,246 
d 64,954,437 
d 7,281,443 
d 3,250,903 
d 315,251 
d 42,205 
d 1,233,002 
d 6,264,716 
1 551,303 
1 126,930 
d 21,974 
d 329,124 
1 80,226 
1 164,236 
1 1,570,739 
d 4,828.003 
i 49,564 
d 3,010,424 
d 37,156 
d 208,907 
i 9,978 
1 99,176 
1 804,537 
d 3,028,245 
d 872,989 
d 1,742,065 
d 5,476 
i 3,138,021 
d 459,244 
d 1,338,031 
d 143,744 
d 805,208 
d 1,169 
d 12,501 
i 1,001 
d 327,784 
d 203,807 
d 160,63 
d 3,501,607 
d 11,185,809 
1 2,629,053 



Exports. 



$527,509 
294,933 
28,422,989 
5,051,837 
55,815,511 
92,357,160 
508,086 
124,449 



13,978,650 
43,570,312 
5,194,231 
91,198 
6,223,623 
553,852 



13,168,002 
4,391,046 
17,124 
85,166 
374,917,816 
37,800,122 
18,345,749 
928,878 
320,923 
4,050,617 
50,522,398 
1,764,676 
1,649,129 
1,002,051 
1,664,584 
558,511 
1,324,760 
1,071,695 
12,841,940 
156,044 
8,503,405 
581,959 
598,2€7 
1,846,401 
5,743,935 
1,768,611 
20,125,321 
2,720,508 
4,862,746 
10,071 
13,866,006 
2,249,635 
2,784,634 
761,1" 
2,404,420 
389,05' 
117,957 



863,131 878,078 
19,416,549 27,451, 220' 

79| 

855,476 881,919 
2,204,973 3,533,197; 
63,501' 75,276! 
21,454,215! 25,997,378 
3,476,542 5,857,032; 



d 14,947 
d 8,037,671 
d 79 

d 26,443 
d 1.328.221 

d 11,775 
d 4,543,163 
d 2,380,490 



2,471,937; d 811,298 



180 

52,523; 59,509 

651,995,151 806,400,922: d 211.405,771 892,143,54' 



1 180 
d 6,986 



591,377 
1,015,171 
4,137,163 
5,861,828 
4,329, 
1,722,870 

193,049 
4,174,018 
3,982,260 



163,855 
107,162 
297,628 
11,881,336 
4,919,845 

581,664 
1,330 
2,312 
51,288 



$571,037 
298,887 
26,740,434 
5,270,434 
46,619,138 
83,578,988 
434,226 
130,461 
2,800 
13,019,539 
88,505,193 
5,727,334 
48,798 
2,035,581 
266,242 



i Increase 
dDecrease 



d $43,528 
i 1,046 
1 1,682,555 
d 218,597 
i 8,696,373 
i 8,778,172 
i 73,860 
d 6,012 
d 2,800 
i 959,111 
i 5,065,119 
d 533,103 
1 42,400 
14,188,042 
i 287,610 



13,460,083 
4,084,704 
7,391 
45,889 
61,410,055 
30,890,882 
22,833,664 
962,116 
405,168 
3,662,101 
41,300,151 
1,832,079 
1,834,177 
1,210,740 
1,763,862 
471,695 
937,859 
1,138,430 
19,508,034 
197.220 
8,044,840 
604,323 
752,703 
1,818,955 
5,472,040 
1,143,479 
24,157,698 
2,510,607 
4,979,696 
24,849 
12,388,124 
2,980,831 
3,155,777 
817,425 
2,000,675 
873,359 
113,353 



636,721 
960,606 
4,207,661 
3,900,457 
3,152,760 
1,183,605 
156,020 
4,216,602 
8,195,494 



d 292,081 
i 306,342 
i 9,733 
i 39,277 
1 13,507,761 
1909,290 
d 4,487,915 
d 33,238 
d 84,245 
1 388,516 
1 9,222,247 
d 67,403 
d 185,048 
d 208,689 
d 99,278 
i 86,816 
i 386,901 
d 66,735 
d 6,726,694 
d 40,582 
I 458,559 
d 22,364 
d 154,436 
i 27,446 
i 271,895 
1 625,132 
d 4,032,377 
i 209,901 
d 116,950 
d 14,778 
i 1, 177,882 
d 731,196 
d 371,143 
d 56,247 
i 403,745 
i 15,698 
i 4,604 



d 45,344 
i 54,505 
d 70,498 
i 1,961,371 
i 1,176,343 
i 539.271 
i 37,029 
d 42,584 
i 786,766 




INTERNAL REVENUE STATISTICS. 



113 



Value of Imports and Exports of Merchandise, 1873=94. 



Year 
Ending- 
June 30 



J 873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876- 
1877- 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881- 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887- 



1890-. 
1891.. 
1892., 



Exports. 



Domestic. Foreign 



$50.1,033,439 
569,433,421 
499,284,100 
525,582,247 
589,670.224 
680,709,2(58 
698,340,790 
823,946,353 
883,925,947 
733,239,732 
804,223,632 
724,964,852 
726,682,946 
665,964.529 
703.022 923 
683,862,104 
730,282,609 
845,2 -'3,828 
872,270.283 
1,015,732,011 
831,030,785 
869,207,941 



$17,446,48:5 
16,849.619 
14,158,611 
14,802,424 
12,804,996 
14,156,498 
12,098,651 
11,692,305 
18,451,399 
17,302,525 
19,615,770 
15,548,757 
15,506,809 
13,560,301 
13,160,288 
12,092,403 
12.118,766 
12,534,856 
12,210,527 
14,546,137 
16,634,409 
22,935,606 



Total 
Exports. 



$522,479,922 
586,283,040 
513,442.711 
540,384,671 
602,475,220 
694,865,766 
710,439,441 
8135,638,658 
902,377,346 
750,542,257 
823.839,402 
740,513,609 
742,189,755 
679,524,830 
716,183,211 
695,954,507 
742,401,375 
857,828,684 
884,480,810 

1,030,278,148 
847,665,194 
892,143,547 



Imports. 



$642,136,210 
567,406,342 
533,005,436 
460,741,190 
451,323,126 
437,051,532 
445,777,775 
667,954,746 
642,664,628 
724,639,574 
723,180,914 
667,697,693 
577,527,329 
635,436,136 
692,319,768 
723,957,114 
745,131,652 
789,310,409 
844,916,196 
827,402,462 
866,400,922 
654.995,151 



Pv^^teLnrl ExCeSS ° f EXCCSS of 

Impo?t a s? E *P^ ts - 



$1,104,616,132 
1,153,689,382 $18,876 

1,046,448,1471 

1,001,125,861 79,643 
1,053,798,346! 151,152 
1,131, 917,2<J8i 257,814, 
1,156.217,216 264,661 
1.503,593,404 167,683. 
1,545,041,974 1 259,712 



25,902. 
100,658. 
72,815. 
164,662, 
44,088. 
23,863. 



1,475,181,831 
1,547,020,316 
1,408,211,302 
1,319,717,084 
1,314,960.966 
1,408,502,979 
1,419,911,621 
1,487,533,027 
1,647,139.093 
1,729,397,006 
1,857,880,610 
1,714,066,116 
1,547,138,698!237,148 



68.518. 
39,564, 
202,875, 



$119,656,288 
" 1975*62,72 



28.002,607 
2,730,277 



18,735,728 



The imports and exports of specie are not included in the above table. 

Internal Revenue Statistics. 
AGGREGATE COLLECTIONS OF INTERNAL REVENUE BY STATES AND 
TERRITORIES FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1894. 



States and Territories. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California (a)... 
Colorado (b).... 
Connecticut (c) 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas (d) 

Kentucky 

Louisiana (e) ... 
Maryland (/) .. 
Massachusetts • 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 



Aggregate 
Collections. 



$112,768.14 
103,340.20 
1,907,921.20 
288,220.14 
1,044,999.17 
416,332.82 
413,442.43 
30,942,233.86 
4,920,667.23 
488,288.13 
362,739.97 
24,308,630.94 
828,647.06 
3,842,242.59 
2,453,203.™ 
2,127,647.28 
2,178,592.49 
7,636,660.61 



States and Territories. 



Montana (a) , 

Nebraska (h.) 

New Hampshire (i). 

New Jersey 

New Mexico (7c).... 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon (I) 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total $147,168,442.41 



Aggregate 
Collections. 



$150,257 
2,240,292 
494,012 
4,230,610 
36,720 
18,922,111 
2,369,781 
12,454,898 
340,531 
12,151,196 
73.834 
1,010,291 
377,100 
2,548.051. 

864,380. 
4,517,792. 



a Including the State of Nevada, b Including the State of Wyoming, c Including 
the State of Rhode Island, d Including the Indian Territory and the Territory of Okla- 
homa. 6 Including the State of Mississippi. / Including the State of Delaware, District 
Of Columbia, and two counties of Virginia, g Including the State of Idaho and the 
Territory of Utah, h Including the States of North Dakota and South Dakota. 
i Including the States of Maine and Vermont, k Including the Territory of Arizona. 
I Including the State of Washington and the Territory of Alaska. 

WITHDRAWALS FOR CONSUMPTION. 
The quantities of distilled spirits, fermented liquors, manufactured tobacco, snuff, 
cigars, cigarettes, and oleomargarine on which tax was paid during the llscal year 1894 
are as follows : 

Spirits distilled from apples, peaches and grapes, 1.430,553 gals.; spirits distilled from 
materials other than apples, peaches and grapes, 87,346,834 gals.; fermented liquors, 
33,334,783 bbls.; cigars, cheroots and cigarettes weighing over 3 lbs. per 1,000, 4,066,917,433; 
cigarettes weighing not over 3 lbs. per 1,000, 3,183,574,700; cigarettes weighing over 3 lbs. 
per 1,000, 208,370 ; snuff, 11,627,092 lbs.; tobacco, chewing and smoking, 235,451,805 lbs.; 
oleomargarine, 66,427,900 lbs. 



114 



INTERNAL REVENUE STATISTICS.-Continm-d. 



INTERNAL REVENUE RECEIPTS, 1892, 1893 AND 1894. 



Objects of Taxation. 



spirits. 

Spirits distilled from apples, peaches and 

grapes 

Spirits distilled from materials other than 

apples, peaches and grapes 

Rectifiers (special tax) 

Retail liquor dealers (special tax) 

Wholesale liquor dealers (special tax) 

Manufacturers of stills (special tax) 

Stills and worms manufactured (special 

tux) 

Stamps for distilled spirits intended for 

export 



Total 



TOBACCO. 



Cigars, cheroots and cigarettes weighing 
over three pounds per thousand 

Cigarettes weighing not over three 
pounds per thousand 

Cigarettes weighing over three pounds 
per thousand 

Snuff 

Tobacco, chewing and smoking 



Total 



Receipts during fiscal year ended June GO. 



1892. 



$1,764,956.15 

83,776,252.86 
208.3 j 6 32 
5,080,176.95 
468,793 01 
1,647.93 

4,810.00 

5,030.40 



91,309,,983.65 

13,646,398.25 
1,446,491.42 



669.861.08 
15.237,742.32 



FERMENTED LIQUORS. 



Ale, beer, lager beer, porter and other 
similar fermented liquors 

Brewers (special tax) 

Retail dealers in malt liquors (special tax). 

Wholesale dealers in malt liquors (special 
tax) 



Total. 



OLEOMARGARINE. 

Oleomargarine, domestic and imported... 

Manufacturers of oleomargarine (special 
tax) 

Retail dealers in oleomargarine (special 
tax) 

Wholesale dealers in oleomargarine (spe- 
cial tax) 



31,000,493.07 



29,431,498.06 
1'3,880.14 
184,160.62 

247,913 95 



30,037,452.77 

945,675.00 
10,400.00 
' 204,215.00 
106.036 00 



1893. 



$1,518,787.02 

87,712,513.03 
182,408.53 
4.8f57.324 .39 
425.339 27 
1,325.01 

4,440.00 

8.123.30 



94.720,260.55 

14,442,591.35 

1,588,346 85 

15 00 
714.7 r 3 63 
15.143.984.91 



31,889,711.74 



31,962,743.15 
168,666-78 
174,043.08 

243,530.06 



32,548,983.07 

1.301,317.50 
15,350.00 
238,332.00 
115.644.00 



Total 



BANKS, BANKERS, ETC. 



Bank circulation 

Notes of persons, State banks, towns, 
cities, etc., paid out 



1,266,326.00 



Total 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Penalties 

Opium manufactured in the United 

States for smoking purposes 

Collections not otherwise herein provided 

for 



Total 

Aggregate recei p I s 



239,732.21 
700.00 
• 2.856.65 
243,288.86 
153,857.544 J35 



1,670,643.50 



168,357.57 
125.00 
6.908 24 



175,390.81 
16 1, 004.1)89.67 



PRICES OP WHEAT FOR 26 YEARS. 



Ii5 



Wheat Crops of the World. 

The following- table shows for the chief wheat producing: countries the wheat crops 
in 1893, and the probable exports and imports, with the total supply required for the 
year 1893-94, according to estimates laid before the Association Nationaledela Meunerie 
Francaise : 



COUNTRIES. 



United States . 

Russia 

India 

Hungary 

Asia Minor, Persia... 

Argentina 

Roumania 

Canada. 

Australia 

Bulgaria 

Turkey, European.., 
Algeria and Tunis... . 

Chili 

Servia 

Egypt 

France 

Italy 

Germany 

Spain 

United Kingdom 

Austria 

Belgium 

Greece 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Sweden and Norway. 

Denmark 

Switzerland 

Total 



Production 



Exports. 



3a5.000.000 
353.897.500 
261.000.000 
137,500 000 
60.500 000 
55,000.000 
44.(00.000 
42,625,000 
37,125 000 
30,250.(00 
27,500,000 
26.125,00* 
19.937.000 
8,250,000 
5,500.000 
279,433,400 
li 5,77 ,000 
89,375,000 
79,750,000 
49,500,000 
44,600,000 
15,125,000 
6,875,000 
6,187, 00 
5,500,000 
4,675,000 
4,125,000 
4,125,000 



2,202.255,400 



67,375.000 
96. '50 000 
41.250,000 
41,000 000 
8,250.000 
27.500 000 
30,2 0.000 
9,(525.000 
26,125,000 
11,000,000 
5 500.000 
2 750,0i»0 
5,500.000 
2,750,000 
1,23' ,500 



379,362,500 



Imports. 



27,500,000 
31,900,000 
24,750.000 
13,750,000 
165,000,000 
39,875,000 
27,500,000 
4, 12.", 000 
8,250,000 
5,500,000 
2,750,000 
2,750,000 
12,375,000 



366,025,000 



Net suppl y . 
317.625 000 
257.64 ,500 
222.7? 0.000 
9:3,500.000 
52,2. r 0 000 
27.500 000 
13.750.000 
33,000 000 
11,000.000 
19,260,000 
22.000.000 
23.-i75.000 
14,437 00 
5,500,000 
4,262, &> 
306,933,400 
147,075,000 
111,125.000 
93,500.000 
214,500.000 
84,475,000 
42,625,000 
11,000,000 
14,437,r00 
11,000,000 
7,425,000 
6,875,000 
16,5 00,000 
2,188,917,900 



The Financial Chronicle of October 23, 1893, brings into comparison four estimates 
of the world's wheat crop for 1893, prepared by leading foreign authorities: The 
Hungarian minister, Beerbohm's Corn Trade List, Dornbusch's Cargoes List, and George 
J. S. Broomhall's Corn Trade News. Three of these estimates are given here. 





Corn Trade List 
(Beerbohm). 


C©rn Trade News 
(Broomhall). 


Estimates of Hun- 
garian minister. 




Bushels. 
. 1,335,600,000 
520,400,000 
327,200,000 
32,400,000 
36,000,000 


Bushels. 
1,341,700,000 
518,100,000 
345,400,000 
36,200,000 
41,600,000 


Bushels. 
1,321,387,000 
517,842,000 
340.097,00.) 
36,716 000 
39,725,000 




2,251,600,000 


2,313,000.000 


2,279,000,000 



Prices of Wheat for 26 Years. 

The following shows the highest and lowest prices for No. 2 spring wheat in the 
Chicago market for 26 years, and the months in which extreme prices were reached : 



Months of 
Lowest 
Price. 



1868 Novemher. 

1869 December. 

1870 April. 

1871 August. 

1872 November. 

1873, September. 

1874, October. 

1875 February. 

1876 July. 
1877) August. 
18781 October. 

1879 January. 

1880 August. 



Yearly 
Range. 



$1.04 to 
.76^ 
.73>4 
•99>i 
1.01 
.89 
.81 H 

ml 

.83 

.77 
.8196 

.86^ 



$2.20 
2.47 

1.32 

1.61 

1.46 

1.28 

1.30^ 

1.26% 

1.76^ 

1.14 

1-33^ 

1.32 



Months of 
Highest 
Price. 



July. 

August. 

July. [Sept. 

Feb. Apr. & 

August. 

.July. 

April. 

August. 

December. 

May. 

April. 

December. 

January. 



1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1802 
1893 



Months of 
Lowest 
Price. 



January. 
December. 
October. 
December. 
March. 
October. 
August. 
April. 
June. 
February, 
luly. 
October. 
August. 



Yearly 
Range. 



$.95% to 1.43J4 

.91 £6 1.40 

.90 1.13^ 
.69V4 .96 
.73% .91% 

jam .84% 

.66% .94% 

.71H, 2.00 

.75! 1.08% 

.74^ 1.0*M 

.85 1.16 
.69^ .9194 
MX .83% 



Months of 
Highest 
Price. 



October. 
Apr. & May 
June. 
February. 
A prll. 
January. 
J une. 

September. 

Fcbruaiy. 

August. 

April. 

February. 

January. 



lid 



EXPORTS OF HOPS. 



The Cotton Supply. 
CROP OF THE UNITED STATES FOR SIXTY YEARS. 



The following- statements are furnished by the New York 
Financial Chronicle." 



Commercial and 



Year. 


s Bales. 


Year. 


Bales. 


1829 


870,415 
976,845 
1,038,848 
987,487 
1,070,438 
1,205,324 
1,254,328 
1,360,752 
1,422,930 


1845 


2,394.503 
2,100,537 
1,778.651 
2,347,634 
2,728,596 
2,096,706 
2.355,257 
3,015,029 
8,262,882 
2,930,027 
2,847,339 
3,527,8*5 
2,939 519 


1830 




1831 


1^47 

1848 

1849 

1850 


ia32 


1833 

1834 


1836 

1837 


1852 

1853 

1854 


1838 

1839 

1840 


1,801,497 
1,360,532 
2,177,8:35 
1,634,945 


1855 

1856 

1857 




1,683,574 
2,378,875 
2,030,41.9 


1858 

1859 

1860 


3,113,962 
3,851,481 
4,669,770 



Year. 



1861 

1862 to 1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 



Bales. 



3,6 6,006 
No record 
2,1*4,987 
2,019,774 
2,593,993 
2,439,039 
3,154.946 
4,352,317 
2,974,&5L 
3,930,508 
4,170,388 
3,832,991 
4,669,288 
4,485,423 
4,811,265 



Year. 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887- 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 



Bales. 



5,073,5131 
5,757,397 
6,589,329 
5,435,845 
6,992,234 
5,714,052 
5,669,021 
6,550,215 
6,513.624 
7,017,707 
6,9a5,082 
7,313,726 
8,655.518 
9,038,707 
6,717,142 



• The returns are for the years ending- September 1. The average net weight per 
bale is 470 pounds. 

EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC COTTON DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30. 



Countries to which Exported. 



Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Russia 

Spain 

Sweden and Norway 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Japan 



Pounds. 
46,793,869 
- 1,977,640 
241,669,354 
418,736,023 
64,875,247 
8,718,999 
• 2,423,937 
96,581,200 
87,669,782 
5,562,110 
1,444,149.631 
29,233,240 
13,047,475 
841,959 



1891. 



Pounds. 
48,711,513 

275.114,504 
509,487.987 
97,011,029 
21,834,800 
4,825,873 
67,763,143 
109,417,985 
18,490,799 
1,687,579,712 
34-,630,711 
12,841,122 
2,406,234 



1892. 



Pounds. 
67,180,580 
873,142 
345,989,821 
482.441,204 
85,501,316 
13,962,690 
2,234,556 
67.196,148 
93,729,102 
16,890,642 
1,682,170,368 
39,614,004 
22,117,381 
1,574,315 



Pounds. 
45,199,505 
482 893 
283,454,91 1 
425,193,571 
80,009.738 
13,306 884 
3,862,463 
18,178,048 
100,105.977 
6,879.217 
1,174,178.942 
31,493 865 
20,905,980 
793,242 



CONSUMPTION OF COTTON. 

[Thousands of bales of 400 pounds.] 
(From the report of the Commission Permanente des Valeurs de Douane, 1893, p. 201.) 















Difference 




Country. 


1892. 


1891. 


1890. 


1889. 


1871. 


Of 1892 


Of 1892 
















Over 




Over 
















1891. 




1889. 


o 




3,847 


4,175 


4,141 


3,825 


3,073 


-328 




h 22 




- 774 




4,576 


4,549 


4,381 


4,121 


1,962 


+ 27 




- 455 




^2,614 




3,039 


2,814 


2,736 


2,692 


1,056 


+225 




- 347 




-1,983 




1,143 


1,154 


988 


871 


87 


— 11 




- 272 




-1,056 




12,605 


12,692 


12,246 


11,509 


6,173 


- 87 


- 


hl,096 


4-6,427 



Exports of Hops from # the United States. 

The exports of hops from the United States for the fiscal years 1873 to 1894 have 
been : 1873, 1,795.437 lbs. ; 1874, 11 7,358 ; 1875,3.066,703; 1876, 9,191,589: 1877,9,581,108: 1878, 



EXPORTS OF SOLE LEATHER. 



Exports of Beef Products from the United States. 



Year Ending June 30— Canned.a Fresh.b 



1878. 
1879- 
1880. 
J881. 
1882 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 



1890. 
1891 . 
1892. 
18*1. 



rounds. 



43,050,588 
40,458,375 
51,025,254 



Pounds. 
54,0^6,771 
54,025,832 
87,717,194 

106,004,812 
69,586,466 
81,064,373 

120,784,064 

115,780,830 
99.423.362 
83,560,874 
93,498,273 

137,859,391 



82,628,5071173,237,596 
109,585,727 194,045,638 
87,028,084 220,554.617 
79,089,493 206,294,724 
55,974,910! 193,832,992 



Salted or pickled, 



Pounds. 
38,831,379 
36,950,563 
45,237,472 
40,698,649 
45,899,737 
41,680.623 
42,379.911 
48,143,711 
58.903,370 
36,287,188 
48,980,269 
55,006 399 
97,508.419 
90,286,979 
70,204,736 
58,423,963 
62,681,937 



Other cured.?) 



Pounds. 



641,163 

572,427 
824,955 
192,191 
83,151 
194,036 
102,110 

1,621,833 
953,712 
898,920 

1.218.334 



Tallow. 



Pounds. 
85,505.919 
99,963 752 
110,767,627 
96,403,372 
50,474,210 
38,810.098 
63,091,103 
50.431.719 
40.919,951 
63,278,403 
92,483.052 
77,844,555 
112 745 370 
111,689,251 
89 78 1,010 
61,819,153 
54,661.524 



a Not separately enumerated prior to 1887. b. Included in " salted," etc., prior to 1884. 

Exports of Dairy Products from the United States. 

The total exports of dairy products and the exports to the United Kingdom from 
1878 are given in the following table. 



Year Ending June 30— 



1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 



Butter. 



Total. 



Pounds. 
21,837,117 
38,248,016 
39,236,658 
31,560,500 
14,794.205 
12,348.641 
20,627,374 
21,683,148 
18,953,990 
12.531,171 
10,455,651 
15,504,978 
29,748.042 
15,187,114 
15,047,246 

8.920,107 
11,806,734 



To United 
Kingdom. 



Pounds. 
14.345,758 
24,841,714 
27,887,803 
23,491,810 
8,683,420 
4.817,302 
9,597,337 
10,599.509 
7,830.064 
4,152,732 
3,675,214 
7,454,107 
15,448,163 
4.993,180 
5,915,185 
3,869,649 



Total. 



Pounds. 
123,783,736 
141,654,474 
127,553,907 
147,995,614 
127,989,780 
99,221,467 
112,869,575 
111,992,990 
91,877,225 
81,255,994 
88 008,458 
84,991,828 
95,376,053 
82,133,876 
82,100,221 
81,350,923 
73,851.434 



To United 
Kingdom. 



Pounds. 
120.929,600 
136,603,242 
122,165.332 
141,122.395 
121,904,755 
91^83,055 
1(2,680.747 
100,342.281 
81442,670 
72,630,458 
77,627,517 
72,304,393 
81,875.298 
71,104,253 
70,201,769 
69,845,314 



Exports of Sole Leather from the United States. 



Year Ending June 30— 



1881 
188-5 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 



Total. 



Pounds. 
28.690,640 
33,777,71 1 
28.593,891 
22,421,293 
27,313,766 
24,265.880 
30.5oO,48S 
28.712,673 
35.558,915 
30.595,219 
37.501 278 
37.053*381 
33,570.037 
42.877,197 



United 
Ki ngdom. 

Pounds. 
23.048,247 
27,870.497 
21,847.571 
16,367,905 
18.708,35:> 
17,773,819 
22,731,227 
20,405,357 
27,5 1 9,464 
29,997.873 
27,419.058 
28,819.708 
25,655,461 



Sweden and 

Norway. 

Pounds. 



46.820 
919,474 
1,758,167 
2.111.278 
1,987.548 
2,627,201 
3,094.871 
3.006,514 
3 408,620 
4.317.500 
3.032,378 
2,959,960 



Germany. 



Pounds. 
3.659,991 
2.561,447 
2,481,629 
2,598,348 
3.057,536 
2.1)9 l.KW 
1,95:1389 
1,818.111 
1,696.803 
1,712,723 
1,490.432 
816.671 
548,500 



118 



THE BOUNTY ON SUGAR. 



Sugar Production. 

(Willett & Gray's Estimates of Cane Sugar Crops, Feb. 8, 1894.) 



Countries. 



United States (beets 20,000) 

Canada (beets) 

Spanish West Indies: 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

British West Indies: 

Trinidad 

Barbados 

Jamaica 

Antigua and St. Kitts. 
French West Indies: 

Martinique. 

Guadeloupe 

Danish West Indies: 

St. Croix 

Haiti and Santo Domingo. 
Lesser Antilles, not named 

above 

Mexico 

Central America: 

Salvador 

Nicaragua 

British Honduras (Be- 
lize) 

South America : 

British Guiana (Dem- 
erara) 

DutuhGuiana(Surinam) 

French Guiana 

Venezuela 

Peru 

Argentine Republic . • . 

Brazil 

Total in America.. 



1893-'94. 


1892-'93. 


Tons. 
295,000 
300 


Tons. 
250,000 
300 


1,000,000 
60,000 


841.000 
50,000 


55,000 
63.000 
30,000 
25,000 


52,000 
60,000 
25,000 
24,000 


32,000 
40,000 


34,000 
42,000 


12,000 
22,000 


9,000 
20,000 


8,000 
2,000 


8,000 
2.000 


500 
500 


500 
500 


200 


200 



120,000 
4,000 



65,000 
40,000 
225,000 



2,099,500 



120,000 
4,000 



67,000 
40.000 
200.000 



1,849,500 



Countries. 



Exports. 

Asia : 

British India 

Siam 

Java 

Japan (consumption 
125,000 tons, mostly 
imported) 

Philippine Islands . . 

Cochin China 

Total in Asia . . . 



Australia and Polynesia : 

Queensland 

New South Wales 

Hawaii Islands 

Fiji Islands 

Total in Australia 
and Polynesia. 

Africa : 

Egypt 

Mauritius and other 

British Possessions . 
Reunion and other 
French Possessions . . 
Total in Africa- 
Europe : Spain 

Total cane-sugar pro- 
duction 

Total beet-sugar pro- 
duction (Licht) 

Total cane and beet- 
production 



1893-'94 



Tons. 

50,000 
7.000 
485,000 



26',000 
30.000 



837,000 

65,000 
35,000 
140,000 
10,000 



250,000 
62,000 

125,000 
37,000 



224,000 
40,000 



)2-W 



Tons. 

50.000 
7.000 
485,000 



270.000 
30.000 



842,000 

60.600 
32,000 
135,000 
10.000 



237,600 
60,000 
75,000 
35,000 



170,000 
20,000 



3,450,500 3,119,100 
,841,000 3,428,515 



7,291, 500'6.547,615 



EUROPEAN BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION (LICHT'S ESTIMATE). 



Countries. 


1893-'94. 


1892-'93. 


1891-'92. 


1890-'91. 


1889 -'90. 


lssa-m 




Metric 


Metric 


Metric 


Metric 


Metric 


Metric 




tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


Germany 


1,350,000 


1,225,331 


1,198,156 


1,331,965 


1,264,607 


990,604 




845,000 


802,577 


786,566 


774,473 


753,078 


523,242 




575.000 


588.838 


650.377 


694,037 


787 989 


466,767 




650 000 


455,000 


550,991 


514,162 


456,711 


526,387 




235,000 


196,699 


180.377 


205,623 


221,480 


145,804 




75,000 


68 070 


46.815 


76,035 


69.765 


56 047 




111,000 


92,000 


88,635 


80,000 


80.000 


87.000 


Total 


3,841.000 


3,428 515 


3.501,920 


3,710.895 


3,633,630 


2.795 851 



THE UNITED STATES BOUNTY ON SUGAR. 

The bounty paid on snerar during the fiscal year 1892 was $7,342,077.79; in 1893, 
$9,375,130.88; in 1894, $12.d99,899.47. The total amount of bounty paid under the act of 
October 1, 1890, for the three years ending June 30, 1894, was $28,817,108.14. 

The payments made during the fiscal year 1894, and the States in which such pay- 
ments have been made, are as follows : 

Bounty Paid on Cane Sugar.— Louisiana, $10,868,896.42; Texas, $223,165.92; Florida, 
$22,113.37; Mississippi, $114.76. Total, $1 1.114.290.47. 

Bounty Paid on Beet Sugar. — California, $655,768.84; Nebraska, $118,864.00 ; Utah, 
$77,542.00. Total, $85^,174.84. 

Bounty Paid on Sorghum Sugar.- Kansas, $17,312,26. Total, $17,312.26. 

BOUNTY Paid on Maple Sugar.— Maine, $57.70; New Hampshire, $2,48013- Ver- 
mont, SH8.267.l-0; New York, $25,401.06; Pennsylvania, $8,090.39; Maryland, $2,763.39; 
West Virginia, $156.26; Ohio, $6,153.94; Michigan, $1,668.65; Minnesota, $216.64; Massa- 
chusetts, $865.94. Total, $116,131.90. Grand total, $12,099,899.47. 



FHEEP AND WOOL. 



19 



Sheep and Wool. 

( From the American Economist.) 



States and Territories. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Total New England . 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Total Middle States. 



Virginia k 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia.. 

Florida , 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia , 

Kentucky 

Total Southern States... 



Ohio r 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas » 

Nebraska 

Colorado 

Total Western States 

California 

Nevada — 

Oregon 

Washington 

Total Pacific States , 

Dakota (North and South) 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

A rizona 

Utah 

\\ yoihing 

Total all others 

Tot il United States 



Number of sheep 



18V- 



565,577 
188,078 
358,274 
57,644 
20,433 
47,399 



1894. 



Average 
price. 



1892 



1,241,805 

1,421,455 

11*2,077 
1,091,477 
22,967 
164,680 



2,802,656 

449,009 
390,261 
89,013 
383,017 
117,028 
269,292 
223,578 
118,488 
5,040,1 
264,094 
506,007 
529,204 
773,336 



326,937 $3.01 $1 
l 1 5,47 1 1 2.87 
280.170; 3 " 



51,441 3.89 
11.279 4.35 
39.930 ! _4.08 

825,228 8.58 

1,355,051 

57,571 
1,413,494 

12,813 
145,446 
3,177,435 3.89 



1894. 



3.29 
3.75 
3.48 
2.98 



Total value. 



1892. 



$1,717,274 
540,75] 
1,179.726 
223,947 
88.881 
192.451 



1894. 



3.80 3.20 

4.05 3.45 

3.83 3.23 

3.87 3.27 



3.91 



9,152,562 

4,468,087 
2,353,777 
1,161,702 
8)8.092 
P07,708 
357,101 
565,031 
916,624 
469,433 
269,805 
1,710,395 



488,432 
3; 6,309 
78,384 
411,169 
112,885 
343,832 
415.&55 
184,273' 

3,814,40-) 
228,310 
519,770 
765,705 

1.163.09 



3.31 
3.29 



8,902,427 

3,765,704 
2,392,6 1 7 

912,3.5 
1,032,970 
1,063,370 

614,93';) 

775.222 
1,000,953 

323,39; 

277 952 
1,293.058 



3/5 2.45 

1.82 1.22 

1.89 1.29 

.1.76! 1.16 

3.06i 1.46 

1.65 1.05 

1.50 .90 

1.611 1.01 

1.55! .95 



1.50 
2.19 
3.11 
2.18 



2.07 

3.30 
3.21 
3.70 
3.57 
2.9b 



.90 
1.59 
2.51 

2.58 



3,943,036 

5,401,529 
4l3,92i 

4,178,113 
88,768 
644,558 



10,720,950 

1,370.016 
710,^75 
167,903 
673,956 
241,499 
443,927 
335,367 
191,249 
7,808,239 
396,537 
1,105,879 
1,616.354 
2,456,889 



1.471 17,548,08U 



14,027,755 13,415,534 

4,083,541 3,913,157 
504 ; 7I0 544,0 r " 

2,456,077 2,529,759 
686,521 j 832,063 



7,130,849 7,824,050" 



707,840 
719,51 
2,780,908 
2,921,188 
691,210 
1,905,819 
1.198,567 




9,9354,738 1U,!K~>, I I :"; 
44,938 305 45.029,1!) . 



2.70 
2.61 
3.10 

2.9 
2.36 
2.80. 2.20 
3.42! 2.8* 
2.57 1 1.9 



2.31 

2.50 
~'.46 



1.74 
1.90 
1.89 



2.42 1.82 



2.49 
2.24 
2.71 
2.4. 

3.15 
2.40 
2.50 
J. 51 
2.30 
*,26 
2.40 

2 37 
2.68 



1.89 
1.04 
2.11 
1.87 

2.5") 
1.80 
1.90 
.94 
1.7H 
1.00 
L_86 
1.77 



14.724,581 
7,500,338 
4.298,16' 
3,025,314 
2,688,630 

998,5.8 
1.913,084 
2,355,202 
1,090,595 

69,1,881 
4,263,673 



$787,918 
261,115 
753,657 
169,241 
42,296 
122.984 



2,137,211 

4,441,' 

198,620 
4,709,485 
41,985 

481,436 



9,933,289 

1.196,658 
459,097 
101,115 
476,956 
164,812 
301,024 
374,270 
190,619 

3,623,685 
205,419 
826,434 

1,8:4.920 

2,900,7 
12,778,922 

10,167,401 

6.2 (4.730 
3,014,270 
3.067,729 
2,516,647 
1,132,866 
2,180.120 
1,9,1,877 
501.702 
534,786 
2,443,880 



Estimated 
clip for 

1893, wash- 
ed and 

unwashed . 



Pounds. 
2,392,224 

950 9 6 
2,472,0:0 

318,192 
73,560 

2 2,: 95 



6,419,397 

9,328,300 
306,230 

9,823,290 
74,531 
681,177 



43,635,724 33,842,014 



9,884,211 
1, 250,223 
5,491,789 
1,858,8*4 



18,491,041 

1,861.400 
1,264,9*6 
5.2-8,1 66 
4,556.600 
1.406,310 
4,050,466 
2, 808,07' i 
21,776,453 



7,131,046 
J, 0:8,305 
4J48,805 
1 ,755,653 
14,063,809 



20,214,134 

2,492,000 
1,9 0.51 5 

S9 1,920 
1,941,611 

532,475 
1,611,711 
1,802,930 

959 755 
30,341,857 
1.441,956 
2,977,849 
4,627,887 
6.805,3.' 9 

57,913,921 

21.893,025 
16,370,536 
6,482,: 98 
7,717,038 
7,189,0*0 
2,999.6 0 
5,537.3U1 
6,5 9.088 
3,117,036 
2,452,518 
9,236,1. "0 



1,80( 
1,103 
5,283 
2145 
1,17 
3,103 
2,129 
7,705 



,902 
185 
725 
917 
,118 
.000 



,932 

1 1 6. 1 2 1 .290 90.40 IJ 1 7 



89,695,446 

20,8^8,414 
19,018,016 
4,411,418 
5.766,7.5 
60,005,283 

4,434,f00 
6.114,(16 
17,686,688 
12,285,309 
5,227,91 1 
C 14,823,0: 9 
10,187 820 
70,768,921 
301, 6; .7, 102 



120 



SHEEP IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Sheep and Wool. — Continued. 

QUANTITIES OF WOOL PRODUCED, IMPORTED, EXPORTED AND 
RETAINED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 
1840, 1850, 1860, AND FROM 1863 TO 1893, INCLUSIVE. 









Year 
ending 
June 30 


Produc- 
tion, b 


Exports of 
Domestic. 




— T> ; 

.rounds. 


— s a 


1840 cl- . 






JggQ. 


o^jiq, joy 


35 898 


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lOUVJ • . • • 


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ou,£o-t,yio 


1 flW Q98 


JODO. . . 


i na Ann 
iuo,uuu,uuu 


QKK 7QO 
OOO, i 66 


1864 




155 482 


1865 


i i*> nnn ono 


466 182 


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444 387 


IOTA 

lo<U. . . . 


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10~,o»~ 


1 B71 


i«n nnn nnn 


4o,i»;> 


1 B7>> 

lol6. . . . 


ixn nnn nnn 


lWJyOlO 


187"-t 

1 0 I 1) ■ • . . 


i nnn nnn 


75 129 




i7n aat, nnn 


qiq «nn 


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178 n^ii 

1 (o,U<>± 


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loo atia nnA 


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104, 1 Oo 


1 aw 
10( / . . . . 


oaa nnn nnn 


7Q f.QQ 

<y,jyy 


lo/O. . . . 


ona oK(\ nnn 


Q17 a^i 


187Q 


91 1 flOA AAA 


en 781 


1880 


232,500,000 


191,551 


1881.... 


240,000,000 


71,455 


1882.... 


272,000.000 


116,179 


1883.... 


290,000,000 


64,474 


1884.... 


300,000,000 


10,393 


1885.... 


308,000,000 


88,006 


1P86.... 


302,000,000 


146,423 


1887.... 


285.000,000 


257,940 


1888.... 


269,000,000 


22,164 


1889.... 


26\000,000 


141,576 


1890.... 


276,000,000 


231,042 


1891.... 


285,000,000 


291,922 


1892.... 


294,000,000 


202,456 


1893 ... 


303,153,000 


91,858 



Domestic 
Retained 
For Con- 
sumption. 

Pounds. 
35,802,114 
52,481,061 
59,208,985 
105,644,278 
122,844,518 
141,533,818 
154,026,925 
159,692,582 
167,441,565 
179,555,613 
161.847,308 
159,974.805 
149,859,485 
157,924,871 
169,680,400 
180,821,966 
191,895,232 
199,920,401 
207,902,146 
210,939,216 
232.308,449 
239,928,545 
271,883,821 
289,935,526 
299,989,607 
307,911,991 
301,853,577 
284,742,060 
268,977,836 
264,858,424 
175,768,958 
284,708,078 
293,797,544 
303,061.142 



Imports. 



Pounds. 
9,898,740 
13,695,294 
26,282,955 
75,121,728 
91,250,114 
44,420.375 
71,287,988 
38,158,382 
25,467,336 
59,275,926 
49,230,199 
68,058,028 
126,507,409 
85,496,049 
42,939,541 
54,901,760 
44,642,836 
42,171,192 
48,449,079 
39,005,155 
128,131,747 
55,961,230 
67,861,744 
70,575,478 
78,350,651 
70,596,170 
129,084,958 
114,038,030 
113,558,753 
126,487,729 
105,431,285 
129,303,648 
108,670,652 
172.433.838 



Exports of 
Foreign. 



Pounds. 
85,528 

157*064 
708,850 
223,475 
679,281 
852,045 
619,614 
2,801,852 
342,417 
1,710,053 
1,305,311 
2,343,93 
7,040,385 
6,816,157 
3,567,627 
1,518,426 
3,088.957 
5,952,221 
4,104,616 
3,648,520 
5,507,534 
3,831,836 
4,010,043 
2,304,701 
3,115.339 
6,534,426 
6,728,292 
4,359,731 
3,263,094 
3,288,467 
2,638,123 
3,107,563 
4,218,637 



Foreign 
Retained 
For Con- 
sumption. 



Pounds. 
9,813,212 
18,695,294 
26,125,891 
74,412,878 
91,026,639 
43,741,094 
70,435,913 
37,538,'68 
22,665,484 
38,933,509 
47,520,146 
66,752,717 
124,163,472 
78 455,663 
36,123,364 
51,334,133 
43,124,410 
39,082,235 
42,496,858 
34,900,529 
124,483,227 
50,456,702 
61,029,908 
66,565,435 
76,045,950 
67,480,831 
122,550,532 
107,309,738 
106,199,022 
123,224,635 
102,142,818 
126,665,525 
145,663,089 
168.215,201 



Total Con- 
sumption, 

Domestic 
and 

Foreign. 



Pounds. 
45,615,326 
71,176,355 
85,334,876 
108,057,156 
213,871,157 
185,274,912 
224,462,868 
197,231,350 
190,107,049 
218,489,122 
209,367,254 
226,7^7,522 
274,022,957 
236,380,534 
205,803,784 
232,156,099 
235,019,642 
239,002,636 
250,399,004 
245,839,755 
356,791,676 
290,385,247 
335,913,729 
356,500,961 
376,035,557 
375,392,825 
424,404,109 
392,051,798 
378,176,858 
388,083,059 
377,911,776 
411,373,603 
439,460,633 
471,276,3153 



a Year ending September 30. b From estimates of the Department of Agriculture. 



NUMBER AND VALUE OF SHEEP IN THE UNITED STATES ON JANUARY 
1st OF EACH YEAR FROM 1869 TO 1894, INCLUSIVE. 



Januakt 1. 



1870, 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 



Sheep. 



Number. Value 



297 
,000 
,000 
,300 
400 
,200 
,600 
,300 
,20!) 
,500 
800 
900 
899 



$82 
93 
71 

8: 
9 

88 
94 
93 
80 
80 
79. 
90 
104. 



139 
,364 
.035 

,;ti 

,922 
600 
320 
,666 
,892, 
603, 
023, 
230. 
070. 



179 
,433 
837 
hi; 
,350 
569 
652 
318 
683 
062 
984 
537 
759 



January 1. 



18*2. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 



Sheep. 



Number. Value. 



,016,224 
237,291 
,626,626 
,360,243 
322,331 
759,314 
544,755 
599,079 
336,072 
431,136 
938,365 
273,553 
048,017 



106.595,954 
124,365,835 
119.902,706 
107,960,650 
92,443,867 
89,279,926 
89,872.a39 
90,640,369 
100,659,761 
108,397,447 
116,121,290 
125,909,264 
89,186 110 



POSTAL INFORMATION. 



131 



Postal Information. 

DOMESTIC RATES OF POSTAGE. 

Classification.— Domestic mail matter, that is, matter sent in the mails from 
some post-office within the United States to some other post-office within the same, is 
divided into four classes, as follows: 

First Class— Written matter, namely, letters, postal cards and all matter wholly 
or partly in writing, whether sealed or unsealed (except mss. copy accompanying proof 
sheets or corrected proof sheets of same); also all matter sealed or otherwise closed 
against inspection. The rate of postage on letters to any part of the United States, or 
for local delivery at free delivery offices is two cents per ounce or fraction thereof. One 
cent per ounce for local delivery in a place where carriers are not employed. Postal 
cards are sold at one cent each and need no further prepayment, but if anything be 
attached to them (except an address label on the face) they are subject to letter postage. 
There is no limit of weight for first class matter. 

Postage on all letters should be fully prepaid, but if prepaid one full rate only they 
will be forwarded to destination, and the amount of deficient postage collected on 
delivery. If wholly unpaid or prepaid with less than one full rate and deposited in a 
post-office, the addressee will be notified to remit postage; should he fail to do so, they 
will be sent to the Dead Letter Office; but if the sender's address be printed or written 
on them and if he is located at the place of mailing, they will be returned to him. 

Prepaid letters will be forwarded from one post-office to another without additional 
postage, on the written request of the person addressed, and the direction may be 
changed as many times as may be necessary to reach the person addressed. 

. Letters, only, will be returned to sender free, if a request to that effect be printed 
or written on the envelope. 

All productions by the typewriter or manifold process are subject to letter postage. 

Kates on special delivery letters, ten cents in addition to regular postage. Special 
delivery stamps are on sale at all post-offices, and must be affixed to such letters. 
Ordinary ten cent stamps will not entitle letters to special delivery. The special 
delivery service, at carrier offices, extends to the limits of carrier routes; at other offices 
to one mile from the post-offices. 

Second Class.— This class includes all newspapers and other periodical publications 
issued at stated intervals and as frequently as four times a year, which bear a date of 
iisue, and are issued from a known office of publication or news agency, to actual 
subscribers or news agents, and transient newspapers and periodicals mailed by persons 
other than publishers or news agents. 

Rate of postage to publishers on second class matter, one cent per pound or fraction 
thereof, prepaid by special stamps. Publications intended primarily for free distribu- 
tion or for advertising, or not having a legitimate list of subscribers, are subject to 
third class rates. 

Publications of the second class, one copy only to each actual subscriber residing in 
the county where published, are free, unless mailed to carrier offices for local delivery, 
in which case they are subject to the one cent a pound rate. 

Postage on transient periodicals one cent for each four ounces or fractional part 
thereof, fully prepaid. 

Second class matter is entitled to special delivery when ten cent special delivery 
stamps are affixed in addition to regular postage. 

Transient second class matter should be so wrapped as to admit of easy inspection. 
Sender's name and address may be written on them, but any other writing subjects the 
matter to letter rates. 

TniRD Class.— Books, circulars, pamphlets and other matter wholly in print 
(not included in second class matter), proof sheets, corrected proof sheets and manu- 
script accompanying the same constitute third class matter. " Printed matter " is 
defined by statute to be " the reproduction upon paper, by any process except that of 
handwriting, of any words, letters, characters, figures or images, or of any combination 
thereof, not having the character of an actual and personal correspondence." 

The rate on third class matter is one cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof, 
fully prepaid. Third class matter must be so wrapped as to enable the postmaster to 
inspect it. It may contain the name and address of the sender in writing. Circulars 
may contain date and name of the addressee in writing, or the correction of mere 
typographical errors. Books may contain simple manuscript dedication. The limit of 
weight of each package is four pounds, except on single books, on which there is 
no limit. 

Fourth Class.— Matter of this class embraces merchandise, samples and all mailable 
articles not embraced in the first, second or third class, and must be so wrapped as to 
admit of easy examination. 

Kate on fourth class matter, one cent for each ounco or fraction thereof ; but seeds, 
cuttings, roots, scions and plants are mailable at the rate of one cent for each two 
ounces or fraction thereof . Postage on fourth class matter must bo fully prepaid it 
is entitled to special delivery if ten cent special delivery stamps are affixed in addition 
to regular postage. Limit of weight of fourth class matter (excepting liquids) four 
pounds. 



123 POSTAL INFORMATION.— Continued. 



Matter of a harmful nature, such as poisons, explosive or inflammable articles, live 
animals, insects or reptiles, fruits or vegetables, matter liable to decomposition, articles 
exhaling a bad odor, and liable to explosion, combustion or ignition by shock or jar, are 
not mailable. 

Articles not excluded from the mails, but which are from their nature liable to 
damage contents of mail bag muse be first placed in bag, box or removable envelope or 
wrapping, and then placed in box or tube made ot metal or some hard wood, with 
sliding clasp or screw lid. In cases of articles liable to break, the inside wrapper must 
be surrounded by sawdust, cotton or other elastic substance. 

Admissible liquids and oils (not exceeding 4 oz. liquid measure) and articles easily 
liquefiable, must conform to the following conditions: When in glass bottles or vials, 
such bottles or vials must be strong enough to stand the shock of handling in the mails, 
and be enclosed in a wooden or papier-mache block or tube not less than three- 
sixteenths of an inch thick in the thinnest part, strong enough to support the weight of 
mails piled in bags and recist rough handling; and there must be provided between the 
bottle and its case a cushion of cork crumbs, cotton, felt, asbestos or other like substance; 
the block or tube to be impervious to liquid,including oils, and to be closed by a tightly 
fitting ^crew lid of wood or other metal, with a rubber or other pad so adjusted as to 
prevent the leakage of contents in case of breaking glass. When enclosed in a tin 
cylinder, metal case or tube, such cyliuder, case or tube should have a screw lid with a 
rubber or cork cushion to make it water tieht, aad should be securely fastened by a 
wooden or papier-mache block (open at one end) and not less than three-sixteenths of 
an inch in thickness. Manufacturers or dealers should submit a sample package showing 
their mode of packing to postmasters, who will give them any necessary instructions. 

With a package of fourth class matter the sender may enclose any third class matter. 
On wrapper, cover, tag or label may be written or printed name and addrets of sender, 
with word "from," and any marks, numbers, names or letters for purpose of descrip- 
tion, but there must be left on the address side space sufficient for legible address and 
necessary stamps. 

Registration.— All classes of mailable mattermay be registered. The fee is eight 
cents for each package, in audition to postage, both of which must be fully prepaid. 
The package must bear the name and address of sender, must be fully, legibly and 
correctly addressed, must be securely sealed if first class, or if third or fourth class 
must be indorsed with the name of its class and so wrapped as to safely bear transport- 
ation as well as admit of easy inspection. The sender is entitled to and should require 
a receipt for it upon its acceptance by the postmaster; and he is also entitled to a receipt 
properly signed by the person to whom delivery is made, the latter to be returned to 
him by the delivering postmaster when delivery is effected. 

All valuable matter to be sent by mail should be registered, for although the Post 
Office Department is not liable for the loss of registered mail matter, such matter 
receives protection which it is not possible to give ordinary mail matter. 

Domestic Money Orders.— These are issued by money order post-offices at the 
following rates: For sums not exceeding $2.50, three cents; $2.50 to $5, live cents; $5 to 
$10, eight cents; $10 to $20, ten cents; $20 to $30, twelve cents; $30 to $40, fifteen cents; *40 
to $50, eighteen cents; $50 to $60, twenty cents; $60 to $75, twenty-five cents; $75 to $100, 
thirty cents. The maximum amount for which a single money order may be issued at 
a " Money Order Office " is $100, and at a 41 Limited Money Order Office," $5. When a 
larger sum is to be sent additional orders must be obtained. But postmasters are 
instructed to refuse to issue in one day to the same remitter and m favor of the same 
payee on any one post-office of the fourth class, money orders amounting in the 
aggregate to more than $300, as such office might not have funds sufficient for immediate 
payment of any large amount. Fractions of a cent are not to be introduced. 

REGULATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING FOREIGN MAILS. 

Postage can be prepaid upon articles only by means of postage stamps of the country 
in which the articles are mailed. The limit of weight for a single rate of postage on 
letters to Canada and Mexico is one ounce; on letters to other foreign countries one-half 
ounce. Letters conveyed in vessels not regularly employed in carrying the mails 
(commonly called ship letters ") are subject to double rates of domestic postage (4 
cents per ounce) on delivery. Matter to be sent in the mails at less than letter rates 
must be so wrapped that it can be easily examined without destroying the* wrapper. 
Newspapers and periodicals sent in the mails to foreign countries other than those of 
the Postal Union should be wrapped singly. Those sent by publishers to regular sub- 
scribers in Canada and Mexico are transmissible as in domestic mails, except that pack- 
ages addressed to Mexico must not exceed 4 lbs. 6 oz. in weight. 

The U. 8. two-cent postal card should be used for card correspondence with foreign 
countries (except Canada and Mexico, to which countries the one-cent card is transmis- 
sible); but where these cannot be obtained, the one-cent card (except the largest size) 
with a one-cent U. S. adhesive postage stamp attached may be used. 

* Mail matter of all kinds (except articles contained in Parcels Post mails) received 
from any country of the Postal Union will i.e forwarded, at the request of the ad- 
dressee, from one post-office to another, or to any foreign country of the Postal Union 
without additional charge for postage. 



POSTAL INFORMATION.— Continued. 



133 



FOREIGN POSTAGE RATES. 

The countries not in the Universal Postal Union and the rate on letters for each 
half ounce are: Africa, except Egypt, Liberia, Congo, British, French, Spanish and 
Portuguese colonies in; the territories of Southwest Africa and of Togo, Western 
Africa (German Protectorates), Tunis, and the European post-offices in Morocco, Abys- 
sinia and Madagascar, 10 cents; Ascension, 10 cents; Cape Colony, 10 cents; China via 
Brindisi, 10 cents ; Comoro Islands, 5 cents ; Madagascar (except French stations), 10 
cents; Morocco (except Spanish possessions), 10 cents; Orange Free State, 10 cents ; 
Friendly Islands, Karatonga Islands and Savage Islands via Ne at Zealand, 10 cents. The 
rate on newspapers to above countries is 2 cents per 2 oz., except Comoro Islands, 1 cent 
per 2 oz. 

All countries except the above are included in the Universal Postal Union, within 
which (except to Canada and Mexico) the rates are as follows : Letters, per half ounce, 
ScenU; postal cards, each, 2 cents; newspapers and other printed matter, per2oz., 1 
cent; commercial papers and samples of merchandise same as "printed matter," ex- 
cept that the lowest charge on any"package of commercial papers is 5 cents, and on any 
package of merchandise 2 cents. Registration fee, 8 cents. 

The rates to Canada are : Letters, per ounce, 2 cents; postal cards, each, lcent; 
newspapers, per 4oz., 1 cent : merchandise and samples of merchandise (limit of weight, 
4 lbs.), per 4 oz., 1 cent; commercial papers same as to other countries of the Postal 
Union. Registration fee, 8 cents. 

The rates to Mexico on letters, newspapers and printed matter are same as in the 
United States. Samples are 1 cent per each 2 oz. 

Samples of merchandise to be sent by mail to countries of the Postal Union must 
conform to the follow-ng conditions : They must be placed in bags, boxes or remov- 
able envelopes in such a manner as to admit of easy inspection; they must not have 
any salable value, nor bear any manuscript other than the name or profession of 
sender, the address of the addressee, a manufacturer's or trade- mark, numbers, prices 
and indications relating to the weight or size of the quantity to be disposed of, and 
words which are necessary to precisely indicate the origin and nature of the merchan- 
dise ; they must not exceed 2f>0 grams in weight (8% oz.), or the following dimensions : 
Thirty centimeters (12 in.) in length, 20 centimeters (8 in.) in breadth, and 10 centimeters 
i (4 in.) in depth ; except that when in the form of rolls, packages of samples may meas- 
j ure not toexceed 30 centimeters (12 in.) in length and 15 centimeters (6 in.) in diameter. 

By special agreement between the United States and France. Great Britain, Bel- 
li gium, Switzerland, the Argentine Republic, Italy, Egypt, Austria-Hungary, Hawaii, 
6 and the British colonies except Canada, India and the Australian colonies, packets of 
samples of merchandise up to 350 grams (12 oz.) in weight are admissible to the mails 
between the United States and the countries named. 

PARCELS POST. 

Mailable merchandise in unsealed packages may be sent by parcels post to Jamaica, 
Barbados, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Mexico, Hawaii, the Leeward Islands, 
Colombia, Salvador, Costa Rica, the Danish West.Indies, British Guiana and the Windward 
Islands, at the rate of 12 cents per pound or fraction thereof. The maximum weight 
| allowed is 11 pounds. The extreme dimensions allowed for Colombia, Costa Rica and 
[ Mexico are 2 feet in length by 4 feet girth, and for the other countries 3 feet 6 inches 
in length and not exceeding 6 feet in length and girth combined. Parcels to any of the 
above countries except Barbados may be registered for a fee of 8 cents. 

INTERNATIONAL MONEY ORDERS. 

There are now in operation postal conventions for the exchange of money orders 
between the United States and the following countries, viz.: Switzerland, Great Britain 
and Ireland, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Newfoundland, Jamaica, New South 
Wales, Victoria, New Zealand, Queensland, the Cape Colony, the Windward Islands 
(embracing Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent and St. Lucia), the Leeward Islands (con- 
sisting of the Presidencies of Antigua, St. Christopher-Nevis, Dominica, Montserrat 
and the Virgin Islands), Belgium, Portugal, Tasmania, Hawaii, Sweden, Japan, Norway, 
Denmark, the Netherlands, the Bahama Islands, the Colony of Trinidad and Tobago, 
Austria, Hungary, British Guiana, the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, Bermuda, South 
Australia and Salvador. 

Upon receiving an International Money Order, properly filled out from the issuing 
postmaster, the remitter must send it, at his own cost, to the payee, if the latter reside 
in Canada, Great Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Now Zealand, New South 
Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland, Cape Colony, Hawaii, Jamaica, Windward 
Islands, Leeward Islands, Newfoundland, the Bahama Islands, the Colony of Trinidad 
and Tobago, British Guiana, Bermuda and£outh Australia. 

But the order should be retained by the remitter if the intended beneficiary livo in 
any of the following named countries: Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, Port ugal. 
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Japan, Austria, Hungary, Luxemburg ami 
Salvador, in which case it is of no value except as evidenoe of tho deposit by him of the 
sum therein mentioned. Another and different form of order will be forwarded to tho 
payee by tho exchange office in the country of payment. * 



POSTAL INFORMATION -Continued. 



The rates of commission or fees charged for the issue of all international money- 
orders are: For sums not exceeding $10, 10 cents; over $10 and not exceeding $20, 20 
cents; over $20 and not exceeding $30, 30 cents; over $30 and not exceeding $40, 40 cents; 
over $40 and not exceeding $50, 50 cents; over $50 and not exceeding $60, 60 cents; over 
$60 and not exceeding $70, 70 cents; over $70 and not exceeding $80, 80 cents; over $80 and 
not exceeding $90, 90 cents; over $90 and not exceeding $100, $1. 

The maximum amount for which international money orders will be issued is $50 
for Great Britain and Ireland, the Cape Colony, Jamaica, British Guiana and Bermuda, 
and $100 for all other countries named above. 

SUGGESTIONS TO THE PUBLIC ON POSTAL SUBJECTS. 

Mail matter should be addressed legibly and completely, giving the name of the 
post-office and State, and if to a city having a free delivery the street and number, and 
the post-office box of the person should be added if he have one. To secure return to 
sender in case of misdirection or insufficient postag-e, his name and address should be 
written or printed upon the upper left hand corner of all mail matter. 

Dispatch is hastened by early mailing, especially when large numbers of letters, 
newspapers or circulars are mailed at once. 

Postage stamps should be placed on the upper right hand corner of the address side. 

Letters addressed to persons temporarily sojourning in a city where the free delivery 
system is in Operation should be marked " Transient " or " General Delivery " if not 
addressed to a street and number or some other designated place of delivery. 

A subscriber to a newspaper or periodical who changes his residence and post-office 
should at once notify the publisher. 

All inquiries relative to matter known to have been sent to the Dead Letter Office 
should be addressed to the First Assistant Postmaster General, Dead Letter Office. 

All inquiries relative to lost or missing mail matter should be addressed to the 
Fourth Assistant Postmaster General, Division of Post Office Inspectors and Mail 
Depredations, Post Office Department, as soon as possible after the loss. 

Avoid thin envelopes. Affix stamps firmly. Register valuable matter. 

POSTAL DISTANCES AND TIME FROM NEW YORK TO PRINCIPAL 
FOREIGN CITIES. 

(Prepared in the Office of Foreign Mails.) 



Name of Place. 



Aden, Arabia London 

Alexandria, Egypt 

Algiers, Africa.... 

Amsterdam, Netherlands. 

Antwerp, Belgium 

Athens, Greece 

Auckland, New Zealand, 

San Francisco 
Bahia, Brazil 



Barbados,Windward Islands 

Batavia, Java London 

Belize, British Honduras, 

New Orleans 

Berlin, Germany London 

Berne, Switzerland " 

Bombay, British India ... " 

Brussels, Belgium " 

Buda Pesth, Hungary — " 
Buenos Ayres, Argentine Repub., 

Cairo, Egypt London 

Calcutta, British India ... " 
Cape Town, South Africa " 
Carthagena, U. S. of Colombia, 
« Panama 

Christiania, Norway London 

Colon, Colombia Panama 

Constantinople, Turkey... London 
Copenhagen, Denmark ... M 

Curacoa, West Indies 

Demerara, British Guiana 

Glasgow, Scotland 

Grey town, Nicaragua.N'wOrleans 



GO 


Stat- 


>. 

sd 


ute 


Q 


Miles. 


34 


12,845 


20 


7,875 


15 


6,150 


13 


5,030 


10 


3,985 


10 


4,000 


14 


5,655 


26 


10,120 


21 


5,870 


43 


12,990 


8 


2,145 


41 


12,800 


9 


2,360 


10 


4,385 


10 


4,490 


27 


9,765 


10 


3,975 


11 


4,910 


29 


8,045 


15 


6,280 


30 


11,120 


30 


11,245 


12 


2,445 


12 


4,650 


6 


2,281 


14 


5,810 


11 


4,575 


(J 


2,030 


11 


02,605 


10 


3,375 


7 


2,810 



Name of Place. 



via 

Hague, The, Netherlands. London 

Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Hamilton, Bermuda 

Havana, Cuba 

Hong Kong, China. San Francisco 
Honolulu, Hawaii.. " »* 

Iceland London 

Kingston, Jamaica 

La Guayra, Venezuela 

Lisbon, Portugal London 

London, England — Queenstown 

Madrid, Spain London 

Maracaibo, Venezuela 

Martinique, Windward Islands . . . 
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 

San Francisco 

Mexico City, Mexico R. R. 

Monrovia, Liberia, Africa.London 

Moscow, Russia ** 

Munich, Bavaria »* 

Nassau, Bahamas 

Natal, Africa London 

Panama, Colombia 

Paris, France -. 

Port au Prince, Hayti 

Quebec. Canada 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Rpme, Italy London 

Saigon, Cochin China.S'nFrancisco 

St. John's, Newfoundland 

St. Petersburg-, Russia .... London 

Valparaiso, Chili Panama 

Vienna, Austria London 

Yokohama, Japan. . San Francisco 



Stat- 
ute 
Miles, 



3,950 
645 
780 
1,413 
10,590 
5,645 
5,350 
1,820 
2,258 
5,335 
3,740 
4,925 
2,280 
1,980 

12,265 
3,750 
7,: : 35 
5,535 
4,610 
1,105 

12,062 
2,355 
4,020 
1,600 
555 
6,204 
5,030 

12,240 
1,245 
5,370 
5,910 
, 4,740 
f 7,348 



NATURALIZATION LAWS. 



125 



Naturalization Laws of the United States. 

The conditions and the manner in which an alien may be admitted as a citizen of the 
United States are prescribed by Sections 2165-74 of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States. 

Declaration of Intention.— An alien seeking naturalization must declare on 
1 oath before a circuit or district court of the United States, or a district or supreme 
court of the Territories, or a court of record of any of the States having- common law 
jurisdiction, and a seal and clerk, at least two years prior to his admission, that it is, 
j bona fide, his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce for- 
I ever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign State or prince, and particularly to t he 
one of which he may be at the time a citizen or subject. 

Oath on Application fob Admission— At the time of his application to be 
I admitted he must declare on oath, before some one of the courts above specified, " that 
he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and 
entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, 
potentate, State or sovereignty, and particularly, by name, to the prince, potentate, 
State or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject," which proceedings 
must be recorded by the clerk of the court. 

Conditions of Citizenship.— It must appear to the satisfaction of the court to 
which he has applied that the alien has resided continuously within the United States 
for at least five years, and within the State or Territory where such court is at the time 
held one year at least ; and that during that time " he has behaved as a man of good 
moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, 
and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same." 

Titles of Nobility.— If the applicant bears any hereditary title or belongs to any 
order of nobility, he must make an express renunciation of the same at the time of his 
application. 

Soldiebs.— Any alien twenty-one years old and upward who has been in the armies 
of the United States, and has been honorably discharged therefrom, may become a citi- 
zen on his petition, without any previous declaration of intention, provided that he 
has resided in the United States at least one year previous to his application, and is of 
good moral character. 

Minobs.— Any alien under the age of twenty-one years who has resided in the 
United States three years next preceding his arriving at that age, and who has con- 
tinued to reside therein to the time he may make application to be admitted a citizen 
thereof, may, after he arrives at the age of twenty-one years, and after he has resided 
five years within the United States, including the three years of his minority, be admit- 
ted a citizen ; but he must make a declaration on oath and prove to the satisfaction 
of the court that for two years next preceding it has been his bona fide intention to 
become a citizen . 

Childben of Natubalized Citizens.— The children of persons who have been 
duly naturalized, being under the age of twenty-one years at the time of the naturaliza- 
tion of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the United States, be considered as citizens 
thereof. 

Citizens' Childben who abe Bobn Abboad.— The children of persons who now 
are or have been citizens of the United States are, though born out of the limits and 
jurisdiction of the United States, considered as citizens thereof. 

Chinese— The naturalization of Chinamen is expressly prohibited by Section 14, 
Chapter 126, Laws of 1882. 

Pbotection Abboad to Natubalized Citizens.— Section 2000 of the Revised 
Statutes of the United States declares that "all naturalized citizens of the United 
States while in foreign countries are entitled to and shall receive from this Govern- 
ment the same protection of persons and property which is aocorded to native-born 
! citizens." 



The Right of Suffrage.— The right to vote is conferred by the State. Naturali- 
zation is a Federal right, and is a gift of the Union, not of any one State. In many 
States aliens (who have declared intentions) voto and have the right to vote equally 
with naturalized or native-born citizens ; in the others only actual citizens may vote. 
The Federal naturalization laws apply to the whole Union alike, and provide that no 
alien may be naturalized until after five years' residence, except an honorably 
discharged soldier or a person whose parents have been naturalized while he was 
under twenty-one years of age, as above recited. Even after five years' residence and 
due naturalization ho is not entitled to voto unless the laws of the State confer the 

Krivilege upon him, and he may voto in several States six months aftor landing, if ho 
as declared his intention, under United States law, to become a citizen. 



126 



QUALIFICATIONS FOR VOTING. 



Qualifications for Voting. 

(Corrected to date by the Attorneys-General of the respective States.) 

In all the States except Wyoming (where women are entitled to full suffrage) the 
right to vote at general elections is restricted to males twenty-one years old or over. 

The registration of voters is required in the following States and Territories : Ala- 
bama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, 
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Pennsylvania. South Carolina, 
Utah, Vermont, Virginia and Wyoming. In some counties in Georgia registration is 
required by local law. In Kentucky registration is required in cities; in Kansas in 
cities of the first and second class; in Nebraska and Iowa in cities of 2,500 population 
and over; in North Dakota in cities of over 3,000 ; in Ohio in some cities; in Maine in 
towns of 500 or more voters; in South Dakota in cities andtownsof over 1.000 voters 
and in counties where registration has been adopted by popular vote ; in Tennessee 
in all counties of 50,0u0 or more inhabitants ; in New York in all cities and villages of 
over 7.000 population ; in Missouri in cities of 100,000 ; in Wisconsin in some cities. 

In Texas cities of 10,000 or over may require registration. In Rhode Island non- 
taxpavers are required to register before December 31, each year. Registration is 
prohibited by constitutional provision in Arkansas and West Virginia. 

The qualifications for voting in each State and the classes excluded from suffrage 
are as follows : 

Alabama.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention ; must have resided in State 
1 yr., county 3 mo., town or precinct 30 days; persons convicted of crime punishable by 
imprisonment, idiots or insa:ie excludod from suffrage. 

Arkansas.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention ; musi; hf.ve resided in State 
1 yr., county 6 mo., precinct 30 days ; persons convicted of felony, until pardoned, fail- 
ing to pay poll tax, idiots or insane excluded. 

California.— Citizen by nativity, naturalization or treaty of Queretaro; must 
have resided in State 1 yr., county 80 days, precinct 30 days; Chinese, insane, embez- 
zlers of public moneys, convicted of infamous crime excluded. 

Colorado.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention four months previous to 
offering to vote ; must have resided in State 6 mo., county 90 dnys, town or precinct 10 
days ; persons under guardianship, in prison, insane or idiots excluded. 

Connecticut — Citizen who can read constitution or statutes ; must have resided in 
State 1 yr.. town 6 mo.; persons convicted of felony or theft excluded. 

Delaware.— Citizen and paying county tax after age of 22; must have resided in 
State 1 yr., county 1 mo., precinct 15 uays; idiots, insane, paupers, felons excluded. 

Florida.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention and paid capitation tax two 
years; must have resided instate 1 yr., county 6 mo.; persons under guardianship, 
insane, convicted of felony or any infamous crime excluded. 

Georgia — Citizen who has paid all his taxes since 1877 ; must have resided in State 
I yr., county 6 mo. ; idiots, insane, convicted of crime punishable by imprisonment 
until pardoned, tax delinquents excluded. 

Idaho.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 8"mo., county 30 days ; Chinese, Indians, 
Mormons, felons, insane, convicted of treason or election bribery excluded. 

Illinois.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 90 days, town or pre- 
cinct 30 days; persons convicted of crime punishable in penitentiary until pardoned and 
restored to rights excluded. 

Indiana.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention and resided 1 yr. in U. S. and 
6 mo. in State ; must have resided in State 6 mo., town 60 days, precinct 30 days ; per- 
sons convicted of crime and disfranchised by judgment of court excluded. 

Iowa.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 6 mo., county 60 days; idiots, insane, 
convicted of infamous crime, non-resident U. S. soldiers and marines excluded. 

Kansas.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention; must have resided in State 6 
mo., town or precinct 30 days ; idiots, insane, convicts, rebels not restored to citizenship, 
persons under guardianship, pubiic embezzlers, bribed, excluded. 

Kentucky.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 6 mo., town or pre- 
cinct 60 days ; idiots, insane, persons convicted of treason, felony, or bribery at election 
2xcluded. 

Louisiana.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention; must have resided in 
State 1 yr., county 6 mo., precinct 30 days ; idiots, insane, persons convicted of treason, 
embezzlement of public funds, or any crime punishable by imprisonment in peniten- 
tiary excluded. 

Maine. Citizen; must have resided in town 3 mo. ; paupers, persons under guar- 
dianship. Indians not taxed, and in 1893 all new voters who cannot read constitution or 
write their own names in English excluded. «v 
* Maryland.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 6 mo ; persons over 
twenty-one years convicted of larceny or other infamous crime unless pardoned, under 
guardianship as lunatics or non compos mentis excluded. 



QUALIFICATIONS FOR VOTING.-Continued. 



127 



Massachusetts.— Citizen who can read constitution in English, and write ; must 
have resided in State 1 yr., town 6 mo.; paupers (except U. S. soldiers and sailors 
honorably discharged) and persons under guardianship excluded. 

Michigan.— Citizen or inhabitant who has declared intention under U. S. laws six 
months before election and lived in State 23^ years ; must have resided in State 3 mo., 
town or precinct 10 days ; Indians, duellists and accessories excluded. 

Minnesota.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention and civilized Indians ; 
must have resided in U. S. 1 yr. prior to election, State 4 mo., town or precinct 10 days ; 
persons convicted of treason or felony unless pardoned, under guardianship or insane 
excluded. 

Mississippi.— Citizen who can read or understand constitution after Jan. 1, 1892 ; 
must have resided in State 2 yrs., town or precinct 1 yr. (except clergymen, who are 
qualified after 6 mo. in precinct) ; insane, idiots, Indians not taxed, felons, persons who 
have not paid taxes excluded. 

Missouri.- -Citizen or alien who has declared intention not less than one year nor 
more than five before offering to vote; must have resided in State 1 yr., town 60 days ; 
IT. S. soldiers and marines, paupers, criminals convicted once until pardoned, felons 
and violators of suffrage laws convicted a second time excluded. 

Montana.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 30 days; Indians, 
felons and soldiers excluded. 

Nebraska — Citizen or alien who has declared intention 30 days prior to election ; 
must have resided in State 6 mo., county 40 days, town or precinct 10 days ; idiots, in- 
sane, convicted of treason or felony unless pardoned, soldiers and sailors excluded. 

Nevada.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 6 mo., town or precinct 30 days ; 
idiots, insane, convicted of tieason or felony, unamnestied Confederates who bore 
arms against the U. S. excluded. 

New Hampshire.- Inhabitants, native or naturalized ; must have resided in town 
6 mo. ; paupers (except U. S. soldiers and sailors honorably discharged), persons ex- 
cused from paying taxes at their own request excluded. 

New Jersey.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 5 mo. ; idiots, in- 
sane paupers, persons convicted of crimes (unless pardoned) which exclude them from 
being witnesses excluded. 

New York.— Citizen ten day* previous to election ; must have resided in State 1 yr.„ 
county 4 mo., town or precinct 30 days ; persons convicted of bribery or any infamous 
crime unless sentenced to reformatory or pardoned, bettors on result of any election at 
which they offer to vote, bribers and bribed for votes excluded. * 

North Carolina.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr , county ?0 days ; per- 
sons convicted of felony or other infamous crime, idiots and lunatics excluded. 

North Dakota.— Citizen, alien who has declared intention one year, or civilized 
Indian who has severed tribal relations two years prior to election ; must have resided 
in State I yr., county 6 mo., precinct 90 days ; U. S. soldiers and sailors, persons non 
compos mentis and felons excluded. 

Ohio.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 30 days, precinct 20 days ; 
persons convicted of felony until pardoned and restored to citizenship, idiots, insane, 
U. S. soldiers and sailors excluded. 

Oregon.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention one year ; must have resided 
in State 6 mo. ; idiots, insane, convicted of felony, U. S. soldiers and sailors and Chinese 
excluded. 

Pennsylvania.— Citizen one month, and if twenty-two years or over must have 
paid tax within two years; must have resided in State 1 yr., or 6 mo. if after having 
been a qualified elector or native he shall have removed and returned; in precint 2 mo. ; 
non-taxpayers and persons convicted of some offense whereby right of suffrage is 
forfeited excluded. 

Rhode Island.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 2 yrs., town 6 mo. ; paupers, 
lunatics, persons non compos mentis, convicted of bribery or infamous crime until re- 
stored to right to vote, under guardianship excluded. 

SouTn Carolina.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., town 60 days ; per- 
sons convicted of treason, murder or other infamous crime, duelling, paupers, insane 
and idiots excluded. 

South Dakota.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention ; must have resided in 
IT. S. 1 yr.. State 6 mo., county 30 days, precinct 10 days ; persons under guardianship, 
idiots, insane, convicted of treason or felony unless pardoned excluded. 

Tennessee.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county (5 mo., and be resident 
of precinct or district ; persons convicted of bribery or other infamous offense excluded. 

Texas.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., town 6 mo., and bo actual resi- 
dent of precinct or district; idiots, lunatics, paupers, U. S. soldiers and sailors and 
persons convicted of felony excluded. 

Vermont.— Citizen; must have resided in State 1 yr., town or precinct 3 mo. (if re- 
siding in State 1 yr., bona fide resident in precinct at time of registration may vote) ; 
unpardoned convicts, deserters during civil war and ox-Confederates excluded. 

Virginia.— Citizen ; must have resided in State 1 yr., town 3 mo., precinct 30 days; 
idiots, lunatics, persons convicted of bribery at election, embezzlement of public 
funds, treason, felony and petty larceny, duellists anc* abettors unless pardoned by 
Legislature excluded. 



128 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 



Washington.— Citizen : must have resided in State 1 yr., county 90 days, town or 
precinct 30 days ; Indians not taxed excluded. 

West Virginia.— Citizen of State; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 601 
days, and be an actual resident of precinct or district ; paupers, idiots, lunatics, pcr-t 
sons convicted of treason, felony or bribery at elections, U. S. soldiers and sailors I 
excluded. 

Wisconsin.— Citizen or alien who has declared intention; must have resided in I 
State 1 yr., precinct 10 days ; persons under guardianship, insane, convicted of treason I 
or felony unless pardoned excluded. 

Wyoming.— Citizen, male or female ; must have resided in State 1 yr., county 60 B 
days ; insane, idiots, felons and persons unable to read State constitution excluded. 



Ballot Reform. 

The States and Territories which have adopted ballot reform laws in a more or less 
complete form are : 

1888. — Kentucky (applying to Louisville only), Massachusetts. 

1889. — Connecticut, Idaho, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New 
Mexico, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Wisconsin. 

1890. — Maryland (applying to Baltimore), New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Ver- 
mont, Washington, Wyoming. 

1891. — Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Nebraska, 
New Hampshire, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, 
West Virginia. 

1893— Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi. 

1893.— Alabama, Kansas, Nevada, Florida (for city of Jacksonville). 

1894- Virginia. 



Woman Suffrage. 

A majority of the States of the Union have given to women some form of suffrage. 
In Wyoming only, women have full suffrage and may vote for all officers, including 
Presidential electors. They have enjoyed this privilege since 1870. In the Colorado 
State election in 1893 the people voted in favor of woman suffrage. In Washington 
women voted generally for five years, until they were excluded by decision of the Ter- 
ritorial Supreme Court. Women voted in Utah Territory from 1870, until excluded by 
the Edmunds law. 

In Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, 
New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Wash- 
ington and Wisconsin laws have been passed giving to women various degrees of 
suffrage, mainly as to taxation or the election of school officers. 

In Louisiana women vote on allowing railroads to run through their parishes. In 
Missouri they were admitted to vote on fence questions by the Stock law, in 1892. In 
several municipalities in Delaware women exercise the privilege of suffrage. In Kan- 
sas they have equal suffrage with men at all municipal elections. In November, 1891, 
the people will vote upon a constitutional amendment providing for woman suffrage. 
In Michigan the Legislature of 1893 passed a law authorizing women to vote at village 
and city elections, but the Supreme Court of the State declared the law unconstitutional. 
In Montana women vote on local taxation. In various municipalities in New York 
they vote on local improvements. 

In England, Scotland and Wales women vote for all elective officers except Mem- 
bers of Parliament. In France the women teachers elect women members of all boards 
of education. In Sweden women vote for all elective officers except Representatives, 
and indirectly for members of the House of Lords. In Norway they vote at school 
elections. In Ireland they vote for poor-law guardians and harbor boards, and in Bel- 
fast for municipal officers. In Russia female householders vote on all local matters and 
for all elective officers, and in Finland for all elective officers. In Austria-Hungary 
they vote, by proxy, for all elective officers. In Damatia and Croatia they vote at local 
elections in person. In Italy widows vote for Members of Parliament. In Prussia 
women vote at local elections and for members of provincial Diets, usually by proxy. 
In Belgium they vote, by proxy, at municipal elections, and in Luxemburg for mem- 
bers of Legislature also. In the canton of Berne, Switzerland, women real estate 
owners exercise local suffrage. In Roumania women taxpayers vote by proxy in mu- 
nicipal matters. 

In every province of Australia, and in New Zealand and Tasmania, women exercise 
municipal and school suffrage. Iceland, the Isle of Man, Pitcairn Islands and Guernsey 
have full woman suffrage. Cape Colony, Africa, has municipal woman suffrage. All 
Russian colonies in Siberia have municipal woman suffrage, as also the women taxpay- 
ers of India, in the rural districts of British Burmab, and the municipalities in the 
presidencies of Madras and Bombay. 



PASSPORT REGULATIONS. 



129 



General Instructions in Regard to Passports. 



Passports are Issued only to citizens of the United States, upon application, sup- 
ported by proof of citizenship. Citizenship is acquired by birth, by naturalization and 
by annexation of territory. An alien woman who marries a citizen of the United 
States thereby becomes a citizen. Minor children resident in the United States become 
citizens by the naturalization of their father. 

When the applicant is a native citizen of the United States he must transmit his own 
affidavit of this fact, stating" his age and place of birth, with the certificate of one other 
citizen of the United States to whom he is personally known, stating- that the declara- 
t'on made by the applicant is true. The affidavit must be attested by a notary public, 
under his signature and seal of office. When there is no notary in the place the affidavit 
may be made before a justice of the peace or other officer authorized to administer oaths: 
but if he has no seal, his official act must be authenticated by certificate of a court of 
record. A person born abroad who claims that his father was a native citizen of the 
United States must state in his affidavit that his father was born in the United States, 
ha3 resided therein, and was a citizen of the same at the time of the applicant's birth. 
This affidavit must be supported by that of one other citizen acquainted with the facts. 

If tne applicant be a naturalized citizen, his certificate of naturalization must be 
transmitted for inspection (it will be returned with the passport), and he must state in 
his affidavit that he is the identical person described in the certificate presented. Pass- 
ports can not be issued to aliens who have only declared |their intention to become 
citizens. Military service does not of itself confer citizenship. A person of alien birth, 
who has been honorably discharged from military service in the United States, but who 
has not been naturalized, should not transmit his dischargo paper in application for a 
passport, but should apply to the proper court for admission to citizenship, and transmit 
the certificate of naturalization so obtained. The signature to the application and oath 
of allegiance should conform in orthography to the applicant's name as written in the 
naturalization paper, which the Department follows. 

Every applicant is required to state his occupation and the place of his permanent 
legal residence, and to declare that he goes abroad for temporary sojourn and intends to 
j| return to the United States with the purpose of residing and performing the duties 
of citizenship therein. 

The wife or widow of a naturalized citizen must transmit the naturalization certifi- 
cate of the husband, statinsr in her affidavit that she is the wife or widow of the person 
I described therein. The children of a naturalized citizen, claiming citizenship through 
the father, must transmit the certificate of naturalization of the father, stating in their 
I affidavits that they are children of the person described therein, and were minors at the 
i! time of such naturalization. 

The oath of allegiance to the United States will be required in all cases. 

The application should be accompanied by a description of the porson, stating the 
following particulars, viz.: 

t: Age .... years. Stature.. .. feet.. ..inohes (English measure). Forehead Eyes — 

> Nose Mouth Chin Hair Complexion Face 

If 1he applicant is to be accompanied by his wife, minor children or servants, it will 

• bo sufficient to state the names and ages of such persons and their relationship to 

• the applicant, when a single passport for the whole will suffice. For any other person 
j in the party a separate passport will be required. A woman's passport may include her 

• minor children and servants. 

By act of Congress approved March 23, 1888, a foe of ono dollar is requirod to be 
collected for every citizen's passport. That amount in currency, postal money order or 
■postal note should: accompany each application. Orders should be payable to tho Dis- 
Ibureing Clerk of the Department of State. Drafts or checks are inconvenient and 
■undesirable. 

A passport is good for two years from its date and no longer. 

Cit izens of the United States desiring to obtain passports while in a foreign country 
I-nust apply to the chief diplomatic representative of the Uiited States in that country, 
fir in the absence of a diplomatic representative, then lo the consul-general, if there bo 
|>ne, or in the absence of both the officers last named, to a consul. Passports can not be 
lawfully issued by State authorities, or by judicial or municipal functionaries of tho 
■ Jnited States. (Revised Statutes, section 4.075.) To persons wishing to obtain passports 
•'or themselves blank forms of application will bo furnished by this Department on 
request, stating whether the applicant be a native or a naturalized citizen, or claims 
l!itizcnshlp through tho naturalization of husband or parent. Forms aro not furnished, 
■Xcept as samples, to those who make a business of procuring passports. 

Communications should bo addressed to the DopMrtmont of State, indorsed " Pass- 
port Division," and each communication should give the post-office address of tho person 
o whom tho answer is to be dircctod. Professional titles will not bo iuserted in 
KiiBports. 



130 



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132 



STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE. 



Statistics of Agriculture. 



(From Census of 1890.) 



FTATB3 AND 
TeRKI TORIES. 


Total 
No. of 
farms. 


A CI 
Total. 


tES in Fa 

Im- 
proved. 


RMS. 

TT • 

Unim- 
proved. 


Land, 
fences and 
buildings. 


r ALUATIOK 

Imple- 
ments & 
mHch'ry. 


Live stock 
on hand 
June 1,1890 




62,013 


6,179,925 


3,044,666 


3,135,259 


$98,567,730 


$5,499,413 


"$18,280,140 


N. Hampshire. 


29,151 


o 4 I'd m o 

o,4o9,018 


1,727,387 


1,731,631 


66,162,600 


3,594,85( 


10,450,125 




32,573 


4,395,646 


2,655,943 


1,739,703 


80,427,490 


4,7:33,560 


16,644,^20 


Massachusetts. 


34,374 


2,998,282 


1,657,024 


1,341,258 


127,538,284 


6,938,940 


14,200,178 


Rhode Island.. 


5,500 


469,281 


274,491 


194 790 


21,873,479 


941,03t 


2,364,970 


Connecticut... 


26,350 


2,253,432 


1,379,419 


874,013 


95 000,595 


3,075,495 


9,974,618 


New York 


226,223 


21,961,562 


16,389,380 


5,572,182 


968,127,286 


46,659,465 


124,523,965 


New Jersey.. . 


30,828 


2,662,009 


1,999,117 


662,892 


159,262,840 


7,^78,644 


15,811,430 


Pennsylvania.. 


211,557 


18,364,370 


13,210,597 


5,153,773 


922,240,233 


39,046,855 


101,6521758 


IN .A tlUll LIU Ulv 


ft CO KftQ 
000,00» 


0£, I -to, 0™IJ 


AO !MU (¥>A 


on 40^ KM 


9 K3Q 9/V1 XEFi 




olo,902,504 




9,381 


1,055,692 


762 655 


293,037 


39,586,080 


1,835,570 


4.19#,810 




40,798 


4,9o.i,390 


0,412,9(Jo 


1,oo9,4cSj 


"%rfX nro ttA 

17o,058,550 


6,54V,090 


19,191,320 


Dist. of Colum. 


382 


11,745 


9,898 


1,847 


6,471, \20 


79,761 


129,120 




127,600 


19,104,951 


9,125,545 


9,979,406 


254,490,600 


6,593.6r8 


33,4041281 


West Virginia. 


72,773 


10,321,326 


4,554,000 


5,767,326 


151,880,300 


3,116,420 


23,! 641610 


North Carolina 


178,359 


22,6^.1,896 


7,828,569 


14,823,327 


183,977,010 


7,183,210 


25,547,2>-0 


South Carolina 


115,008 


13,184,652 


5,255,237 


7,929,410 


99,1(4,600 


4,172 262 


16.5721410 




171,071 


25,200,435 


9.582.866 


15,617.569 


152,006,2 0 


5,764,978 


3 1 ,477,^90 




34,228 


3,674,486 


1,145,69? 


2,528,793 


72,745,180 


1,158,040 


7,142,980 




71Q (Uu\ 


100 TV? K73 

1UU, lot ,UJ o 


4.1 K77 371 


f»8 4X0 209 


1 'JIQ «7fl 


'Ati 444 018 


1£t1 ^*'">T Qi\1 

lol,bol,801 


Ohio 




*£0,00<G,'xUo 


18 338 ft^l 

10,000,0^1 


k ma 

0,vMO,00'i 


1 fiAn f»1 890 




116,181,690 




1QO 1«7 


20 3K2 Kl K 


IK 107 AUO 
JO, 1U4 ,K5>w 


0,*00,IA>1 


7<V1 7RQ nn 
t 0±, i Oct, 11U 


21 I79 9-V\ 


93.361.422 


Illinois 


240 681 


30,498,277 


25,669,060 


4,829,217 


1,262,870 587 


34 456 938 


1H1I 4Q1 PJtO 




172^344 


14,785,'636 


9^865,350 


4,920^286 


556,190,670 


22a82]600 


69,564.985 




146,409 


19,787,988 


9,79o,9ol 


6.994,057 


477,5^4,507 


19,167,010 


63 784,377 




116,851 


18,663,645 


11,127,953 


7,535,692 


340,059,470 


16,916,473 


57,725,683 


Iowa 


201,903 


30,491,541 


25,428,899 


5.062.642 


857,581,022 


36,665,315 


2061436 1242 




238,043 


30,780,290 


19,792,313 


10,987,977 


1 625.858,361 


21,830,719 


138,70 lll73 


North Dakota. 


27,611 


7,660,333 


4,658,015 


3,002,318 


75,310,305 


6,648,180 


]8, , 787 , 294 


South Dakota. 


50.158 


11,396.460 


6,959,293 


4,437,167 


107,466,:i35 


8,371,7i2 


29,231,519 




113,608 


21,593,444 


15,247,705 


6,345,739 


402,358,913 


16,468,977 


92197 1 .920 




166,617 


30,214,456 


22.303,301 


7,911,156 


559,726.046 


18 869,790 


128,068,305 


N. Central Div 


1,923,822 


256,586,994 


184,292,126 


72,294,868 


7,069,7ti7, i54 


252,225,315 


1, lUO^&ifj,6A}4 


Kentucky 


179,264 


21,412./i29 


ll,olo,o{£i 


9,593,347 


GAG oti 0/>A 

o4b,3}9,3b0 


10,906,506 


70.924,400 


Tennessee. . .. 


174,412 


20.161,583 


9,362.555 


10,879,028 


242,700,540 


9,936.880 


60,254,230 




157.772 


19.853,000 


7,698,343 


12,154,657 


111,0)1,390 


4,511,645 


301776J30 


Mississippi 


144,318 


17,572,547 


6,819,390 


10,723,157 


127.423,157 


6,968,865 


• JO.uOO,** 0 


Louisiana 


69,294 


9 544,219 


3,774,668 


5,769,551 


85,381.270 


7,167!355 


17.898,380 


Texas 


228.126 


51,406,937 


20,746,215 


30,660,722 


399 971,289 


13,746,541 


103 2i')9l503 


(i\z 1 i i h n m a 


8 826 


1,606,423 


563 728 


1,042 695 


8 581,170 


433 K80 


q one *>7rt 




1241760 


14,891,356 


5,475 043 


9.416,313 


118^574^422 


5,672.400 


30 772^0 


o. L/entrai jjiv. 


1 08A 779 


1 hil 1AA 9Q1 




00 1 1Q 470 


1 44/1 099 ",Qu 


^tt 7C*> 


351,028,828 




5 603 


1 QA4 1Q7 


915 517 


1 04A fiftO 


°K K19 340 


I,ooo,UIU 


21,620.687 


Wyoming. 


3 125 


1 830,432 


476,'831 


1,353,601 


14,460,880 


522 250 


1 34« 331 

10,0^0,0(51 




16,389 


4,598.941 


1,823,520 


2,775,421 


85,035,180 


2,728^850 


22,594,010 


New Mexico... 


4,458 


787.882 


261,106 


524.776 


8,140,800 


291.140 


7.247.180 




1 426 


1 297 033 


104 128 


1 102 QOK 


7 229 93n 


JoD.OOU 


0,<tO(,OOU 




10>)17 


1,323,705 


6481223 


775,482 


28,402,780 


1,164,6H0 


6.81 <.830 




1,277 


1,661.416 


723,052 


938,364 


12,309,410 


537,480 


5,801,820 




6,603 


1.302,256 


606,362 


695,894 


17.411,580 


1,172,460 


7.253,490 


Washington. .. 


18,056 


4.179.190 


1,820,832 


2,-358. 358 


83,461,660 


3,150,200 


14,113 110 




25,53.) 


6,909.888 


3,516.000 


3,393,8X8 


115,819,200 


4,556,770 


22,K48.a30 




52.894 


21.427,293 


12,222.839 


9,204,454 


697,1 16,630 


14,689.710 


60 259,2 0 


Western Div.. 


145,878 


47,282,2*1 


23,020,4 ;0 


24,261,823 


1,094,942 K90 


*0,:'66.110 


18b,95.V78 


The U. States 


4,564,641 


62;<.218,619 


357,616,755 


.'65,601,864 


13,279,252,64'.'! 


494,247,467 


2,208,767,57J 



Note.— The total production of milk on farms in the United States, year ending 
Dec. 31, 1889. was 5.209,125,567 gallons, equivalent to 315.48 gallons for each milch cow and 
to 83.18 gallons per head of population ; total production of butter on farms, 1,024,223,468 
pounds; total production of cheese on farms, 18,726,818 pounds. 



FARMS, HOMES AND MORTGAGES. 



133 



Farms, Homes and Mortgages. 

Number and amount of real estate mortgages in force January 1, 1890, and number 
of acres and lots mortgaged, by States and Territories. 



On Lots. 


Num- 
ber. 


Amount. 


8 308 


768,2 1 8 


759 


7.320 


R 315 478 


67 510 


120 I^Q '^04- 


34.116 


51 RK3 737 


45.685 




6*873 


10.472,991 


23*,604 


49 VfiO 319 


6.587 


4 875,977 


13 788 


1 0 4 17 903 


637 


35b\119 


168,247 


219 01o7l38 


65.265 


36.177,42(5 


81107 


50*31 7027 


95* 578 


68,426.755 


25.672 


21,913.838 


9.020 


12,763.756 


27*866 


18*,476.562 


32*769 


3ff748 801 
280,836.421 


144*817 


78*738 


54 71 9 371 


98*502 


122 .'{QO 427 


4*581 




88,867 


112 891 147 


3 552 


3 R35 578 


48*202 


42 30t 354 


328 


358 340 


10 632 


9 537 7 19 


116*507 


A iO,00.7,«7£*7 


956 


805 257 


422 658 


1 KQfi Afil PJfi 

l,OyU,UOl,£-10 


11,401 


(i (it? O-Q 
0,;'OO,y 4 V? 


0,UOO 


0,01 »,-)OC> 


101 ,0~.) 


1«>K ,4u»> 


O,ouo 


0,ytO,Un) 


378,03a 


491.260,895 


18,359 


31,516,000 


7,16=» 


4,719,951 


Hi,070 


6,768,908 


22,274 


23,996,252 


20,955 


18,732,823 


3,849 


5,614,811 


12,094 


8,467,699 


14,069 


12,127,444 


11,183 


19,351.204 


8,907 


5.185,413 


53,091 


40,302,807 


1,610 


1,953,391 



States and 
Territories. 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado • 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Oist. of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts — 

Mijhigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina.... 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania a ... 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



35.732 
1,474 
25.138 
112.637 
54 600 
57,996 
9.641 
23,923 
20 681 
48 519 
3 143 
297,233 
171,420 
252.559 
298 884 
60.:;84 
20,372 
58,851 
53.fe08 
178,202 
222,761 
195.580 
30,767 
192.028 
5,937 
155,377 
1,256 
25,189 
141,704 
1,523 
579,472 
47,404 
98,767 
271,055 
22,553 
518,165 
20,999 
27,065 
60.221 
3' »,470 
93,877 
6.908 
34,388 
34,192 
29.632 
29,357 
164,82(5 
3,028 



Amount. 



$39,027,983 
2,348,519 
14.366.595 
24l.r50.181 
85.058,793 
79,921.071 
16.122,696 
61,986,589 
15,505,119 
27,387,590 
3.167.249 
384.299.150 
110.730,643 
199,774.171 
243.146.826 
45.693,749 
28.513.90 ^ 
32.627.208 
64,577,803 
323.277,668 
150,472.700 
197,745,989 
19,075.980 
214,609.772 
8,729,907 
132,902,322 
2,194.995 
18,968,259 
232,565,919 
6.644 673 
1,607,874,301 
21,471,428 
25,777,480 
259,842,188 
22,928,437 
613,105,81 »2 
36,778,243 
13,780,302 
36,115,773 
40,421,o96 
93,864,178 
8.040,829 
27.907.687 
28,691,726 
44.078,449 
19,702,505 
121,838,168 
4,937,065 



On Acres. 



Num- 
ber. 



27,424 
715 
17,818 
45,127 
20,484 
12.311 
2,768 
319 
14,094 
34 731 
2.506 
128,986 
106,155 
171452 
203,306 
34,612 
11.352 
30.985 
21.139 
33,385 
144.023 
97,078 
26,186 
U3,16| 
2,385 
107,175 
928 
14,557 
25,197 
567 
156,814 
36,143 
33,734 
119,730 
16,250 
140,127 
2,640 
19,900 
50,151 
17,196 
72,922 
2.0">9 
22,294 
20,125 
18,449 
20,450 
111,7:55 
1,418 



Amount. 



6,088,489 
223,0' 0 
2,563,762 
Il,069,n00 
3,496,112 
440,360 
289.624 
11,755 
2.329 359 
7,769.359 
359,561 

\o,m,m 

6.822,499 
16,307,145 
26,577,522 
3,464,754 
3.686.664 
4.092,296 
2,062.325 
920 313 
9.669.723 
10,209.647 
5.474.740 
10,159,021 
561,464 
14,085,290 
366,039 
1,151,143 
1,539.601 
1 ,630,725 
11,372,854 
4,886,717 
4 :J87,568 
7,762.136 
2,528,820 
9,206,20: 
96,546 
3.713,556 
6,997,823 
3,0)8,045 
32,192,178 
344,164 
1,667,602 
3,487, 100 
2.139,257 
3,828. 199 
10,215,8861 91,558 
822,0071 3,926 

a The records of confessions of judgment in this State, which have been taken as 
mortgages, do not disclose whether they incumber acres or lots, but the figures for 
these two classes of mortgages have been estimated by using ratios derived from the 
figures for New Yp 1 ".^ decade j anunry ], 1800, the real estate mortgago indebtedness 
amounted to $6,019,679,985, represented by 4,777,698 mortgages. These mortgages »nc 
divided into two classes, as follows : mortgages on acres, 2.303,061 ; amount of indebt- 
edness $2 209, 148,431 ; mortgages on lots, 2,474,637 ; amount of indebtedness, U3.8I0 .53l. 554. 
Number of acres covered by existing mortgages. 273,352, 109 ; number <>t lots. 4,161,138. 

It is computed that the average life of a mortgage in the United States is 4 06 years. 
The avernge annual rate of interest for all mortgages in force in the United States In 
1990 was 6.60 per cent. ; for mortgages on acres. 7.36 per cent.; for mortgages on lots, 

6 '/ 16r Ke8e CI Bt'atistlc8 of mortgage indebtedness are from Extra Census Bulletin 71, 
issued June 30, 1894. 



$28,762,387 

1,580,301 

9,051,117 
120,890,877 
30.195.056 
13,176,736 

5.649 705 

2,226,: 
10.629.142 
16,969.687 

2,811.130 
165 289,112 
74.553.217 
149 457.144 
174.720,071 
23.779,911 
15.750.153 
14.150.646 
27,828.999 
42,441.247 
95,761.329 
75,355,562 
15,829.914 
101,718.625 

5,094.329 
90,506.968 

1,836,655 

9,430,510 
54,025,990 

5,839,416 
217,813,055 
14,537,449 
22,098,092 
134,107,706 
15,983.361 
121,844,907 

5,262,243 

9,060,351 
29 356,865 
16,425,144 
75,131,355 

2.426018 
19,439,988 
16,561.282 
24,727,215 
14,517,092 
81,535,361 

3,0 13,6', 4 



Number 
Mortgaged. 



Acres. Lots 



14,221 
2.367 
16,647 

187.297 

182.6 '7 
40,416 
7.623 
37,020 
17366 
17,049 
1,572 

286.148 
94.239 

163.701 

265.341 
31.422 
18.440 
28.989 
41.556 

132 683 

129,752 

194.586 
8.384 

155,441 
7,950 
94,772 
700 
10,455 

172,261 
2,542 

647,386 
i:i,297 
10,565 

210,380 
15.36 » 

570,395 
29,970 
8,910 
29,526 
32,896 
51,598 
6,111 
12,242 
*0,608 
31,1(9 
11,754 



134 



FARM ANIMALS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Farm Animals in the United States. 

Estimated number of animals on farms and ranches, and average price, January, 
1894. From report of the Statistician of the Department of Agriculture: 



States and Territories. 



Horses. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts... 
ltbode Island.. .. 

Connecticut 

New .York. 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania.... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina.. 
South Carolina. . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee. .. .. 
West Virginia. 

Kentucky 

Ohio. 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

South Dakota... 
Worth Dakota... 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado. 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

I 'ali t'ornia 

Oklahoma 

Total 



Number 



J 16004 
56,741 
94,825 
65,760 
10.443 
45,760 
703.821 
83,321 
659,484 
29,380 
136,359 
251,145 
134,517 
62,635 
105,981 
33,144 
119,80(: 
161,250 
130,8 4 
1.183,8115 
19o,515 
334,408 
163,312 
430,941 
864,360 
503,779 
761,95! 
1.308,771 
475,674 
488,772 
1.367,329 
1,(108,361 
9 ",0,504 
708.457 
. 290,862 
163,499 
196,519 
82,524 
191,731 
92,963 
52,697 
69,112 
55,793 
144.688 
198,076 
235*60] 
513,636 
29,515 



Av. 
price 
|63.»,7 
57.5« 
54.5* 
73.03 
95 43 
89.9- ; > 
71.81 
85.27 
63.7" 
50.53 
63.3" 
56.04 
72.20 
8L9 
13.4 
66.40 
57.31 
52.6' 
46.24 
27.20 
45.58 
56.34 
46.46 
56.24 
54.85 
60.22 
50.31 
43.40 
57 1 
59.43 
43.73 
c8.25 
40.42 
4 1.0b 
45.82 
57 
26.00 
24.D9 
30.27 
15.80 
21.75 
21.94 
23.00 
48.00 
40.59 
29.11* 
41.98 
39.50 



Mules. 



1 6,08 1.139 47.83 2.352,23 1 



No. 



4.819 
8,296 
36,513 
5,550 
13,213 
39,422 
109 76; 
95,991 
161,2(14 
8,365 
12"), 936 
150,860 
92,80 
253,839 
139,882 
198171 
7,601 
150,2 
20,700 
3,026 
57,088 
104,720 
5,025 
9269 
36,187 
256,828 
97,019 
46,939 
7,380 
7,810 
994 
1.505 
9,163 
3,747 
1.327 
1,789 
1,604 
990 
1,392 
6,182 
03,033 
5,437 



Av. 

price 



$78.09 
101.69 
81.86 
86.55 
91.43 
69.92 
77.64 
95 93 
88.34 
86.64 
67.14 
67.01 
78.83 
44 
60.40 
68.92 
55.39 
54.94 
58.95 
78. 5U 
56.2( 
51 26 
63.40 
70.81 
53.56 
4&91 
53.41 
56.94 
00.67 
71.85 
45.49 
57.00 
61.07 
31.3? 
30.75 
31.37 
39.25 
45.75 
69.18 
44.98 
56 38 
48.50 
62.17 



Milch Cows. °* e Ca ? tl ° U ' er 



Number 



171,003 
1 12,585 
246.022 
178,135 
24,765 
137,582 
1,572,443 
1911,734 
938,382 
33,836 
147,5.26 
276,61 
274,794 
125,619 
312,742 
114,332 
311,743 
302.959 
175,784 
808,515 
328,697 
351,499 
182,265 
329,552 
767.735 
468,711 
656,982 
1,039.121 
787,390 
577,196 
1,278.231 
781,84: 
668,914 
535,536 
290,550 
140,7.0 
36,419 
17.815 
76,121 
18,400 
14.878 
56,143 
18,196 
30,419 
108,535 
1 10,398 
329,161 
20,275 
16.487.400 



Av. 
price 



121.37 
21.81 
25.25 
32.50 
26.60 
28.94 
25.78 
35.20 
25.55 
24.50 
23.63 
18.08 
14.99 
20.47 
16.44 
13.08 
12 45 
12.91 
16.50 
13.84 
10.76 
16.45 
19.15 
20.39 
25.94 
28.27 
24.16 
25.12 
24.34 
19.42 
23 57 
17.67 
18.15 
19.01 
19.12 
19.79 
24.67 
24.60 
23.06 
20.00 
17.50 
18.00 
29.30 
21.67 
28.72 
21.35 
25.82 
18.00 



Number 



130.5 » 
92.898 
152,681 
86,432 
11.713 
76,886 
706.597 
52.641 
737,919 
26,544 
112.614 
411,006 
386,4^3 
161,668 
557,645 
375,981 
545,134 
555,588 
391,131 
6,591,787 
054,376 
575,206 
854,376 
599.004 
803,236 
472.397 
904,001 
1,553.383 
779,2.24 
778,038 
2,731,385 
1,850,175 
1,978,322 
1,013,223 
467,400 
250,566 
1,056,952 
852,437 
996.3U1 
1,224,546 
649,502 
351,584 
259,078 
429,947 
408,293 
801,543 
925,578 
121,219 
1.77-36,608,168 



Tariff on Cereals and Flour in Principal European Countries. 

Measures and rates expressed in United States equivalents. 

I'kanck. — Wheat, 37 77 cents per bushel; rye, 14 7l cents; oats, 8.40 cents; barley 12 fil 
cents; maize (corn), 14.71 cents. Maize meal. 85.79 cents per barrel; wheat flour— rate 
of extraction 70 per cent, or over, $1.8875 per barrel; 60 to 70 per cent., $2.3164- 60 per cent 
or less, S2.74 per barrel. ' 

Germany:— Wheat, 32.39 cents per bushel; rye, 30.23 cents; oats, 13.82 cents- barley 
11.66 cents; maize, 12 09 cents. Wheat Hour and maize meal, $1.5446 per barrel ' 

Austria— Hungary.- Wheat, 16.57 cents per bushel; rye, 15.47 cents; oats 6 63 cents- 
barley, 4.42 cents; maize, 5.16 cents. Wheat flour and maize meal, $1 .3536 per barrel 

ItUftStA.— < ereais fn e; wheat Hour and maize meal, 83.8 cents per barrel 

In the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark and Belgium, cereals and flour 
are free. 



Statistics of Immigration. 135 

ARRIVALS BY NATIONALITIES AND BY DECADES, OF ALIEN PASSENGERS 
AND IMMIGRANTS [ALIEN PASSENGERS FROM OCTOBER 1, 1820, TO 
DECEMBER 31, 1867, AND IMMIGRANTS FROM JANUARY 1, 1868, TO 
JUNE 30, 1893.] 



Countries Whence 
Arrived. 



Austria-Hungary 

Bulgium, 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Norway and Sweden 

Kussia and Poland 

Spain and Portugal 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

All other countries of 

Europe 

Total Europe 

British North American 

Possessions 

Mexico 

Central America 

South America 

West Indies 

Total America 



Islands of the Atlantic. . . 

China 

Other countries of Asia.. 

Africa 

Islands of the Pacific 

All other countries and 

islands 

Aggregate 



1821 


1831 


1841 


t<> 


to 


to 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 














27 


22 


5,074 

5:59 


169 


1,PM 


8,497 


45,575 


77,262 


6,761 


152,454 


434,626 


408 


2,253 


1,870 


1,078 


' 1,412 


8,251 


91 


1,2-1 


13,903 


91 


646 


656 


2,622 


2,954 


2,759 


3,226 


4.821 


4,644 


75,803 


283,191 


1,047,763 


43 


96 


155 


»o,olo 


4yo,Doo 


1 ^Q7 RAO 


2,277 


13,624 


41,723 


4,817 


6,599 


3,271 


105 


44 


368 


531 


856 


3.579 


3,834 


12,301 


13.528 


11,564 


33,424 


62,469 


352 


103 


337 


2 


8 


35 


8 


40 


47 


16 


52 


55 


2 


9 


29 


32,679 


69,801 


52,777 


143.439 


599.125 


1,713,251 



1851 to, 
Dec. 31 
1860. 



Jan. I, 
1861, to 
June 30 
1870, 



4,738 

3,749 
76,358 
951,667 

9,231 ! 
10,789 
20,9311 

1,621 
10,3531 
25.011 



7,800 
6,734 
17,094 
35,984 
787.468 
11,728 
9.102 
109,298 
4,536 
8,493 
23,286 



1,338,093 1,042,674 



116 



,452,65' 

59,309 
3,078 
449 
1,224 

10.660 



74,720 

3,090 
41,397 
61 
210 
158 

25.921 



2,598,214 



210 



2,064,407 

153,871 
2,191 
96 
1,396 
9,043 



166,597 

3,446 
64,301 
308 
312 
221 

15,232 



Fiscal 
years 
1871 to 
1880. 



72,969 
7,221 
31,771 
72,206 

718.182 
55,759 
16,541 

211,245 
52,254 



984,914 



656 



2,261,904 



5,362 
210 
928 
13957 



403,726 

10,056 
123,201 
622 
229 

10,913 

1,540 



!,314,824 2,812,191 



years 


years 


1881 to 


1891 to 


1890. 


1893. 


333,719 


210,811 


20,177 


11,431 


OO, I iii. 


on («i 


50.46-4 


18.649 


1,452.970 


340,673 


307,309 


211,107 


53,701 


20,580 


568,362 


161,313 


265,088 


250.107 


6.535 


10.603 


81 988 




1,462]839 


348,911 


10,318 


7,559 


4,721,602 


1,641.289 


392,802 
1,913 


a 
a 


462 


817 


2.304 


1,954 


29.042 


8.832 


426,523 


11,603 


15,798 


2.502 


61,711 

6,669 


8,392 
14,997 


437 


709 


12,574 


6,527 


1,299 


301 


5,246,613 


1,686,320 



a Immigrants from British North America and Mexico not included since July 1, 1886. 
IMMIGRATION BY PORTS AND NATIONALITIES. 



Which, Arrived. 



Austria-Hungary 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Russia (except Poland) 

Sweden and Norway 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

All other countries 

Total 

ports. 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston and Cbarlestown, Mass. 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

San Franoisco, Cal 

Total 



Juno 


Six Months end- 
ing June 


Twelve Months 
ending June 


1894. 


1893. 


1894. 


1893. 


1894. 


189(. 


1,835 
400 
223 
3.564 
3,621 
99 
173 
2,772 
2,299 
171 
6,806 
1,421 


10,984 
1,251 
.351 
10,211 
10,176 
612 
613 
9.260 
8,415 
382 
12,370 
3,101 


11,827 

2,n73 

1,340 
20.937 
27.814 

1,149 
497 
15,( 43 
10,222 

1,520 
29,815 

8.201 


40,201 
5,571 
2,937 
51.211 
54,236 
6,025 
5,067 
28 968 
34,608 
2,882 
64,334 
12,370 


37,504 
5,576 
3,645 
59,828 
43,959 
2,881 
1,553 
37,573 
27.337 
3,445 
71,639 
16,965 


59,627 
8,751 
5,343 
98,318 
72,403 
8.114 
13.659 
43.657 
63,872 
5,252 
108,716 
22,229 


23,384 


67,726 


131,038 


308,410 


311,401 " 


407,9^6 


414 
1,216 

28 
18,825 
2,639 
262 


4,180 

8,397 
6 

55,089 
4,248 
806 


4,707 
7,581 
837 
106,655 
7,758 
3,501) 


12,466 
17,782 
656 
256.227 
17,943 
3.337 


13 427 
17,558 

1.199 
253.390 
19,861 

6,960 


26,183 
29,581 

3,053 
404,337 
28,906 

6,874 


23,384 


67,726 


131,038 


308,410 


311,404 


497,9;i6 



Note.- The arrivals of immigrants in the ports above specified comprise about 99 
per cent, of the immigration into the country. 



136 



MARRIAGE LAWS. 



Marriage Laws of the States and Territories. 

Alabama. — Age of consent, male 17. female 14, consent of parents required If under 
age; license required: ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, 
nieces and step-relatives prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, or white with 
negro blood void; marriages under age of consent voidable. 

Arizona.— Age of consent, male 18, lemale 16, consent of parents required if under 
age; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieees or first 
cousins prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, or white with negro or Mon- 
golism blood void; marriages under age of consent voidable. 

Arkansas.— Age of consent, male 17, female 14, consent of parents required if 
under age; license required; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, 
nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited; marriages within prohibited decrees, 
bigamous, under age of consent or white with negro blood void; marriages with insane 
or idotic persons or whose consent was obtained by fraud or force are voidable. Forced 
marriage is punishable by death to the male participant. 

California— Age of consent, male 38, female 15, consent of parents required if 
under age; license required; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, 
nephews or nieces prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous or white 
with negro blood void; voidable marriages- under age of consent if no cohabitation since 
attaining such age, insane or idiot, incapacity, force or fraud if no voluntary cohabita- 
t ion, bigamous, when either party had married while other was absent and unheard of 
for five years. 

Colorado.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at commonlaw.no statute; 
license required; prohibited degrees and void marriages same as California. 

Connecticut.— Age of consent as at common law, male 14, female 12, parents con- 
sent required if under age; license required; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, 
uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, step-mother, step-daughter, step-father or step-son 

Erolnbited; marriages within prohibited degrees or thoso solemnized by persons not 
aving authority void. 

Delaware.— Age of consent, male 14. female 12, as at common law; license required; 
ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, great-nephews, 
great-nieces or step-relatives prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, 
white with negro blood or those not properly solemnized void; marriages with iusane 
or idiotic persons voidable. 

District of Columbia— Age of consent, mnle 14, female 12, consent of parents 
required if under age; license required ; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, 
uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or step-relatives prohibited; marriages within prohibited 
degrees, higamous or white with negro blood void. 

Florida.— A^e of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law; license required; 
marriages "within tho Levitical degrees" prohibited; marriages within prohibited 
dearees, bisramous, insane when married, physically incompetent, white with negro 
blood, with force or fraud or underage of, consent void. 

Georgia.— Age of consent, male 17, female 14; license required; marriages "within 
the Levitical degrees" or of step-relatives prohibited; marriatres within prohibited 
degrees, bigamous, insane when married, physically incompetent, white with negro 
blood, with force or fraud or under age void. 

Idaho.— Age of consent, male 18, female 18 ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, 
uncles, aunts, nephews or nieces prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, 
bigamous or white with negro blood void; voidable marriages— under age of consent if 
no cohabitation since attaining such age, insane or idiotic, incapacity, force or fraud if 
no voluntary cohabitation, bigamous, when either party had married while other was 
absent and unheard of for over five j'ears. 

Illinois.— Age of consent, male 17, female 14; license required; ancestors, descend- 
ant", brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited; 
marriages within prohibited degrees or of persona insane or idiotic when married void. 

Indiana.— Age of consent, male 18, female 16; license required; prohibited degrees 
same as Illinois; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, white with negro 
blood or of persons insane or idiotic when married void; marriages under age of con- 
sent voidable. 

Iowa.— Age of consent, male 10, female 14; license required; ancestor?, descendants, 
brothers, sifters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or step-relatives prohibited; marriages 
within prohibited degrees or bigamous void; marriages under age of consent voidable. 

Kansas.— Age of consent, male 15, female 12; license required; ancestors, descend- 
ants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited; 
marriages within prohibited degrees void; and under age of consent voidable. 

Kentucky —Age of consent, male 14, female 12; license required (marriage without 
license is valid; the person solemnizing it is punished); ancestors, descendants, brothers, 
sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, great-nephews, great-nieces or step relatives 
prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, insane or idiot when mar- 
ried, physically incompetent, white with negro blood or not solemnized according to 
law void; marriages under age of consent if no cohabitation 6ince attaining age, or I 
where consent was obtained by force or fraud voidable. ' 



MARRIAGE LAWS.-Continued. 137 



Louisiana.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12; license required; Ancestors, 
descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews or nieces, white with negro pro- 
hibited; bigamous mar riages void; marriages where consent was obtained by force or 
fraud if no cohabitation before suit voidable. 

Maine.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law; license required; 
ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or step relatives 
prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, insane or idiot void. 

Maryland.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law, consent of 
parents required by females under 16; license required; prohibited degrees same as 
Maine; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous or white with negro blood void 

Massachusetts.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law, consent of 
parents required if under age; license required; prohibited degrees same as Maine; 
marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, under ape of consent if parties separate 
during such nonage and do not cohabit afterwards, insane or idiot when married, when 
parties leave State to contract contrary to laws of State and return to reside void. 

Michigan.— Age of consent, male 18, female 16; license required; prohibited 
degrees same as Maine; void marriages same as Massachusetts, or force or fraud; mar- 
riages under age of consent if no cohabitation since attaining such age, insane or idiot, 
incapacity, force or fraud if no voluntary cohabitation, bigamous, when either party 
had married while the other was absent and unheard of for over five years void. 

Minnesota.— Age of consent, male 18, female 15; license required; ancestors, de- 
scendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews or nieces prohibited; marriages 
within prohibited degrees or bigamous void; marriages under age of consent if no 
cohabitation since attaining such ajre, insane, force or fraud, womau unchaste before 
marriaae unknown to husband voidable. 

Mississippi.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law; license required; 
ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or step-relatives 
prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, or white with negro blood 
void; marriages with insane or idiotic persons unknown to others voidable. 

Missouri.— Age of consent, male 15, female 12; license required; ancestors, descend- 
ants brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited; 
marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous or white with negro blood void. 

Montana.— Age of consent, male 18. female 16; license required; prohibited degrees 
same as Missouri; marriages within prohibited degrees or bigamous void. 

Nebraska.— Age of consent, male 18, female 16: ancestors, descendants, brothers, 
sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews or nieces prohibited; marriages within prohibited 
degrees, bigamous, white with negro blood or insane or idiotic when married void; 
marriages under age of consent if no cohabitation since attaining age or where consent 
was obtained by force or fraud voidable. 

Nevada.— Age of consent, male 18> female 16, consent of parents required if under 
age; license required; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, 
nieces or first cousins prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous or 
white with negro, Indian or Mongolian blood void; marriages under age Of consent if 
no cohabitation since attaining such age, insane, force or fraud, woman unchaste before 
marriage unknown to husband voidable. 

New Hampshire.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12; license required; ancestors, 
descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, step-relatives or first 
cousins prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees or bigamous void. 

New Jersey.— Age of consent, male 14. female 12, must have consent, of parents if 
male is under 21 and female under 18; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, 
aunts, nephews, nieces or step-relatives prohibited; marriages bigainuus or when 
physically incompetent void. 

NEW Mexico.— Age of consent, male 18, female 15, must have consent of parents 
if male is under 21 and female under 18; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, 
uncles, aunts, nephews, or nieces prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees 
or under age of consent \ oid. 

New York —Age of consent, male 18. female 16; ancestors, descendants, brolhers 
or sisters prohibited; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous or when one of 
parties condemned to life imprisonment void; marriages under age of consent if no 
cohabitation since attaining such age or when contracted by force or f raud or without 
consent of parent, insane or idiot, incapacity, force or fraud if no cohabitation, biga- 
mous, or when either party had married while other was absent and unheard of for 
more than five years voidable. 

North Carolina.— Age of consent, male 16, female 14; license required; ancestors, 
descendants, brot hers, sisters, nephews or nieces prohibited; marriages within prohibiten 
degrees, bigamous, under age of consent, insane when married, physically Incompetent, 
whitn with negro or Indian or negro with Indian void. 

North Dakota.— Age of consent, male 18, female 16; ancestors, descendants, 
brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited; marriages 
within prohibited degrees or bigamous void; marriages when incapable from physical 
causes or when consent was obtained by force or fraud voidable. 

Ohio. — Ago of consent, male 18, female 16; license required: prohibited degrees 
same as North Dakota; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, with idiot or 
under age of consent unless ratified by cohabitation after such uge void. 



138 



MARRIAGE LAWS.— Continued. 



Oklahoma.— Age of consent, male 18, female 15; prohibited degrees same as North 
Dakota and step-father and step-daughter, or step-mother and step-son; marriages 
within prohibited degrees, bigamous or when one of parties is imprisoned for life void; 
marriages where consent is obtained by force or fraud, incapable from physical causes, 
under age of consent, insane or idiot voidable. 

Oregon.— Age of consent, male 18, female 15; license required; ancestors, descend- 
ants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited; 
marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, white with negro, Indian or Mongolian 
of one-quarter or more blood void; marriages under age of consent if no cohabitation 
since attaining: such age, insane, force or fraud, woman unchaste before marriage 
unknown to husband voidable. 

Pennsylvania.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law; license 
required; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or 
step-relatives prohibited; marriages within prohib 5 led degrees or bigamous void; mar- 
riages obtained by force or fraud and no subsequent cohabitation or where either has 
been sentenced for two years or more for felony voidable. 

Rhode Island.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law, consent of 
parents required if under age; license required; prohibited degrees same as Pennsyl- 
vania, Jews may marry within degrees allowed by their religion; marriages within pro- 
hibited degrees, bigamous or insane when married void. 

South Carolina.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law, consent 
of parents required by females under 16; prohibited degrees same as Pennsylvania; 
marriages bigamous, with person insane when married, or white with negro or Indian 
blood void; marriages where consent was obtained by fraud or force or if either party 
for any cause was not aware that a marriage was being contracted, if not consummated 
afterward, voidable. 

South Dakota.— Age of consent, male 18, female 15; license required; ancestors, 
descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, first cousins, step-father 
with step-daughter, or step-mother with step-son prohibited; marriages within pro- 
hibited degrees or bigamous void; marriages where consent was obtained by force or 
fraud or in case of incapacity voidable. 

Tennessee.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law; license required; 
ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or step-relatives 
prohibited; marriages bigamous, or white with negro blood void; marriages where party 
was insane when married, obtained by duress, under age of consent, consent obtained 
by fraud unless afterward made valid by cohabitation voidable. 

Texas— Age of consent, male 16, female 14; license required; prohibited degrees 
same as Tennessee; marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous or white with negro 
void; marriages voidable in case of physical incapacity or any impediment making 
contract void. 

Utah.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12: license required; ancestors, descendants, 
brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews or nieces prohibited; marriages bigamous, 
mixed blood (African or Chinese), under age of consent, or not solemnized before 
authorized person void; marriages obtained by force or fraud where male was under 16 
and female under 14 and parents did not consent and marriage was not subsequently 
ratified by cohabitation voidable. 

Vermont.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12, as at common law, consent of parents 
required if under age; license required; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, 
aunts, nephews, nieces or step relatives prohibited; marriages within prohibited 
degrees or bigamous void; marriages under age of consent if no cohabitation since 
attaining age, with insane person or idiot, incapacity, by force or fraud if no voluntary 
cohabitation, or when either party was absent and unheard of over five years voidable. 

Virginia,— Age of consent, male 14, female 12; licen&e required; prohibited degrees 
same as Vermont; marriages bigamous or under age of consent without cohabitation 
or white with negro void; marriages within prohibited degrees, with insane or idiotic 
person or in case of physical incapacity voidable. 

Washington.— License required; ancestors, descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, 
aunts, nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited; marriages wiihin prohibited degrees 
or bigamous void; marriages under age of consent if no cohabitation since attaining 
such age, with insane person, by force or fraud or where woman was unchaste before 
marriage unknown to husband voidable. 

West Virginia.— Age of consent, male 14, female 12; license required; ancestors, 
descendants, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or step-relatives prohibited; mar- 
riages within prohibited degrees, under age, with insane person, in case of incapacity, 
white with negro blood or former spouse living void, 

Wisconsin.— Age of consent, male 18, female 15; ancestors, descendants, brothers, 
sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews or nieces prohibited; marriages within prohibited 
degrees, bigamous, with person insane when married, or where one party is imprisoned 
for life void: marriages under age of consent if no cohabitation since attaining age, or 
by force or fraud voidable. 

Wyoming.— Age of consent, male 18, female 16; license required; ancestors, 
descendants, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces or first cousins prohibited- 
marriages within prohibited degrees, bigamous, or with person insane or idiot when 
married void; voidable marriages same as Wisconsin. 



DIVORCE LAWS. 



133 



Divorce Laws of the States and Territories. 

CAUSES FOR ABSOLUTE DIVORCE. 

Violation of the marriage vow is cause for divorce in all the States and Territories 
except South Carolina, which has no divorce laws. 

Alabama.— Voluntary abandonment for two years; habitual drunkenness after 
marriage and incapacity; imprisonment in penitentiary for two years on a sentence of 
seven years or more. In making 1 decree chancellor may decide whether defendant may 
marry again or not. Residence or one year in State required ; but if the application is 
made on gr»und of desertion three years' residence is required. 

Arizona. — Excesses or cruel treatment; habitual intemperance; abandonment 
for six months ; wilful neglect to provide on part of husband ; conviction of felony. 
Residence required, six months; either party may marry again. 

Arkansas.— Permanent or incurable insanity; wilful desertion one year; convio- 
tion of felony or other infamous crime ; cruel treatment as to endanger life ; personal 
indignities such as to render condition intolerable ; habitual drunkenness one year. 
Residence required, one year. Either party may marry again. 

California.— Habitual drunkenness, neglect or wilful desertion one year ; extreme 
cruelty; conviction of felony. Residence required, one year; either may remarry. 

Colorado.— Habitual drunkenness, wilful desertion or failure on part of husband 
to provide for wife, either continued for one year; conviction of felony; extreme 
cruelty, causing either mental or physical suffering. Residence required, one year ; 
neither can remarry within one year. 

Connecticut.— Habitual intemperance; intolerable cruelty ; sentence to imprison- 
ment for life; fraudulent contract; wilful desertion and total neglect of duty for 
three years; absent and unheard of seven years ; any infamous crime involving viola- 
tion of conjugal duty, and punishable by imprisonment in State prison. Residence 
required, tbree years ; either may remarry. 

Delaware.— Married under age ; force or fraud in procuring marriage; extreme 
cruelty; habitual drunkenness; conviction of felony; desertion three years; wilful 
f ai 1 ure of husband to provide three years. No statu te as to residence; either may remarry, 
but party guilty of intidelity must not marry party with whom crime was committed. 

" District op Columbia.— Wilful desertion for two years; habitual drunkenness ; 
cruelty and abuse endangering life or health; insane at marriage. Divorces from bed 
and board may be granted for cruelty and reasonable apprehension of physical harm. 
Residence required, two years; no statutory provision as to remarrying. 

Florida.— Wilful, obstinate and continued desertion one year ; habitual intemper- 
ance for one year ; extreme cruelty ; habitual indulgence in violent temper. A person 
who has been a resident of Florida for two years, and whose husband or wife has pro- 
cured a divorce in any otner State or country, may obtain a divorce. Residence 
required, two years ; either may marry again. 

Georgia.— Habitual drunkenness; cruel treatment; wilful desertion three years; 
mental incapacity at time of marriage; conviction of crime involving moral turpitude 
u nder which party has been sentenced to imprisonment for t wo years or longer ; force, 
menaces, threats, duress and fraud in procuring marriage. In procuring divorce, con- 
current verdict of two jurie3 at different terms of court are necessary. Applicant 
must reside in State ; no statute as to marrying again. 

Idaho— Conviction of felony; extreme cruelly; habitual intemperance; wilful 
desertion and neglect one year. Residence required, six months; either may remarry. 

Illinois.— Extreme and repeated cruelty ; conviction of felony or other infamous 
crime; attempt by either party on life of other; wilful desertion two yeurs. Resideuco 
required, one year; no statute as to remarrying. 

Indiana.— Habitual drunkenness; cruel and inhuman treatment; abandonment 
two years; failure on part of husband to support wife for two years. Residence 
required, two years; either mity marry again. 

Kansas.— Fraudulent contract; conviction of and imprisonment for felony ; habit- 
ual drunkenness; extreme cruelty ; gross neglect of duty; abandonment one year. 
Residence required, one year ; parties may remarry at once, unless appeal is taken, and 
then thirty days after final judgment on the appeal. 

Kentuckv.— Uniting with religious society which forbids marriage of husband and 
wife; abandonment ono year; living apart without cohabitation live years; condemna- 
tion for felony; force, duress or fraud in procuring marriage. Wife may obtain 
divorce for husband's neglect to provide, and habitually treating her in such cruel and 
inhuman manner as to destroy her peace and happiness; cruel beating or injury indi- 
cating outrageous temper and endangering her life ; confirmed habits of intoxication. 
Residence required, ono year ; either may remarry. 

Louisiana.— Desertion for five years, having been summoned to return within ono 
year of tiling claim ; attempt on life of other; fugitive from justice; ; habitual intem- 
perance to excess; condemnation to ignominious punishment; cruel treatment or 
outrages of such nature as to render living together insupportable. No divorce, except 
for infidelity, shall bo grunted, except decree of separation previously had and parties 
lived apart one year. No statute as to previous residence ; woman cannot marry for 
ten months after marriage is dissolved ; on divorco for iutldelity guilty party shall not 
marry person with whom crime was committed. 



HO 



DIVORCE LAWS.— Continued. 



Maine.— Sentence to imprisonment for life ; desertion for three years ; failure of 
husband to provide for wife ; cruel and abusive treatment ; gross and confirmed habits 
of intoxication. Residence required, one year ; either may remarry. 

Maryland.— Abandonment three years; any cause which would render marriage 
void ab initio. Residence required, two years ; in cases of divorce for infidelity, court 
may decree that guilty party shall not marry during life of other. 

Massachusetts.— Sentence to hard labor for five years or longer; where either 
party has joined religious society that professes to believe relation of husband and wife 
unlawful, and has continued with such society three years, refusing for that time to 
cohabit; husband cruelly and wantonly refusing to provide; gross and confirmed habits 
of intoxication with liquors, by opium or other drugs; cruel and abusive treatment ; 
utter desertion three years. Residence required, three years where parties have resided 
together in State, otherwise five years ; guilty party cannot marry for two years. 

Michigan.— Imprisonment for life or three years or more; where either has ob- 
tained divorce in another State ; neglect by husband to provide; habitual drunken- 
ness; desertion for two years. Residence required, one year; court may order that 
guilty party shall not marry for term not exceeding two years. 

Minnesota.— Wilful desertion three years; sentence to State prison; cruel and 
inhuman treatment; habitual drunkenness one year. Residence required, one year; 
either party may marry again. 

Mississippi.— Insanity or idiocy at time of marriage unknown to other; habitual 
cruel and inhuman treatment; habitual drunkenness; wilful desertion two years; 
sentenced to penitentiary. Residence required, one year; court may decree that 
guilty party shall not remarry. 

Missoum.— Conviction of crime or felony prior to marriage unknown to other; 
conviction of felony or infamous crime; absent without cause one year; habitual 
drunkenness one year; husband guilty of such conduct as to constitute him a vagrant: 
cruel or barbarous treatment as to endanger life; indignities as to render condition 
intolerable. Residence required, one year ; either may remarry. 

Montana.— Extreme cruelty ; conviction of felony or infamous crime; habitual 
drunkenness one year; desertion one year, husband deserting wife and leaving State 
without intention of returning. Residence required, one year. 

Nebraska.— Extreme cruelty; utter desertion two years; sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life or for three years or more: habitual drunkenness; wilful desertion for five 
years. Divorce from bed and board or from bonds of matrimony may be granted for 
extreme cruelty by personal violence or other means, utter desertion two years, or 
failure of husband to provide. Previous residence, six months ; neither can remarry 
within time allowed for repeal, nor before final judgment of appeal is taken. 

Nevada.— Neglect of husband to provide for one year; extreme cruelty ; wilful 
desertion one year; conviction of felony or infamous crime; habitual gross drunk- 
enness. Residence required, six months; either may remarry. 

New Hampshire. —Conviction of crime a»;d imprisonment for one year ; extreme 
cruelty; where either party has treated other as to injure health or endanger reason ; 
habitual drunkenness three years; absent and unheard of three years; desertion for 
three years with refusal to cohabit; desertion for three years with refusal to support ; 
where either party has joined society professing to believe relation of husband and 
wife unlawful, and refusal to cohabit with other for 6ix months; where wife has 
resided out of State ten years without husband's consent, without returning- to claim 
her marital rights; where wife of alien has resided in State three years, and her hus- 
band has left United States with intention of becoming citizen of another country, not 
having made suitable provision for her support. One or tho other must be resident of 
State one year, unless both were domiciled in State when action was commenced, or 
defendant was served with process in State, the plaintiff being domiciled therein; 
either can remarry. 

New Jersey.— Extreme cruelty ; wilful, continued and obstinate desertion for two 
years. Residence required, three years; no statutory provision as to remarriage. 

New Mexico —Neglect of husband to provide; habitual drunkenness; cruel or 
inhumnn treatment; abandonment. Rpsidence required, six months. 

New York.— Absolute divorce granted only for adultery. Residence required, one 
year. When woman under age of sixteen is married without consent of parent t r 
guardian, when consent was obtained by fraud, force or duress, or where either party 
was insane or idiot, marriage may be annulled. In such cases either party may remarry, 
but in ca cs of absolute divorce guilty party shall not marry during life of other, with 
i ho following exeeptions: Ho may be permitted by court to remarry upon proving 
that the other party has remarried, that five years have elapsed since divorce was 
granted, and that his conduct has been uniformly good. If the guilty party marries in 
mother State in accordance with laws of that State, the marriage will be held good iu 
New York. 

Nouth Carot/tna.— Divorce maybe granted to wife if husband is indicted for fel- 
ony, and ile s from tho State and does nut return for one year ; to the husband if wife 
refuses relations with him lor one year. Divorces from bed and board may bo granted 
for habitual drunkenness, abandonment, c uel or barbarous treatment endangering 
life, indignities to person as to render condition intolerable, maliciously tur ning other 
out of doors. Residence required, two years; on absolute divorce cither may remarry 



DIVORCE LAWS -Continued. 



141 



Nortii Dakota.— Conviction of felony ; extreme cruelty, wilful desertion, wilful 
neglect and habitual intemperance, each continued for one year. Residence required. 
iiiuet\ days. Guilty party cannot marry during life of other. 

<»nio.— Imprisonment in penitentiary ; gross neglect of duty; extreme cruelty; 
habitual drunkenness for three years; fraudulent contract; divorce procured by 
eithrr in another State. Residence required, one year ; either may remarry. 

Oklahoma.— Habitual intemperance; extreme cruelty; abandonment one year; 
fraudulent contract ; gross neglect of duty; conviction of felony and imprisonment. 
Residence required, ninety days ; decree does not become absolute till six months after 
its date. 

Oregon.— Wilful desertion one year; habitual, gross drunkenness one year; con- 
viction of felony ; personal indignities or cruel and inhuman treatment rendering life 
burdensome. Residence required, one year; neither can marry until expiration of 
time for appeal, and in case of appeal, until after judgment on the appeal. 

Pennsylvania.— Conviction of felony and sentence for two years or longer; wilful 
and malicious desertion for two years, or where husband by cruelty and abuse has 
endangered his wife's life, or offered such indignities to her person as to render her 
condition intolerable and her life burdensome, and thereby forced her to withdraw 
from his homo and family; where wife, by cruel and barbarous treatment, renders 
husband's condition intolerable ; fraud, force or coercion in procuring marriage. 
Residence required, one year; either may remarry. 

Rhode Island —Where marriage was void or voidable by law ; where either party 
is for crime deemed civilly dead or from absence or other circumstances presumed to 
be dead; wilful desertion for five years or for a shorter time, in discretion of court ; 
extreme cruelty ; continued drunkeness ; neglect or refusal of husband to provide, or 
for any other gross misbehaviour or wickedness in either party repugnant to or in 
violation of the marriage covenant, and where parties have lived apart for ten years. 
Residence required, one year; no statute as to remarrying. 

Tennessee.— Habitual drunkenness; wilful or malicious desertion for two years; 
attempting life of other; conviction of infamous crime; conviction and sentence to 

Eenitentiary for felony; refusal of wife to move into this State, and wilfully absenting 
erself from husband for two years. Divorces from bed and board may be granted for 
cruel and inhuman treatment to wife, indignities to her person rendering her condition 
intolerable, and forcing her to withdraw, abandoning her or turning her out of doors, 
and refusing or neglecting to provide for her. Residence required, two years; on 
absolute divorce either may remarry, but on divorce for infidelity guilty one shall not 
marry party with whom crime was committed during life of other. 

Texas.— Desertion for three years; excesses; conviction of felony and imprison- 
ment in State prison; cruel treatment or outrages, if of nature to render living 
together insupportable. Residence required, six months ; either may remarry. 

Utah.— Conviction of felony ; habitual drunkenness ; wilful neglect to provide for 
wife ; wilful desertion more than one year; cruel treatment as to cause bodily injuries 
or mental distress. Residence required, one year ; either may remarry. 

Vermont.— Sentence to hard labor in State prison for life or for three years or 
more ; fraud or force in procuring marriage or either under age of consent ; husband 
grossly, wantonly and cruelly neglecting to provide; wilful desertion three years, or 
absence seven years unheard of; intolerable severity. Parties must have lived 
together in State ; petitioner must reside in State one year ; guilty party shall not 
many for three years. 

Virginia.— Wilful desertion five years; fugitive from justice two years; convic- 
tion of infamous offense prior to marriage unknown toother; sentenced to conline- 
ment in penitentiary. Divorces from bed and board may be granted for cruelty, 
reasonable apprehension of bodily harm, abandonment or desertion. Hcsidenco 
required, one year ; court may decree that guilty party may not remarry without the 
consent of court. 

Washington.— Abandonment one year; habitual drunkenness or neglect or refusal 
to provide ; consent to marriage obtained by force or fraud; cruel treatment or per- 
sonal indignities rendering life burdensome; chronic mania or dementia of either 
party for ten years; imprisonment in penitentiary or any other cause deemed sufficient 
by the court. Residence required, one year; neither party can marry until time 
for repeal has elapsed, or if appeal is taken, not until after final Judgment. 

West Virginia.— Wilful desertion three years; husband notoriously immoral; 
wifo immoral before marriage unknown to husband ; imprisonment in penitentiary. 
Divorces from bed and board may bo granted for habitual drunkenness, abandonment, 
desertion, cruel and inhuman treatment, or reasonable apprehension of bodily harm. 
Residence required, one year ; no statute as to remarrlago. 

Wisconsin.— Neglect to provide; habitual drunkenness for one year; Imprison- 
ment for life or for threo years or more; cruel and inhuman treatment by personal 
violence; where parties have voluntarily lived apart five years. Residence required, 
one year ; either may remarry. • 

Wyoming.— Conviction of felony or infamous crime prior to marriage unknown to 
other; conviction and sentence for felony; wilful desertion ono year; neglect of 
husband to provide for one year ; habitual drunkenness; such Indignities as to render 
condition intolerable. Residence required, six months; no statute as to remarrying. 



143 



AMERICAN WHIST. 



American Whist. 

V 

OFFICERS OF THE AMERICAN WHIST LEAGUE FOR 1894-5. 

President, John M. Walton, Philadelphia, Pa. ; vice-president, Theodore Schwarz, 
Chicago, 111. ; treasurer, Benjamin L Richards, Iowa ; recording secretary, Walter H. 
Barney, Providence, It. I. ; corresponding secretary, Robert H.Weems, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
ex-president, Eugene S. Elliott, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Directors: John H. Briggs, Minneapolis, Minn. ; II. A. Mandell, Detroit, Mich. ; E. 
LeRoy Smith, Albany, N. Y. ; P. J. Tormey, San Francisco, Cal.; Chas. E. Coffin, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. ; C. D. P. Hamilton, Easton, Pa. ; A. G. Satford, Washington, D. C. ; Nicholas 
B. Trist, New Orleans, La. : George H. Fish, New York, N. Y. ; B. D. Kribben, St. Louis, 
Mo. ; George W. Morse, Boston, Mass. ; E. H. Shepard, Portland, Ore. 

The League is now composed as follows: Independent whist clubs, 36; whist clubs 
(departments of other clubs), 18 ; chess, checker and whist clubs, 3; athletic clubs, 5 ; 
social clubs, 33 ; total clubs, S>5. 

The membership of the League is as follows : Independent whist clubs, 2,153 ; whist 
clubs (departments of other clubs), 821 ; chess, checker and whist clubs, whist players, 
147, others, G23 ; athletic clubs, whist players, 395, others, 2,802 ; social clubs, whist play- 
ers, 1,650, others, 5,791 ; honorary members, 5 ; associate members, 14 ; grand total, 14,679. 

The clubs belonging to the League are as follows: Alameda Whist Club, Alameda, 
Cal. ; Albany Club, Albany, N. Y. ; Albany Commercial Travelers' Club, Albany, N. Y. ; 
Algonquin Club, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; American Whist Club, Boston, Mass. ; American 
Whist Club, Indianapolis, Ind.; Amrita Club, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. ; Arrowhead Club, 
San Bernadiue, Cal.; Art Club Whist Club, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Asheville Whist Club, 
Asheville, N. C. ; Ashland Whist Club, Chicago, 111. ; Aurora Whist Club, Aurora, III. ; 
Baltimore AVhist Club, Baltimore, Md. ; Battle Creek Whist Club, Battle Creek, Mich.; 
Biraboo Whist Club, Baraboo, Wis.; Berkley Whist Club, Berkley, Cal.; Brooklyn 
Whist Club, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Capitol Bicycle Club, Washington, D. C. ; Carlcton Club. 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Carthage Whist Club, Carthage, III. ; Century Club, Elmira, N. Y. ; 
Cherry Diamond Whist Club, New York, N. Y. ; Chicago Duplicate Whist Club, Chicago, 
111. ; Chicago Whist Club, Chicago, III.; Clover Club, Paris, Tex.; Columbia Whist 
Club, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Commercial Club, Sioux Falls, S. Da. ; Commercial Travelers 1 
Club, Boston, Mass. ; Commonwealth Club, Worcester, Mass.; Council Bluffs Whist 
Club, Council Bluffs, la.; Denison Whist Club, Denison, la. J Denver Club, Denver, 
Col. ; Elizabeth Whist Club, Elizabeth, N. J. ; Elmwood Club, Providence, R. I. ; Excel- 
sior Club, B ooklyn, N, Y. ; Fanwood Whist Club, Fanwood, N. J. ; Fort Orange Club, 
Albany, N. Y. ; Germantown Cricket Club, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Hamilton Club, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; Hamilton Club, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Hanover Club, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; High-r 
land Club, Lowell, Mass. ; Hillsdale Whist Club, Hillsdale, Mich. ; Home Whi.-,t Club, 
Chicago, 111. ; Hyde P irk Whist Club, Chicago, 111. • Indianapolis Whist Club, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. ; Jordan AVhist Club, Jordan, N. Y. • Kalamazoo Club, Kalamazoo, Mich.; 
Knickerbocker Whist Club, New York, N. Y. ; Kudos Club, Moss Point, Miss. ; Leomin- 
ster Club, Leomii ster, Mass. ; Lincoln Club, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Leinda Vista Whist 
Club, Oakland., Cal.; Los Angeles Athletic Club, Los Amreles, Cal.: Manufacturers' Club 
Whist Club, Philadelphia, Pa.; Midwood Club, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Milwaukee Whist 
Club, Milwaukee, Wis. : Minneapolis Chess, C hecker and Whist Club, Minneapolis, 
Minn ; MontaukClub, Brooklyn,, N. Y.; Narragansett Whist Club, Providence, R. I. ; 
New Orleans Chess, Checker and Whist Club, New Orleans, La. ; Newton Club, Newton. 
Mass. ; Occidental Whist Club, Cedar Rapids, la. ; Office Men's Whist Club, St. Louis, 
Mo. ; O^de; lsburg Whist Club, Ogdensburg, N. Y. ; Omaha Whist Cluh, Omaha, Neb. ; I 
O-dikosh Whist Club, Oshkosh, Wis. ; Pasadena Whist Club, Pasadena, Cal. ; Park Club 
Whist Association, Chicago, III. ; Pennsylvania Bicycle Club, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Phila- 
delphia Whist Club, Philadelphia, Pa.; Pomfret Club, Easton, Pa. ; Portland Whist 
Club, Portland, Ore. ; Powclton Club, Philadelphia, Pa.; Providence Athletic Associa- 
tion, Providence, R. I. ; Providence Whist Club, Providence, R. I. ; Racine Whist Club, 
Kacinc, Wis. ; Ripon Whist Ch b, R pop, Wis. ; Rip Van Winklo whist Club, Catskiil, 
N. Y. ; Rochester Club, Riverside, Cal. ; Rubidoux Club, Riverside, Cal. ; St, Paul Chess, 
Checker and Whist Club, St. Paul, Minn. ; San Francisco Whist Cluh, San Francisco, 
Cal.; Saturday Night Whist Club, Columbia, Mo.; Staten Is'and Whist Club, New 
Brighton, N. Y. ; Tacoma Whist Club, Taeonia, Wash. ; Trist AVhist Club, Waco, Tex. ; 
University Whist Club, Chicago, III. ; Utopian Club, Ballston Spa, N. Y. ; Wahpanseh 
Whist Club, Chicago, III. ; Walla Walla Club, Walla Walla, Wash. ; Washington Club, 
Seattle, Wash. ; Waukesha Club, Waukesha, Wis. ; Wayne Whist Club, Detroit, Mich. ; 
Westmoreland Club.Tiopra, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Westerly Whist Club, Westerly, It. I.; 
Wilmington Whist Club, Wilmington, Del. 

The fir t American Whist Congress was held at Milwaukee April 14-17, 1891 : the 
second at New York, .Inly 19-23,1892; the third at Chicago, June 20-24, 1893, and t ho 
fourth at Philadelphia, May 2:2-26, 1S94. Tho fifth American Whist Congress is to be held 
at Minneapolis, June, 1895, date to be fixed by tho Executive Committee. 



AMERICAN WHIST.-Continued. 143 



THE LAWS OF WHIST, 
AS REVISED AND ADOPTED AT THE THIRD AMERICAN WHIST CONGRESS, 
CHICAGO, JUNE 20-24, 1893. 

The Game.-1. A game oonsists of seven points, each trick above six counting one. 
The value of the game is determined by deducting the losers' score from seven. 

Forming the Table.— 2. Those lirst in the room have the preference. If, by rea- 
son of two or moi e arriving at the same time, more than four assemble, the preference 
among the last comers is determined by cutting, a lower cut giving the preference over 
all cutting higher. A complete table consists of six ; the lour Having the preference 
play. Partners are determined by cutting ; ths highest two play against the lowest 
two ; the lowest deals and has the choice of seats and cards. 

3. If two players cut intermediate cards of equal value, they cut again ; the lower 
of the new cut plays with the original lowest. 

4. If three players cut cards of equal value, they cut again. If the fourth has the 
highest card, the lowest two of the new cut are partners and the lowest deals. If the 
fourth has cut the lowest card, he deals and the highest two of the new cut are partners, 

5. At the end of a game, if there are more than four belonging to the table, a sulli- 
cient number of the players retire to admit those awaiting their turn to play. In 
determining which players remain in, those who have played a less number of consecu- 
tive games have the preference over all who have played a greater number ; between 
two or more who have played an equal number, the preference is determined by cut- 
ting, a lower cut giving the preference over all cutting higher. 

6. To entitle one to enter a table, he must declare bis intention to do so before any 
one of the players has cut for the purpose of commencing a new game or of cutting out. 

Cutting. — 7. In cutting, the ace is the lowest card. All must cut from the same 
pack. If a player exposes more than one card, he must cut again. Drawing cards from 
the outspread pack may be resorted to in place of cutting. 

Shuffling.— 8. liefore every deal the cards must be shuffled. When two packs are 
used the dealer's partner must collect and shuffle the cards for the ensuing deal and 
place them at his right hand. In all cases the dealer may shuffle last. 

9. A pack must not be shuffled during the play of a hand, nor so as to expose the 
face of any card. 

Cutting to the Dealer — 10. The dealer must present the pack to his right-hand 
adversary to be cut ; the adversary must take a portion from the top of the pack and 
place it towards the dealer ; at least four cards must be left in each packet ; the dealer 
must reunite the packets by placing the one not removed in cutting upon the other. 

11. If, in cutting or reuniting the separate packets, a card is exposed, the pack must 
be reshuffled by the dealer and cut again; if there is any confusion of the cards or 
doubt as to the place where the pack was separated, there must be a new cut, 

12. If the dealer reshuffles the pack after it has been properly cur, he loses his deal. 
Dealing.— 13. When the pack has been properly cut and reunited, the dealer must 

distribute the cards, one at a time, to each player iu regular rotation, beginning at his 
left. The last, which is the trump card, must be turned up before the dealer. At the 
end of the hand or when the deal is lost, the deal passes to the player next to the dealer 
on his left, and so on to eaeh in turn. 

14. There must be a new deal by the same dealer— 

i. If any card except the last is faced in the pack. 

ii. If, during the deal or during the play of the hand, the pack is proved incorrect 
or imperfect ; but any prior score made with that pack shall stand. 

15. If, during the deal, a card is exposed, the side not in fault may demand a new 
deal, provided neither of that side has touched a card. If a new deal does not take 
place, the exposed card is not liable to bo called. 

16 Any one dealing out of turn or with his adversaries' pack may be stopped before 
the trump card is turned, after which the deal is valid and the packs, if changed, so 
remain. 

Misdealing.— 17. It is a misdeal— 

L If the dealer omits to have the pack cut and his adversaries discover the error 
before the trump card is turned and before looking at any of their cards. 

ii. If he deals a card incorrectly and fails to correct the error before dealing another. 

in. If ho counts the cards on the table or in the remainder of the pack. 

iv. If, having a perfect pack, he does not deal to each player the proper number of 
cards and the error is discovered before all have played to the first trick. 

V. If ho looks at the trump card before the deal is completed. 

VI. If he places the trump card face downwards upon his own or any other player's 
oards. *■* 

A misdeal loses the deal, unless, during the deal, either of the adversaries touches a 
card or in any other manner interrupts the dealer. 

The Trump Card.— 18. The dealer must leave the trump card faco upwards on the 
table until it is his turn to play to the first trick : if it is left on the table until after the 
second trick has been turned and quitted, it is liable to bo called. After it has been 
lawfully laken up, it must not bo named, and any player naming it is liable to have his 
highest or his lowcet trump called by cither adversary. A player may, however, ask 
what the trump suit is. 



144 



AMERICAN WHIST —Continued. 



Irregularities in the Hands.— 19. If , at any time after all have played to th 
first trick, the pack being- perfect, a player is found to have either more or less tba 
his correct number of cards and his adversaries have their riyht number, the latter, 
upon the discovery of such surplus or deficiency, may consult and have the choice— 

I. To have a new deal ; or 

ii. To have the hand played out, in which case the surplus or missing: card or cards 
are not taken into account. 

If either of the adversaries also has more or less than his correct number, their 
must be a new deal. 

If any player has a surplus card by reason of an omission to play to a trick, his 
adversaries can exercise the foregoing privilege only after ho has played to the trick 
following the one in which such omission occurred. 

Cards Liable to be Called.— 20. The following cards are liable to be called by 
either adversary— 

i. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than in the regular course of play, but 
not including a card led out of turn. 

ii. Every card thrown with the one led or played to the current trick. The player 
must indicate the one led or played. 

in. Every card so held by a player that his partner sees any portion of its face. 

iv. All the cards in a hand lowered or shown by a player so that his partner sees 
more than one card of it. 

v. Every card named by the player holding it. 

21. All cards liable to be called must be placed and left face upwards on the table. 
A player must lead or play them when they are called, provided he can do so without 
revokiug. The call may be repeated at each trick until the card is played. A player 
cannot be prevented from leading or playing a card liable to be called ; if he can get rid 
of it in the course of play no penalty remains. 

22. If a player leads a card better than any his adversaries hold of the suit, and then 
leads one or more other cards without waiting for his partner to play, the latter may be 
called upon by either adversary to take the first trick, and the other cards thus improp- 
erly played are liable to be called ; it makes no difference whether he plays them one 
after the other or throws them all on the table together, after the first card is played 
the others are liable to be called . 

23. A player having a card liable to be called must not play another until the adver- 
saries have stated whether or not they wish to call the card liable to the penalty. It he 
plays another card without awaiting the decision of the adversaries, such other card 
also is liable to be called. 

Leading out op Turn.— 24. If any player leads out of turn a suit may be called 
from him or his partner the fir*t time it is the turn of either of them to lead. The 
penalty can be enforced only by the adversary on the right of the player from whom a 
bUit can lawfully be called. 

If a player so called on to lead a suit has none of it, or if all have played to the false 
lead, no penalty can be enforced. If all have not played to the trick, the cards erro- 
neously played to such false lead are not liable to be called and must be taken back. 

Playing out op Tuhn.— 25. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth 
hand also may play before the second. 

26. If the third hand has not played, and the fourth hand plays before the second, 
the latter may be called upon by the third hand to play his highest or lowest card of 
the suit led or, if he has none, to trump or not to trump the trick. 

Abandoned Hands.— 27. If all four players throw their cards on the table face 
upwards, no further play of that hand is permitted. The result of the hand, as then 
claimed or admitted, is established, provided that, if a revoke is discovered, the revoke 
penalty attaches. 

Revoking.— 28. A revoke is a renounce in error not corrected in time. A player 
renounces in error when, holding one or more cards of the suit led, he plays a card of a 
different suit. A renounce in error may be corrected by the player making it before 
the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, unless either he or his partner, 
whether in his right turn or otherwise, has led or played to the following trick, or unless 
his partner has asked whether or not he has any of the suit renounced. 

29. If a player corrects his mistake in time to save a revoke, the card improperly 
played by him is liable to be called ; any player or players, who have played after him, 
may withdraw their cards and substitute others ; the cards so withdrawn are not liable 
to be called. 

30. The penalty for revoking is the transfer of two tricks from the revoking side to 
their adversaries ; it can be enforced for as many revokes as occur during the hand. 
The revoking side cannot win tho game in that hand ; if both sides revoke, neither can 
win the game in that hand. 

81. The revoking player and his partner may require the hand in which the revoke 
has been made to be played out, and score all points made by them up to the scor e of six. 

32. At the end of a hand, the claimants of a revoke may search all the tricks. If 
the cards have been mixed, the claim may be urged and proved, if possible ; but no 
proof is necessary and the revoke is established if, after it has been claimed, the accused 
player or his partner mixes the cards before they have been examined to the satisfac- 
tion of the adversaries. 



AMERICAN WHIST— Continued. 



145 



33. The revoke can be claimed at any time before the cards have been presented and 
cut for the following' deal, but not thereafter. 

Miscellaneous. -34. Any one, during the play of a trick and before the cards have 
been touched for the purpose of gathering thetu together, may demand that the play- 
ers draw l heir cards. 

85. If any one. prior to his partner playing, calls attention in any manner to the 
trick or io the score, the adversary last to play t > the trick may require the offender's 
partner to play his highest or lowest of the suit led or, if he has none, to trump or not 
to trump the trick. 

36 If any player says "I can win the rest," "The rest are ours," " We have the 
jrame," or words to that effect, his partner's cards must be laid upon the table and are 
liable to be called. 

87. When a trick has been turned and quitted it must not again be seen until after 
the hand has-been played. A violation of this law subjects the offender's side to the 
same penalty as in the case of a lead out of turn. 

38. Jf a player is lawfully called upon to play the highest or lowest of a suit, or to 
trump or not to trump a trick, or to lead a suit, and unnecessarily fails to comply, he is 
liable to the same penalty as if he had revoked. 

39. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred the offender must await the 
decision of the adversaries. If either of them, with or without his partner's consent, 
demands a penalty, to which they are entitled, such decision is final. If the wrong 
adversary demands a penalty, or a wrong penalty is demanded, none can be enforced. 

ETIQUETTE OF WHIST. 

The following rules belong to the established code of whist etiquette. They are for- 
mulated with a view to discourage and repress certain improprieties of conduct, therein 
pointed out, which are not reached by the laws. The courtesy which marks the inter- 
course of gentlemen will regulate other more obvious cases. 

i. No conversation should be indulged in during the play except such as is allowed 
by the laws of the game. 

it. No player should in any manner whatsoever give any intimation as to the state 
of hi* hand or of the game, or of approval or disapproval of a play. 

in. No player should lead until the preceding trick is turned and quitted. 

IV. No player should, after having led a winning card, draw a card from his hand 
for another lead until his partner has played to the current trick. 

v. No player should play a card in any manner so as to call particular attention to 
it, nor should he demand that the cards be placed in order to attract the attention of 
his partner. 

vt. No player should purposely incur a penalty because he is willing to pay it, nor 
should he make a second revoke in order to conceal one previously made. 

vn. No player should take advantage of information imparted by his partner 
through a breach of etiquette. 

vni. No player should object to referring a disputed question of fact to a bystander 
who professes himself uninterested in result of game and able to decide the question. 

ix. Hystanders should not in any manner call attention to or give any intimation 
concerning the play or the state of the game during the play of a hand. They should 
not look over the hand of a player without bis permission; nor Should they walk 
around the table to look at the different hands. 

THE LAWS OF DUPLICATE WHIST. 

As adopted by the Fourth American Whist Congress, Philadelphia May 23-26, 1894. 

Duplicate whist is governed by the laws of whist, except in so far as they are modi- 
fied by the following special laws. 

The Game and the 3core.-(c0 A game or match consists of any agreed number 
of deals, each of which is played once only by each player. 

The contesting teams must bo of iho same number, but may eaeh consist of nny 
agreed number of pairs, one-half of which, or as near thereto as possible, sit north and 
souih, the other half east and west. 

Every trick taken is scored, and the match is determined by a comparison of the 
aggregate scores won by the competing teams. In case the teams consist of un odd 
number of pairs, each team, in making up such aggregate, adds, as though won by it, 
the average score of all the pairs Seated in the positions opposite to Its odd pair. 

Each side keeps its own score, and it is the duty of the north and south players at 
each table to compare tho scores there made and see that they correspond. Incase 
they fail to perform this duty, the cast and west scores are taken as correct, and the 
north and south scores made to correspond thereto. 

In a match bet ween two teams, the team which wins a majority of all tho trieks 
scores the match as won by that number of trieks which it has taken In excess of one- 
half the total. In a match between more than two teams, each team wins or le-»<s. as 
the case may be, by the numberof trieks which its aggregate score exceeds or falls short 
of the uvi rage score of all the competing teams. 

% In taking averages, fractions are disregarded and tho nearest wholo number taken, 
one-half counting as a whole, unless it is necessary to take the fraction into account 
to avoid a tie, in which case tho match is scored as won by " tho fraction of a trick." 



146 



AMERICAN WHIST.-Continued. 



Forming the Table.— (h) Tables may be formed by cutting- or by agreement. 

In two table duplicate, if the tables are formed by cutting, the four having the 
preference play at one table and the next four at the other. The highest two at one 
table are partners with the lowest two at the other. The highest two at each table sit 
north and south ; the lowest two east and west. 

Dealing and Misdealing.— (c) The deal is never lost ; in case of a misdeal, or of 
the exposure of a card during the deal, the cards must be redealt by the same player, 

The Trump Card.— (cl) The trump card must be recorded before the play begins on 
a slip provided for that purpose. When the deal has been played the slip on which the 
trump card has been recorded must be placed by the dealer on the top of his cards, but 
the trump card must not be again turned until the hands are taken up for the purpose 
of overplaying them, at which time it must be turned and left face upwards on the 
table until it is the dealer's turn to play to the first trick. The slip on which the trump 
card is recorded must be turned face downwards as soon as the trump card is taken up 
by the dealer. 

Irregularities in the Hands.— (e) If a player is found to have either more or 
less than his correct number of cards, the course to be pursued is determined by the 
time at which the irregularity is discovered. 

i. Where the irregularity is discovered before or during the original play of a hand 
there must be a new deal. 

ii. Where the irregularity is discovered when the hand is taken up for overplay 
and before such overplay has begun— 

The hand in which the irregularity is so discovered must be sent back to the table 
from which it was last received and the error be there rectified. 

in. Where such irregularity is not discovered until after the overplay has begun 

In two-table duplicate there must be a new deal ; but in a game in which the same 
hands are played at more than two tables the hands must be rectified as above and then 
passed to the next table without overplay at the table at which the error was discovered, 
in which case, if a player had a deficiency and his adversary the corresponding surplus 
each team takes the average score for that deal ; if, however, his partner had the corre- 
sponding surplus, his team is given the lowest score made at any table for that deal. 

Playing tiie Cards. — (/) Each player, when it is his turn to play, must place his 
card face upwards, before him and towards the centre of the table, and aliow it to 
remain upon the table in this position until all have played to the trick, when he must 
turn it over and place it face downwards and nearer to himself, playing each successive 
card as he turns it on top of the last card previously turned by him. After he has 
played his card, and also after he has turned it, he must quit it by removing his hand 

A trick is turned and quitted when all four players have turned and quitted their 
respective cards. ■ 

The cards must be left in the order in which they were played until the scores for 
the deal are recorded . 

Claiming a Revoke.— (g) A revoke may be claimed at any time before the last 
trick of the deal in which it occurs has been turned and quitted and the scores of that 
deal recorded, but not thereafter. 

SINGLE-TABLE OR MNEMONIC DUPLICATE. 

The laws of duplicate whist govern where applicable, except as follows : 

Each player plays each deal twice, the second time playing a hand previously played 
by an adversary. 

Instead of turning the trump, a single suit may be declared trumps for the game. 
On the overplay, the cards may be gathered into tricks instead of playing them as 
required by law (J). 

Iu case of the discovery of an irregularity in the hands, there must always be a new 
deal. , - 

Whist Leads. 





On Lead. 


On Call. 




On Lead. 


On Call. 


1st. 


2d. 


1st. 

K. 


2d 


1st. 


2d. 


1st. 


2d. 


A. K. Q. and one .. 


A. 


Q. 


Q. 


K. Q. only 


Q. 


K. 


K. 




A. K. Q. only 


Q. 


K. 
K. 


A. 


Q. 


Q. J. and two 


Q 


J. 


Low. 


j. 


A. K. find two 


A. 


K. 


A. 


Q. J. and one 


J. 


Q. 


Q. 


j. 


A. K. and one 


K. 


A. 


A. 


K. 


J. Ten and two.... 


J. 


Ten. 


Low. 


Low. 
Ten. 


A. K. only 


K. 


A. 

~q7 


A. 
Q. 


K. 


J. Ten and one .... 


Low. 


J. 


J. 


K. 


9. 7. 6. 3 ... 


6. 


3. 


3. 


6 




Q. 


K. 


K. 


Q. 


9 7. 6 


6. 


7. 


9. 


7 



-- • 

CIVIL SERVICE KULES. 



147 



Civil Service Rules. 

The Service Classified under tee Civil-Servioe Rules.— The purpose of the civll-servlce 
act, as declared in Its title, is " to regulate and improve the civil service of the United States." It 
provides for the appointment of three Commissioners, a chief examiner, a secretary and other 
employees, and makes it the duty of the Commission to aid the President as he may request in prepar- 
ing suitable rules for carrying the act Into effect ; to make regulations for and control the examina- 
tions provided for, and supervise and control the records of the same, and to make investigations and 
report upon all matters touching the enforcement and effect of the rules and regulations. 

The service classified under the act, to which it and the rules apply, and for which examinations 
are required, is divided into five branches: (1) The departmental service at Washington ; (2) the 
customs service ; (3) the postal service: (4) the Railway Mail Service ; and, (5) the Indian service. 

Certain of the places within the classified service are excepted from examination by the civil ser- 
vice rules and may be filled, in the discretion of the appointing officers, without examination. A few 
other places may be filled by noncompetitive examination, the appointing officer nominating the per- 
son to be examined, the Commission determining the character of and conducting the examination, 
but the great mass of the places are filled by competitive examination. 

The Departmental Service.— The classified departmental service includes the eight Executive 
Departments, the Civil Service Commission, the Department of Labor, and the U. S. Fish Commission, 
and embraces all the officers, clerks and other employees in these Departments and Commissions, 
except those appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and those 
employed merely as messengers, watchmen, workmen, or laborers. The places within this service are 
at Washington, except that the classification of the War Department embraces the offices of the sev- 
eral depot quartermasters ; that of the Post-Office Department, post-office inspectors, and the agents 
and employees at postal note, postage stamp, postal card and envelope agencies ; that of the Interior 
Department, pension examiners ; that of the Department of Agriculture, the observers in the weather 
service ; that of the Navy Department, the assistants at branch hydrographic offices, and that of the 
Department of Labor, special agents. 

The classified customs service embraces those customs districts in each of which there are as many 
as fifty employees, now the following : New York City, N. Y. ; Boston, Mass. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; San 
Francisco, Cal. ; Baltimore, Md. ; New Orleans, La. ; Chicago, 111. ; Burlington, Vt. ; Portland, Me. ; 
Detroit, Mich. ; and Port Huron, Mich. 

The Customs Service.— All the officers, clerks and employees in these several districts not 
appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, or not employed merely 
as workmen or laborers, whose compensation is $900 per annum or over, are in the classified customs 
service and subject to the provisions of the civil-service law and rules. 

The Postal Service.— The classified postal service embraces all employees below postmaster, 
including postal clerks, money-order clerks, substitute clerks, carriers, regular and substitute, and 
others, excepting special-delivery messengers, at all offices having the free-delivery system. 

Railway Mail Service.— The classified Railway Mail Service embraces all superintendents, 
assistant superintendents, chief clerks, railway postal clerks, route agents, local agents, mail-route 
messengers and other employees of the Railway Mail Service. One general superintendent ; one assist- 
ant general superintendent; printers, employed as such ; clerks, employed exclusively as porters in 
j handling mail matter in bulk, in sacks or pouches, and not otherwise ; clerks, employed exclusively on 
I steamboats, and transfer clerks at junction points or stations where not more than two such clerks are 
I employed, are exempted from examination. All other places can be filled only by promotion, transfer, 
reinstatement, or examination. Superintendents of mails at classified post-offices will be selected from 
among the employees of the Railway Mall Service. 

The Indian Service.— The classified Indian service includes all physicians, superintendents, 
assistant superintendents, teachers and matrons. 

Applications.— Every person seeking to be examined must first file an application. Blanks for 
the departmental, railway mall or Indian service should be requested directly of the U. S. Civil Service 
Commission, Washington, D. C. Blanks for postal or customs service should be requested of M Secre- 
rctary of Board of Civil Service Examiners," at the office where service is sought. Applicants must be 
citizens of the United States of the proper age, and must be physically qualified for the service sought. 
1 No discrimination is made on account of sex, color or religious or political opinions. No person can 
be appointed who habitually uses Intoxicating beverages to excess. The limitations of age are : For 
the departmental service, not under 20 years : customs service, not under 21, except clerks and messen- 
gers, who must not be under 20: postal service, not under 18. except carriers, who must be not under 
21 or over 40 ; railway mall service, not under 18 or over 35. The limitations of age do not apply to any 
person honorably discharged from the military or naval service of the United 6tatea by reason of dis- 
ability resulting from wounds or sickness Incurred in the line of duty. Such persons are preferred 
under section 1751, U. S. R. 8., and certified to appointing officers before all others of higher grade. 

Examinations.— Applicants are examined as to their relative capacity and fitness. No one is ccr- 
I tlfled for appointment who falls short of 70 per cent, of coraplctejproflclency, except that applicants 
claiming military or naval preference under section 1754, U. 8. R. S.. need obtain but 65 per cent. A 
certificate is given to each person examined, stating whether he passed or not. 

The clerk examination is used only in tho departmental and customs service for ordinary positions 
of $1,000 and upward requiring no peculiar skill orlnforraatlon. It is limited to the following subjects: 
First, orthography, penmanship and copying; second, arithmetic— fundamental rules, fractions and 
percentage ; third, Interest ana discount; fourth, elements of the English language, letter-writing and 
the proper construction of sentences. In examinations for places In which a lower degree of educa- 
tion Is sufficient, such as those below the grade of departmental and custom house clerks and post- 
office employees, the third and part of the fourth subject are omitted. 

For places requiring technical qualifications, supplementary examinations are held ; and for places 
requiring professional or scientific attainments appllcanta must pass a special examination. The fol- 
lowing are excepted from examination for appointment : Confidential clerks of heads of departments or 
^tfia:s. cashiers of collectors and postmasters, superintendents of money-order divisions In post-offices, 
:ustodlans of money for whose fidelity another officer is under bond, disbursing o file em who five 
jond, persons In the secret service, deputy collectors and superintendents and chiefs of divisions ..nd 
Wreaus, and a few others. 

Appointments.— In the departmental service appointments are apportioned among the Rtatcmipon 
he basis of populat ion. In case of a vacancy the appointing officer applies to the Commission, and It 
cports to him the names of the three persons graded highest of the sex and grade called for, and from 
he three a selection Is made. Every appointment Is made for a probationary period of six months ; If 
it the expiration of this time the conduct and capacity of the person appointed have been found satis- 
actory the appointment Is made absolute. 



118 



HOW TO OBTAIN A PATENT. 



How to Obtain a Patent. 

Patents are issued in the name of the United States, and under the seal of the Patent 
Office, to any person who has invented or discovered any new and useful art, machine, 
manufacture or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof 
not known or used by others in this country, and not patented or described in any 
printed publication in this or any foreign country, before his invention or discovery 
thereof, and not in public use or on sale for more than two years prior to his applica- 
tion, wnle8Sthe same is proved to have been abandoned ; and by any person who, by 
his own industry, genius, efforts, and expense has invented and produced any new and 
original design for a manufacture, bust, statue, alto-relievo, or bas-relief; any new 
and original design for the printing of woolen, silk, cotton, or other fabrics ; any new 
and original impression, ornament, pattern, print, or picture to be printed, painted, 
cast, or otherwise placed on or worked into any article of manufacture; or any new, 
useful, and original shape, or configuration of any article of manufacture, the same not 1 
having- been known nor used by others before his invention or production thereof, nor | 
patented nor described in any printed publicatiou, upon payment of the fees required | 
by law and other due proceedings had. 

Every patent contains a grant to the patentee, his heirs or assigns, for the term of j 
seventeen years, of the exclusive right to make, use, and vend the invention or discov- 
ery throughout the United States and the Territories, referring to the specification for 
the particulars thereof. 

If it appears that the inventor, at the time of making his application, believed him- I 
self to be the first inventor or discoverer, a patent will not be refused on account of 
the invention or discovery, or any part thereof, having been known or used in any 
foreign country before his invention or discovery thereof, if it had not been before 
patented or described in any printed publication. 

Joint inventors are entitled to a joint patent; neither can claim one separately. 
Independent inventors of distinct and independent improvements in the same machine 
cannot obtain a joint patent for their separate inventions ; nor does the fact that one 
furnishes the capital and another makes the invention entitle them to make application 
as joint inventors ; but in such case they may become joint patentees. 

The receipt of letters patent from a foreign government will not prevent the 
inventor from obtaining a patent in the United States, unless tho invention shall have 
been introduced into public use in the United States more than two years prior to tho 
application. But every patent granted for an invention which has been previously pat- 
ented by the same inventor in a foreign country will be so limited as to expire at the 
same time with the foreign patent, or, if there be more than one, at the same time Avith 
the one having the shortest unexpired term, but in no case will it be in force more than 
seventeen years. 

Applications.— Applications for a patent must be made in writing to the Com- 
missioner of Patents. The applicant must also file in the Patent Office a written 
description of the same, and of the manner and process of making, constructing, com- 
pounding, and using it, in such full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to enable any per- 
son skilled in the art or science to which it appertains, or with which It is most nearly 
connected, to make, construct, compound, and use the same ; and in case of a machine, 
he must explain the principle thereof, and the best mode in which he has contemplated 
applying that principle, so as to distinguish it from other inventions, and particularly 
point out and distinctly claim thepart, improvement, or combination which he claims 
as his invention or discovery. The specification aud claim must be signed by the 
inventor and attested by two witnesses. 

When tho nature of the case admits of drawings, the applicant must furnish a 
drawing of the required size, signed by the inventor or his attorney in fact, and 
attested by two witnesses, to be filed in the Patent Office. In all cases which arlmit of 
representation by model, the applicant, if required by the Commissioner, shall furnish 
a model of convenient size to exhibit advantageously the several parts of his inven- 
tion or discovery. 

The applicant shall make oath that he verily believes himself to bo the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of the art, machine, manufacture, composition or improve- 
ment for which he solicits a patent; that he does not know and does not believe that 
the same was ever before known or used, and shall state of what country he is a citizen. 
Such oath may bo made before any person within the United States authorized by law 
to administer oaths, or, when tho applicant resides in a foreign country, before any 
minister, charge d'affaires, consul or commercial agent holding commission under the 
government of the United States. 

On the filing of such application and the payment of the fees required by law, if. on 
such examination, it appears that the claimant is justly entitl d to a pntent under tho 
law, and that the same is sufficiently useful and important, the Commissioner will issue 
a patent therefor. 

Assignments. — E v ery patent or any Interest therein shall he assignable in law by 
an instrument in writing ; and the patentee or his assigns or legal representatives may, 
in like tnanner, grant and convey an exclusivo right under his patent to the whole or 
any specified part of tho United States. 



SYNOPSIS OF FOREIGN PATENT LAWS. 



149 



ReissutM — A reissue is granted to the original patentee, his legal representatives, 
or the assignees of the entire interest when, by reason of a defective or insufficient 
specification, or bj r reason of the patentee claiming as his invention or discovery more 
than he hud a right to claim as new, the original patent is inoperative or invalid, pro- 
vided the error has risen from inadvertence, accident or mistake, and without any 
fraudulent or deceptive intention. In the cases of patents issued and assigned prior 
to July 8, 1870, the applications for reissue may he made by the assignees; but in the 
cases of patents issued or assigned since lhat date, the applications must be made and 
the specifications sworn to by the inventors, if they be living. 

Caveats — A caveat, under the patent law, is a notice given to the office of the 
caveator's claim as inventor, in order to prevent tho grant of a patent to another for 
the same alleged invention upon an application filed during the life of a caveat without 
notice to the caveator. 

Any citizen of the United States who has made a new invention or discovery, and 
desires further time to mature the same, may, on payment of a fee of ten dollars, file in 
the Patent Office a caveat setting forth the object and the distinguishing characteristics 
of the invention and praying protection of his right until he shall have matured his 
invention. Such caveat 6hall be filed in the confidential archives of the office and 
preserved in secrecy, and shall be operative for the term of one year from the filing 
thereof. 

An alien has the same privilege, if he has resided in the United States one year next 
preceding the filing of his caveat, and has made oath of his intention to become a 
citizen. The caveat must comprise a specification, oath, and, when the nature of the 
case admits of it, a drawing, and like the application, must be limited to a single 
invention or improvement. 

Fees.— Fees must be paid in advance, and are as follows: On filing each original 
application for a patent, $15. On issuing each original patent, $20. In design cases : 
l or three years ana six months. $10 ; for seven years, $15 ; for fourteen years, $30. On 
filing each caveat, $10. On every application for the reissue of a patent, $30. On filing 
each disclaimer, $10. For certified copies of patents and oth^r papers in manuscript, 
ten cents per hundred words ; for certified copies of printed patents, eighty-five cents. 
For recording every assignment, agreement, power of attorney, or other paper, of 
three hundred words or under, $1; of over three hundred and under one thousand 
words, $'i ; of over one thousand words, $3. For copies of drawings, the reasonable 
cost of making them. 



Synopsis of Foreign Patent Laws. 

( Furnished by Munn & Co., Solicitors of Patents.) 

Dominion of Canada.— The expense to apply for a Canadian Patent Is $40, which 
includes government tax, agency, and all chaws for six years, afier which two 
additional terms of six years each may be obtained by the owner of the patent on pay- 
ment of $25 each. The patent may bo applied lor at the outset for eighteen years, at a 
cost of $80. Inventions that have been already patented in the United States for not 
more than one year may be secured in Canada. If patented for more than one year in 
the United States, the Canadian patent is refused. Models are not required unless called 
for by the Commissioner. During the first j ear of a Canadian patent, the holder may 
import the patented article ready made. Within two years from tho date of the patent 
he must begin the manufacture in Canada, or arrange for some place where persons 
wishing the invention can order the same. Tho patent covers tho provinces of Ontario, 
Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward's Island, Manitobi and British 
Columbia. Caveats may be filed in Canadafor $20, which includesall expenses. 

Great Britain.— The British patent extends over England, Wales, Scot land, Ire- 
land and the Channel Islands, but not the Colonies; the latter make their own patent 
laws. The expense to apply for a British patent is $5% which includes goverment 
taxes, agency, and all charges for tho first period, or provisional patent, lasting nino 
months. No models are reguired. The first applicant gets the patent whether he do tho 
inventor or not. A second installment of $50 is payable in New York eight months 
after the date of tho provisional patent. Tho patent is then completed, and no further 
paym nt is required until tho end of the fourth year. Both tho above payments ($100 
iu all) may, if desired, bo made rt tho outset. Tno patent can bo assigned at any time. 

At the end of the fourth year a tax of $25 is payable, and each year thereafter a 
a similar tax, increased, however, toward the end of the term of the patent. Tho pat- 
ent is granted tor fourteen years, but ceases if any tax is not duly paid. Tho patenteo 
in Great Britain possesses the same full and exclusive rights as in tho United States. 
No person can make, sell or use tho invention in any part of tho Kingdom without 
It he patentee's consent; nor is bo ohliged to work tho invention in order to maintain 
| the validity of the patent- Under tho English law the presumption is that overy device 
\ for which a patent is asked is new; the government makes no examination as to novolty, 
i but grants a patent to every petitioner ; but such patent will not bo sustained by tho 
. oourts, if, before its date, the invention had been previously patontod iu England, or 
become publicly known there. 



150 SYNOPSIS OF FOREIGN PATENT LAWS. — Continued. 



France.— The cost to apply for a French patent, which Includes Algeria, is $100,B 
which includes all expenses lor agency aud government taxes for the first year. Noi 
official examination is made; no model. The longest term of the patent is fifteen)-} 
years, subject to annual tax of twenty dollars. The patent ceases when any due tax is 
unpaid. If the device has been previously patented in any other country before the ap»| 
plication for the patent in France, then the patent will not stand. Additional im pro veil 
ments upon any French patent may at all times be inserted or attached to the original!! 
patent on paying a small fee. If the holder of the patent fails to work the invention in 
France within two years of the date of the patent, or if he permits two consecutive! 
years to pass without working, he forfeits his rights unless he can justify such inaction.! 

Switzerland.— Expense for a Swiss patent, $100. The patent is granted for fifteen 
years, subject to a small annual tax. Working must take place within three years. 

Belgium.— The expense to apply for a Belgian patent is $100. The law and proceed- 
ings are substantially the same as in France, except that a patent may be obtained by 
the inventor in Belgium, even if a patent has already been granted elsewhere. The 
longest term of the patent is twenty years. Must be worked within a year of its having 
been worked abroad. 

Spain and Cuba.— By the terms of the new Spanish law the patent now covers 
Spain, Cuba and all the Spanish Colonies. Duration of patent, 20 years. Must be 
worked within two years. Must be taken in the name of the inventor, but may be 
assigned. A Spanish patent may be taken after the invention has been patented else- 
where. The law is substantially similar to the French and Belgian laws. A small 
annuity is payable annually. Cost of the patent, including first annuity, $100. 

Germany.— The Patent law covers Prussia and all the German States. A patent 
may be taken for one year or any other number up to fifteen years, by the payment of 
taxes annually, which are progressive in amount. Must be worked within three years. 
A patent may be claimed by the first applicant, but if the essential parts of the invenJ 
tion are taken from the models or drawings of another person without the latter's con- I 
sent, the former has no claim to the patent. Inventions are examined, and may bi II 
rejected for lack of novelty, or from having been introduced into the Kealm before I 
application for a patent was made. An appeal may be taken from the Examiner's 
decision to another tribunal similar to the appeal provisions in the United States. Pat- 
ents for additions, or improvements on inventions already patented, may be had. The 
expense for a patent and first six years 1 tax for a simple invention is $100 ; when 
requiring elaborate drawings and a lengthy specification a small sum in addition. 

Patents cannot be obtained in Germany after the United States patent has issued. 

Italy.— The expense to apply for an Italian patent is $100, which includes all fees 
for the first year. The patent is granted for fifteen years, subject to a small annual 
tax. W orking must take place within two years. 

Austria.— The expense to apply for a patent in Austria is $100, which includes \ 
agency, government taxes, and all costs for first year. The patent is granted for fifteen 
years, subject to a small annual tax. The invention must be worked within one year.- l I 

Hungary.— A separate patent must now be procured for Hungary ; cost, $100. The 
laws are practically the same as Austria. When Austrian and Hungarian patents are 
applied for at the same time the cost is $90 for each country. 

ltussiA.— Duration of patent, three, five or ten years. The terms cannot be extended. 
The invention must be worked in the empire during the first quarter of the period for 
which the patent has been granted. No annual taxes. The expense to apply is as fol^ 
lows: Three years, $200; five years, $250; ten years, $500. 

Other European States.— In the following countries the cost of applying for the 
patent varies with the period of the grant, which may generally be from five to fifteen 
years, at the option of the applicant. The costs to apply for a patent for the shortest 
term are : In Norway, $100 ; Sweden, $100 ; Denmark, $100 ; Portugal, $200. 

No patents granted in Isotherlands. 

British India.— Duration of patent, fourteen years. Privileges granted only to 
the inventor or his authorized agent in India. Cost of patent, $200. 

Australia— To cover Australia six patents are required, viz.: Victoria, Queens- 
land, Tasmania, New South Wales, Western Australia and South Australia. The laws 
resemble somewhat those of Great Britain. Expense to apply, from $150 to $200 each 
colony. The patentee is not required to introduce the invention in any specified time. 

Other British Colonies.— Patents are granted for the term of fourteen years in 
the following Colonies at a cost of $200 to $300 for each Colony : New Zealand, Ceylon, 
Mauritius, Cape of Good Hope, Jamaica, Guiana. 

Brazil.— Under the new law foreigners can obtain patents in Brazil on very favor- 
able terms. The patent is granted for fifteen years, subject to a small annual tax. 
Working must take place within three years from the date of the patent. 
, The expense to apply for the patent is $250. 

Mexico.— The expense to apply for a patent in Mexico is $300. There are no annual 
taxes. The patent is granted for twenty years and issues in five months. 

Trade Marks.— Security for trade marks can be secured by citizens of the United 
States in the following countries, at the prices annexed, which includes both the Govern- 
ment and agency fees : Canada, $50; Great Britain, $75; Belg-ium, $75 ; France, $75' 
Austria. $75; Switzerland, $75; Germany, $100; and in nearly all other countries ac 
same rates. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS. 



151 



Values of Foreign Coins, Oct. 1, 1894. 

(Prepared by the Director of the Mint ) 



Country. 



Argentine llep. 



Austria-H ungary 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British N. Amer.* 
Central America. 
Chili 

China 

Colombia 

Cuba 

Denmark 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

Finland .... 

France 

German Empire.. 
Great Britain 

Greece 

Hayti 

India 

[taly 

Japan 

Liberia 

Mexico 



Stand- 
ard. 



Gold&S. 



Gold. 



Gold&S 
Silver... 
Gold.... 

Gold.... 
Silver... 
Gold&S, 



Silver... 

Silver.. . 

Gold&S 

Gold.... 
Silver... 

Gold.... 



Gold.... 
Gold&S. 

Gold.... 
Gold.... 

Gold&S. 

Gold&S. 
Silver.. . 

Gold&S. 



Gold&S+ 

Gold... 
Silver... 



Monetary Unit. 



Netherlands.. ....|Gold&S, 

IVewfoundland. .. Gold.. .. 

Norway Gold.. .. 

|[>eru Silver... 

[Portugal Gold.. .. 

liussia Silver*.. 

lipain Gold£8. 

Ijweden jGold. .. 

iwitzerlani ,Gold&S. 



ripoli ■ 

urkey 

feuezuela-. 



[Silver... 
..Gold... 
..Gold&S. 



Peso 

Crown 

Franc... 
Boliviano 
Milreis.. • 

Dollar.... 

Peso...... 

Peso 



( Shanghai 
Taelj Haikwan 

( (Customs) 
Peso 

Peso 

Crown 

Sucie 

Pound (100 pias- 
tres). 

Mark 

Franc 

Mark 

Pound sterling 

Drachma 

Gourde 

Rupee 

Lira 

V,. n JGold 

Ycn i Silver.. . 

Dollar 

Dollar 

Florin 

Dollar 

Crown 

Sol 

Milreis 

( Gold.. 
Ruble < 

( Silver 

Peseta 

CrowH 

Franc 

Mahbub 

Piastre 

Bolivar 



Value in 
C.S.Gold 
Dollar. 



$0.06,5 



.20,3 



.19,3 
.45,7 
.54,6 

1.00 
.45,7 
.91,2 



.67,6 
.75,3 

.45,7 

.92,6 

.26,8 
.45,7 

4.94,3 



Coins. 

I 

I Gold: argentine $4.b(2,4, and Yi ar- 
; gentine. Silver: peso & divisions 
Gold, former system— 4 Uorins 
i $1.92& 8 florins $3.85,8, ducat it 2 - 
28,7, and 4 ducats $9- i.\8. Silver: 
1 and 2 florins. Present system 
20 crowns $4.05,2, and 10 crowns. 
Gold: 10 and 20 f r. Silver: 5 fr. 
Silver: boliviano and divisions. 
Gold: 5, 10 and 20 milreis. Silver: 
1 and 2 milreis. 

Silver: peso and divisions. 

Gold: eseudo $1.82.4, doubloon $4.- 

56,1, and condor $9.12,3. Silver: 

peso and divisions. 



Gold: condor $9.64,7, and double- 
condor. Silver: peso. 
Gold: doubloon $5.01,7. Silver: 
peso. 

Gold: 10 and 20 crowns. 
Gold: condor $9.64,7, & double eon- 
dor. Silver: sucre and divisions. 
Gold: pound K0 piastres, 5, 30, 20 
and 50 piastres. Silver: 1, 2, 5, Jo 
and 20 piastres. 
.19,3 Gold: 20 marks $3.85,9, 10 marks 
.19,3 Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 francs 

Silver: 5 francs. 
.23,8 Gold: 5, 10 and 20 marks. 
4.86,6>£ Gold: sovereign (pound sterling) 

and Yi sovereign 
.19,3 Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 drachmas 
Silver: 5 drachmas. 
>,o Silver: gourde. 
.21,7 Gold: mohur $7.10.5. Silver: rupee 

and divisions. 
.19,3 Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 lire. Sil- 
ver: 5 lire. 
.99,7 Gold: 1. 2, 5, 10 and 20 yen 
.49,3 Silver: yen 
1.00 

.49,7 Gold: dollar $0.98,3, 2}£, 5, 10 and 20 
dollars. Silver: dollar (or peso) 
and divisions. 
.40,2 Gold: 10 11. Silver: 1 and 2V Z A 
1.01.4 Gold: 2 dollars. $2 02 7. 
.26,8 Gold: 10 and 20 crowns. 
.45,7 Silver: sol and divisions. 
1.08 Gold: J. 2. 5 and 10 milreis. 
.77,2 Gold: imperial $7.71,8, and % im- 
perial $:< 86. 
.36,6 Silver: % Yi nnd 1 ruble. 
.19,3 Gold: 25 pesetas Silver: 5 pesetas. 
.26,8 Gold: 10 and 20 crowns. 
.19.3 Gold: 5,10.20,50 and 100 francs. 
Silver: 5 fruucs. 

.41.3 

.04,4 Gold: 25, 50, 109, 250 & 5O0 plnstre*. 
.19.3 Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 bolivars. 
Silver: 5 bolivars. 



♦Except Newfoundland. +Gold the nominal Standard. Silver praeticnlly thostand- 
rd. tSilvertho nominal standard. Paper the actual currency, the depreeiatiou of 
rulch measured by the gold standard. \ 



I 



152 TARIFF LEGISLATION FOR ONE HUNDRED YEARS. I 

The Customs Tariff. 

TARIFF LEGISLATION FORGONE HUNDRED YEARS. 

The first Tariff Act was signed by President Washington July 4, 1789. Alexandei 
Hamilton was the author of the measure, which was modeled on the 5 per cent, imporli 
duty that the Confederate Congress had vainly endeavored to impose. Its object whs tc 
replenish an empty treasury. The Act imposed specific duties on forty-seven articles 
and ad valorem rates of 11 , 10, 12* and 15 per cent, on four commodities or small groups. 
Unenumerated imports were required to pay 5 per cent. The second Tariff Act passed 
the House by a vote of 39 to 13, passed the Senate without a division and was signed byi 
the President August 10, 179U. This measure was longer than the first and exacted high- 
er rates of duty. The Act of May 2, 1792, followed, and became operative in July of the] 
same year. The duty on many art.cles was raised from 7£ to 10 per cent., and the tariff 
on unenumerated merchandise was raised to 7£ per cent. Another Act was passed June 
7, 1794, and went into effect the first of the following month. It imposed numerous 
rates in addition to those previously in force, some of them specific and some 2i and 5 
per cent., ad valorem. Acts imposing additional rates were passed on March 3 and J uly 
8, 1797, and on May 13, 1809. There was a further increase of 2i per cent., March 26, 1804, 
on all goods paying ad valorem rates. In 1807-8 the industrial situation was suddenly 
changed. Napoleon's Berlin and Milan decrees were followed by the English Orders in 
Council, and the Administration retaliated by the famous Embargo Act in December, 
1807. The Non-Intercourse Act followed in 1809, and war with England in 1812. During 
hostilitieaall import duties were doubled, as a war measure. This Act is known as the 
Tariff of 1812. It passed the House by a vote of 76 to 48 and the Senate by 20 to 9. 
Amendments were adopted February 25 and July 29, 1813. The additional duties impos- 
ed by the Act of 1812 were repealed February 15, 1816, and additional duties of 42 per 
cent., to take effect July 1, were substituted, but the law did not go into operation; 
From 1813 to 1816 the average rate of ail imports was 32.73 per cent, ranging from 6.48 
per cent, in 1815 to 69 03 in 1813. 

The Lowndes-Calhoun Tariff Act was approved April 27, 1816, and went into opera- 
tion the following J uly. It was not wholly set aside until 1842, during Polk's adminis- 
tration . Under it ad valorem rates ranged from 1i to 33 per cent. Unenumerated goods 
were taxed 15 per cent., manufactures of iron and other metals generally 15 per cent.* 
the majority of woolen goods 25 per cent., cotton goods 25 per cent., " with clauses 
establishing minimums —that is, in reckoning duties, 25 cents per square yard was tt 
be considered the minimum cost of cotton cloth ; uncolored and unbleached yarn 60 
cents, and colored or bleached yarn 75 cents per pound. The Act was amended April !?9» 
1818, and March 3, 1819. The average rate on imports from 1817 to 1820 was26.52 per cent ; 
from 1821 to 1824, 35.02 per cent; and from 1821 to 1824 on dutiable goods only, 36 88 per cent. 

In 1824 the Clay Tariff Act was passed. The majority in the House was 5 and in the 
Senate 4. It was signed by the President May 22 and became operative July 1. Under 
it the duty on woolen goods was raised from 25 to 30 per cent, for one year and then to 
3-JJ per cent. A minimum of 30 cents per square yard was placed on cotton cloth. Wool 
over 10 cents a pound was rated at 20 per cent, until Juno 1, 1825, and then 25 per cent, 
for one year and after that 30 per cent. The average rate on all imports from 1825 tol828 
was 47.17 per cent, and on dutiable goods 50.29 per cent. 

A new Tariff Act was approved May 19, 1828, and went into operation part the 
following July and part in September. The vote in the house- was 105 to 94, and in the 
Senate 26 to 21. It had special reference to iron, wool, and the manufactures of wool. 
The duty imposed on wool was 4 cents per pound and 40 per cent, for the first year; 4 
cents and 45 per cent, for the second year, and after that 4 cents and 50 per cent. 
Slightly lower duties were provided for in Acts passed May 24, 1828. May, 1830. and 
July 13, 1832. The average duty on all goods imported from 1829 to 1832 was 47.81, and 
on all dutiable goods 61.55. A Tariff act was passed in 1832 " to correct the inequalities 
of that of 1828." It was passed by a vote of 132 to 65 in the House, and 32 to 16 in the 
Senate, was approved July 14, and became operative on March 3 of the following year. 
Some of the existing duties were reduced, and a few of them raised. Railroad iron 
was made free in a separate act of the same date. During the brief time in which this 
act was in force the average rate on all imports was 28.99 per cent., and on dutiable 
goods 38.25 per cent. 

The Compromise Tariff of 1833 provided for taking off one-third of the duties each 
yar until a uniform rate of 20 per cent, on all should be reached. This act passed the 
House by a vote of 119 to 85, the Senate by 29 to 16, was npproved March 2. 1833, and took 
effect January 1, 1834. Under it (as finally passed) all duties which in the Tariff of 1-32 
exceeded 20 per cent, were to have one-tenth of the excess removed January 1. 1834; 
a/ain one-tenth January 1, 1836; one-tenth more in 1838, and another tenth in 1840; so 
that by that time four-tenths of the excess would be removed. January 1, 1842, one-half 
of the remaining excess was to be removed, and Julv 1, 1842, the other half. There 
w ni Id, therefore, have been, after July J, 1842, a uniform rate of 20 per cent, on all 
articles. The average rate on imports from 1831 to 1842 was 19.25 per cent., and on all 
dutiable good3 34.73 per cent. *»> 

The Tariff of 1842 was passed by the Whigs as a party measure. It became operative 
August 30, 1842, changed all existing rates, was amended in March, 1843, and continued 
in force until December, 1, 1816. Under it the average rate on all imports was 26.92 per 



THE TARIFF OF 1894. 



153 



cent * and on dutiable goods 33.47. It was followed by the Polk- Walker Tariff of 1846, 
which was approved July 30, 1846. The latter bill passed the House by a vote of 114 to 95. 
In the Senate the vote was a tie on a third reading-, and Vice-President Dallas east the 
deciding: vote in the affirmative. On the final passage the vote stood 28 to 27. This act 
swept away all specific and compound duties, and divided all dutiable merchandi e into 
eight classes. The average duty on all imports from 1847 to 1857 was 23.5i0 per cent., and 
on dutiable goods 26.22 per cent. The Tariff of 1857, which made still further reductions, 
was approved March 3 of that year, took effect July 1, and continued in force until 
April 1, 1861. It passed by a vote of 123 to 72 in the House, and 33 to 12 in the Senate. 
The average duty on all imports from 1858 to 1861 was 15.66 per cent., and on dutiable 
goods 20. 12 per cent. 

The Act of 1861, known as the Morrill Tariff, differed materially from all that had 
preceded it, in that it provided for a general system of compound and differential 
duties, ad valorem and specific, and made a distinction between goods imported from 
different parts of the world. It passed the House May 11, 1860, by a vote of 105 to 64. and 
the Senate February 20, 1861, by a vote of 25 to 14. During the War of the Rebellion it 
was frequently changed ostensibly for purposes of revenue. At an early period in its 
history the number of rates exceeded two thousand. From 1861 to 1869 every year pro- 
duced some enlargement of the original scheme. There was some modification of rates 
in 1870, principally in the line of reduction. Tea and coffee were then placed on the free 
list, and the duties were lowered about 10 per cent, on cotton and woolen goods, wool, 
leather, glass, paper and iron. The free list was enlarged somewhat, but in the act of 
March 3, 1875, the reduction was rescinded. July 1, 1879, the duty on quinine was abol- 
ished. The average duty on all imports from 1862 to 1883 was 34.16 per cent., and on 
dutiable jroods 42.74 per cent. 

In March, 1883, the Commission Tariff was passed by the House by a vote of 152 to 
116, and by the Senate by a vote of 32 to 31. This Tariff remained in force until October 
6, 1890, when it was succeeded by the McKinley Tariff. 

THE TARIFF OF 1894. 

The new Tariff and Income Tax Law enacted by the Fifty-third Congress passed the 
House of Representatives February 1, 1894, and in amended form the Senate July 3, the 
8enate having raised the House rates considerably. It. was then referred to a confer- 
ence committee, which reported a disagreement on July 19. After continued confer- 
ences the Senate bill entire was adopted by the House August 13. The bill was pre- 
sented to tho President August 15, and became a law without his approval, at midnight, 
August 27. 

The text of the entire bill is given below, and a comparison is made with the rates 
of the McKinley Tariff, which the new law supersedes. 

AN ACT to reduce taxation, to provido revenue for the Government, and for other 
purposes. 

Ho it enacted by tho Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That on and after the first day of August, eighteen 
hundred and ninety-four, unless otherwise specially provided for in this Aot, there 
shall be levied, collected, and paid upon all articles imported from foreign countries or 
withdrawn for consumption, and mentioned in the schedules herein contained, the 
rates of duty which are, by the schedules and paragraphs, respectively prescribed, 
namely : 



SCHEDULE A.-CHEMICALS, OILS, 
AND PAINTS. 
Acids. 

Acetic or pyroligneous acid, 20 p. c. (Old 
I rates: Over 1.047 specific gravity, 4c. per 
I lb. ; under 1.0t7 pp. nr.. \ l / 2 c. per lb.) 
I Boracie acid 3c. per lb. (Old rate, 5c.) 
I Chromic acid, 4c. per lb. (Old rate, 6c.) 

Citric acid, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 10c. per lb.) 
I Tannic acid or tannin, 60c. per lb. (Old 
I rate, 75c.) 

I Tartaric acid, 20 p.c. (Old rate, 10c. per lb.) 
I Alcoholic perfumery, including cologne 
I water and other toilet waters, and alcoholic 
[compounds not specially provided for in 
■this act, 82 per gal. and 50 p. c. (Old rates : 
{Perfumery, $2 and 60 p. c. ; compounds, $2 
land 25 p, c.) 

I Alumina, alum, alum cake, patont alum, 
■sulphate of alumina, and aluminous cake, 
land alum in crystals or ground, 4-10e. per 
lib. (Old rate, 6-l0c.) 

1 Ammonia, carbonate of, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 
ll&c. per lb.); muriate of, or sal ammoniac. 



10 p. c. (Old rate, %c. per lb.) : sulphate of, 
20 p. c. (Old rate, per lb). 

Hlacking of all kinds, 20 p. o. (Old rato, 25 
p. c.) 

Bono char suitable for use in decolorizing 
sugars, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

Borax, crude, or borate of soda, 2o. per 
lb. (Old rate, 3c.) ; borate of lime. \ %o. per 
lb. (Old rate, 3c.) ; refined borax, 2o. per lb. 
(Old rate, 5c.) 

Camphor, refined, 10 p. c. (Old rato, 4c. 
per lb.) 

Chalk, prepared, precipitated, French, 
red, and all other chalk preparations not 
specially provided for in this act, 20 p. e. 
(Old rates: Prepared, precipitated, French 
and red, lc. per lb. ; ail other, 2o p. c ) 

Chloral hydrate, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 50c. 
per lb.) 

Chloroform, 25c. per lb. (Old rato same.) 

Coal-tar Preparations. 

All coal-tar colors or dyes, by whatever 
name known, and not specially providod 
for in this act, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 35 p. o.) 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Contiuued. 



154 



Cobalt, oxide of, 25c. per lb. (Old rate, 30c.) 

Collodion and all compounds of pyroxy- 
llne, by whatever name known, 40c. per lb. 
(Old rate, 50c.) ; rolled or in sheets, but not 
made up into articles, 50c. (Old rate, 60c.) ; 
if in finished or partly finished articles, 45 
p. c. (Old rate, 60c. and 25 p. c.) 

Coloring for brandy, wine, beer, or other 
liquors, 50 p. c. (Old rate same.) « 

Drugs, such as barks, beans, berries, bal- 
sams, buds, bulbs, bulbous roots, excresen- 
ces, fruits, flowers, dried fibers, dried in- 
sects, grains, gum and gum resin, herbs, 
leaves, lichens, mosses, nuts, roots and 
stems, spices, vegetables, seeds (aromatic, 
not garden seeds), seeds of morbid growth, 
weeds, and woods used expi-essly for dye- 
ing; any of the foregoing which are not 
edible, but which are advanced in value 
or condition by refining or grinding, or by 
other process of manufacture, and not spe- 
cially provided for in this act, 10 p. c. (Old 
rate same ) 

Ethers, sulphuric, 40c. per lb. (Old rate 
same) ; spirits of nitrous ether, 25c. per lb. 
(Old rate same) ; fruit ethers, oils, or essen- 
ces, $2 per lb. (Old rate, $2.50) ; ether of nil 
kinds not specially provided for in this 
act, $1 per lb. (Old rate same.) 

Extracts and decoctions of logwood and 
and other dyewoods, extract of sumac, and 
extracts of barks, such as are commonly 
used for dyeing or tanning, not specially 
provided for in this act, and extracts of 
hemlock bark, 10 p. c. (Old rate, %c per 
lb.; extracts hemlock bark, ^c.) 

Gelatine, glue, isinglass or fish glue, and 
prepared fish bladders or fish sounds, 25 
p. c. (Old rates: Gelatine, glue, isinglass or 
fish glue worth not over 7c. per lb., lV£c : 
worth over 7c. and not above 30c, 25 p. c. ; 
worth over 30c, 30 p. c. ; prepared fish 
bladders or sounds, 20 p. c.) 

Glycerine, crude, not purified, lc. per lb. 
(Old rate, l%c.) ; refined, 3c per lb. (Old 
rate, i%c) 

Ink and ink powders, printers' ink. and 
all other ink not specially provided for in 
this act, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 30 p c) 

Iodoform, SI per lb. (Old rate, $1 50.) 

Licorice, extracts of, in paste, roils, or 
other forms, 5c. per lb. (Old rate, 5^c) 

Magnesia, carbonate of, medicinal, 3c. per 
lb. (Old rate, 4cO ; calcined, 7c. per lb. (Old 
rate, 8c.) ; sulphate of, or Epsom salts, l-5c 
per lb. (Old rate, 3-lOc.) 

Mo-phia, or morphine, and all salts there- 
of, 60c per oz. (Old rate same.) 

Oils. 

Alizarine assistant, or soluble oil, or ole- 
ate of soda, or Turkey red oil, 30 p. c. (Old 
rates: 40 c per gal. containing less than 50 
p. c. castor oil ; 80c per gal. containing 
over 50 p. c. castor oil.) 
Castor oil, 35c. per gal. (Old rate, 80c) 
Cod liver oil, 20 p. c (Old rate, 15c. per 
gal.) 

Flaxseed or linseed and poppy-seed oil, 
raw, boiled, or oxidized, 20c. per gal. of 7\l 
lb*, weight (Old rate, 32c.) 

Fusel oil, or amylic alcohol, 10 p. c. (Old 
rate same.) 

Hemp-seed oil and rape-seed oil, 10c per 
gal. (Old rate same.) 



Olive oil, fit for salad purposes, 35c p< I 
gal. (Old rate same.) 

Peppermint oil, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 80i I 
per lb.) 

Seal, herring, whale, and other fish o I 
not specially provided for in this act, 21 
p. c (Old rate, 8c. per gal.) 

Opium, aqueous extract of, for medloil 
nal uses, and tincture of, as laudanum anJ 
all other liquid preparations of opium, nol 
specially provided for in this act, 20 p. c| 
(Old rate, 40 p. c.) 

Opium containing less than nine percent! 
of morphia, and opium prepared for sniokl 
ing, $6 per lb. (Old rate, $12.); but opiunl 
prepared for smoking and other prepara«| 
tions of opium deposited in bonded ware>| 
house shall not bo removed therefrom! 
without payment of duties, and sucbj 
duties shall not be refunded. 

Paints, Colors and Varnishes. 

Baryta, sulphate of, or barytes, manufac- 
tured, $3 per ton (Old rate, $6.72.) 

Blm>8, such as Berlin, Prussian, Chinese, 
and all others, containing ferrocyanido or 
iron, dry or ground in or mixed with oil, 
6c. per lb., and in pulp or mixed with 
water, 6c. per lb. on the material contained 
therein wheu dry. (Old rate same.) 

Blanc-fixe, or artificial sulphate of bary- 
tes and satin white, or artificial sulphate 
of lime, 25 p. c (Old rate, %a. per lb). 

Black, made from bone, ivory, or veget- 
able, under whatever name known, includ- 
ing bone black and lampblack, dry or 
ground in oil or water, 20 p. o. (Old rate, 
25 p. c.) 

Chrome yellow, chrome green, and all 
other chromium colors in which lead and 
bichromate of potash or soda are com- 
ponent parts, dry or ground in or mixed 
with oil, or in pulp or mixed with water, 
3c per lb. on the material contained there- 
in wheu dry. (Old rate, 4J^c) 

Ocher and ochery earths, sienna and 
sienna earths, umber and umber earths, 
ground in oil, l^c. per lb. (Old rate, \%c) 

Ultramarine blue, whether dry, in pulp, 
or mixed with water, and wash blue con- 
taining ultramarine, 3c. per lb. (Old rates: 
Wash blue, 3c; others, 4^c.) 

Varnishes, including so-called gold size 
or japan, 25 p. c. (Old rate, &5 p. a); and on 
spait varnishes for the alcohol contained 
therein, $1.33 per gal. (Old rate same.) 

Vermilion red, and other colors contain- 
ing quicksilver, dry or ground in oil or 
water, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 12c per lb.) ; ver- 
milion red, not containing quicksilver, but 
made of lead or containing lead, 6c. per lb. 
(Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

Whiting and Paris white, dry, He. per lb. 
(Old rate, y 2 c); ground in oil, or putty, ^0. 
per lb. (Old rate, lc) 

Zinc, oxide of, and white paint or pig- 
ment containing zinc dry or ground in oil, 
lc. per lb. (Old rate, lUc. dry, and l&o. 
ground in oil.)* 

All other paints, colors, and pigments, 
whether dry or mixed, or ground in water 
or oil, or other solutions, including all 
colors in tubes, lakes, crayons, smalts, and 
f rostings, and not specially provided for in 



THE TARIFF OF 1894,-Continued, 



this act, 25 p. c. (Old rate same, except 
artists' water colors, which were 30 p. c.) 
Lead Products. 
Acetate of lead, white, 2%c. per lb. (Old 
•rate, 5^c); brown, l&c. (Old rate, 3J^c); 
ilitharge, lKc (Old rate, 3c.) 
I Nitrate of lead, l^c. per lb. (Old rate, 3c.) 
Orange mineral, l%c. per lb. (Old rate, 
3Ke.); red lead, l^c. (Old rate, 3c.) 
' White lead, and white paint and pigment 
containing lead, dry or in pulp, or ground 
dr mixed with oil, l^c. per lb. (Old rate, 
Jo.) 

Phosphorus, 15c. per lb. (Old rate, 20c.) 
Potash. 

r Bichromate and chromate of, 25 p. c. (Old 
rate, 3c. per lb.) 

Hvdriodate, iodide and iodate of , 25c. per 
lb. (Old rate, 50c.) 

Nitrate of, or saltpeter, refined, J^c. per 
lb. (Old rate, lc.) 

Prussiate of, red or yellow, 25 p. c. (Old 
irates : Red 10c. per lb., yellow 5c.) 

Preparations. 
.'.Jill medicinal preparations, including 
medicinal coal-tar preparations and medic- 
tnal proprietary preparations, of which 
ilcohol is a component part, or in the prep- 
iration of which alcohol is used, not 
specially provided for in this act, 50c. per 
!b. (Old rate, same) ; provided that no such 
preparation shall pay less than 25 p. c. ad 
k'ttlorem. 

All medicinal preparations, not specially 
arovided for in this act, 25 p.* 0. 

Paris green and London purple, 12J^ p. c. 
Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

Products or preparations known as al- 
kalies, alkaloids, distilled oils, essential 
>il8, expressed oils, rendered oils, and all 
Combinations of the foregoing, and all 
chemical compounds and salts, not special- 
y provided for in this act, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 
mine ) 

Preparations used as applications to the 
iiair, mouth, teeth or skin, such as cosmet- 
C8, dentifrices, pastes, pomades, powders, 
ind all toilet preparations and articles of 
♦erfumery, not specially provided for in 
his act, 40 p. c. (Old rate, 50 p. c.) 

Santonine, and all salts thereof contain- 
nir 80 p. c or over of sautonine, $1 per lb. 
Old rate, $2.50.) 

Soap. 

Castile soap, 20 p. c. (Old rate, lJ4c. per 

b. ) ; fancy, perfumed and all descriptions 
)f toilet and medicinal or medicated soap, 
5 p. c. (Old rate, 15c. per lb.); all other 
oaps, not specially provided for in this 
ict, 10 p. c. (Old rate, 20 p. c.) 

Soda. 

Hlcarbonate of soda or supercarbonato 
•f soda or saleratus, J^o. per lb. (Old rate, 

c. ) 

Hydrate of, or caustic soda, %c. per lb. 
Old rate, lc.) 

IJichromate and chromate of, 25 p. c. (Old 
ate, 3c. per lb.) 

Sal soda, or soda crystals, ^c. per lb. (Old 
ate, ; soda ash, J4c per lb. (Old rate, 
amo.) 



155 



Silicate of soda, or other alkaline silicate, 
%q. per lb. (Old rate, J^c.) 

Sponges, sea moss or Iceland moss, 10 
p. c. (Old rates: Sponges, 20 p. c. ; sea moss 
or Iceland moss, crude free, not crude 10 
p. c.) 

Strychnia, or strychnine, and all salts 
thereof, 30c. per oz. (Old rate, 40c.) 

Sulphur, refined, sublimed or flowers of, 
20 p. c. (Old rates: Refined, $8 per ton, sub- 
limed or flowers of, $10.) 

Sumac, ground, 10 p. c. (Old rate, 4-10c. 
per lb.) 

Tartar, cream of, and patent tartar, 20 
p. c. (Old rate, 6c. per lb.) 

Tartars and lees crystals, partly refined, 
20 p. c. (Old rate, 4c. per lb.) 

Tartrate of soda and potassa, or Rochelle 
salts, 2c. per lb. (Old rate, 3c.) 

SCHEDULE B.— EARTHS, EARTHEN- 
WARE AND GLASSWARE. 
Brick and Tile. 

Brick, not glazed, enameled, ornamented 
or decorated in any manner, 25 p. c. (Old 
rate, same) ; glazed, enameled, ornamented 
or decorated, 30 p. e. (Old rate, 45 p. e.) 

Magnesic fire-brick, $1 per ton (Old rate, 
$1.25 plain, 45 p. c. decorated.) 

Tiles, plain, not glazed, ornamented, 
painted, enameled, vitrified or decorated, 
25 p. c. (Old rate, same) ; ornamented, 
glazed, painted, enameled, vitrified or dee- 
orated, and encaustic, 40 p. c. (Old rate, 45 
p. c.) 

Cement, Lime and Plaster. 

Roman, Portland and other hydraulic 
cement, in barrels, sacks or other pack- 
ages, 8c. per cwt , including weight of bar- 
rel or package (Old rate, same) ; in bulk, 7c. 
(Old rate, same); other cement, 10 p. c. 
(Old rate, 20 p. c.) 

Lime, 5c. per cwt., including weight of 
barrel or package (Old rate, 6c.) 

Plaster of Paris, or gypsum, ground, $1 
per ton (Old rate, same) ; calcined, $1.25 
(Old rate, $1.75.) 

Clays or Earths. 

Clays or earths, unwrought or unman- 
ufactured, not specially provided for in 
this act, $1 per ton (Old rate, $1.50); 
wrought or manufactured, not Specially 
provided for in this act, «2 per ton (Ola 
rate, $3) ; china clay or kaolin, $2 per ton 
(Old rate, $3.) 

Earthenware and China. 

Common 3 ellow and brown earthenware, 
plain or embossed, common stoneware and 
crucibles, not decorated in any manner, 
20 p. c. (Old rate, 26 p. c.) 

China, poroelaln, parian, bisque, earthen, 
stone and crockery ware, including 
plaques, ornaments, toys, charms, vases 
and statuettes, white, not changed in con- 
dition by superadded ornamentation or 
decoration, 30 p. c. (Old rate, 65 p.c.) 

China, porcelain, parian, bisque, earthen, 
stone and crockery ware, including 
plaques, ornaments, toys, charms, vases 
and statuette?, painted, tinted, enameled, 
printed, gilded or otherwise decorated in 
any manner, 36 p. o. (Old rate, CO p. c.) 



!56 THE TARIFF OF 



All articles composed of earthen or min- 
eral substances, including lava tips for 
burners, not specially provided for in this 
act, if decorated in any manner, 40 p. c. 
(Old rate, 60 p. c.) ; if not decorated, 30 p. c. 
(Old rate, 1 5 p. c.) 

Gas retorts, 20 p. c. (Old rate, S3 eachj 
Glass and Glassware. 

Green and colored, molded or pressed, 
and flint and lime glass bottles holding 
more than one pint, and demijohns and 
carboys, covered or uncovered, whether 
filled or unfilled and whether their con- 
tents be dutiable or free, and other molded 
or pressed green and colored and flint or 
lime bottle glassware, not specially pro- 
vided for in this act, %c. per lb. (Old rate, 
ic.) ; and vials, holding not more than one 
pint and not less than one-quarter of a 
pint, lj^c. per lb. (Old rate, \%q.) ; if hold- 
ing less than one-fourth of a pint, 40c. per 
gro«s (Old rate, 50c.) ; all other plain green 
and colored, molded or pressed, and fliut 
lime and glassware, 40 p. c. (Old rate, 60 p.c.) 

Ail articles of glass, cut, engraved, paint- 
ed, colored, printed, stained, decorated, 
silvered or gilded, not including plate glass 
silvered, or looking-glass plates, 40 p. c. 
(Old rate, CO p. c.) 

All glass bottles, decanters, or other ves- 
sels or articles of glass, when cut, en- 
graved, painted, colored, printed, stained, 
etched, or otherwise ornamented or dec- 
orated, except such as have ground necks 
and stoppers only, not specially provided 
for in this act, including porcelain or opal 
glassware, 40 p. c. : Provided, That if such 
articles shall be imported filled, the same 
shall pay duty, in addition to any duty 
chargeable upon the contents as if not 
filled, unless otherwise specially provided 
for in this act. (Old rate, 60 p. c.) 

Unpolished cylinder, crown and common 
window glass, not exceeding 10 i>y 15 inches 
square, 1c. per lb. (Old rate, \%c.) ; above 
tnat and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
square, IJ4c. per lb. (Old rate, l%c ) ; above 
that and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
square, l%c. (Old rate, 2%e.) ; above that 
nnd not exceeding 24 by i>6 inches square, 
2c. (Old rate, 2%c.) : all above that, 2J^c. 
(Old rate, 3^c.) : Provided, That unpolished 
cylinder, crown and common window 
jrlass, imported in boxes, shall be packed 
50 square feet per box as nearly as sizes 
will permit, and the duty shall be com- 
puted thereon according to the actual 
weight of glass. 

Cylinder and crown glass, polished, not 
exceeding 16 by 24 inches square, 2^c. per 
square foot (Old rate, 4c.) ; above that and 
not exceeding 24 by 30 inches square, 4c. 
per square foot (Old rate, 6c.) ; above that 
and not exceeding 24 by 60 inches square, 
15c. p< r square foot (Old rate, 20c.) ; above 
that, 20c. per square foot (Old rate, 40c.) 

Fluted, rolled, or roujrh plate gla;-8, not 
including crown, cylinder, or common 
■window glass, not exceeding 16 by 24 
inches square, %c. per square foot (Old 
rate, lc.) ; above that and not exceeding 
24 by 30 inches square, lc. per square foot 
(Old rate, l^c); all above that, l^c. per 
square foot (Old rate, 2c.) ; and all fluted, 



1894.— Continued. 



rolled, or rough plate glass, weighing over» 
100 lbs. per 100 square feet, shall pay an ad-1 
ditional duty on the excess at the samel 
rates herein imposed: Provided, That all! 
of the above plate glass tvhen ground,! 
smoothed, or otherwise obscured, shall be | 
subject to the same rate* f duty as cast \i 
polished plate glass unsilvered. 

Cast polished plate glass, finished or un-ln 
finished and unsilvered, not exceeding 16 I 
by 24 inches square, 5c. per square loot | 
(Old' rate, same); above that and not ex- b 
ceeding 24 by 30 inches square, 8c. per t 
square foot (Old rate, same); above that j 
and not exceeding 24 by 60 inches square, 
22^c. per square foot (Old rate, 25c ); all 
above that, 35c. per square foot (Old rate, 
50c.) 

Cast polished plate glass, silvered, nnd 
looking-glass plates, exceeding: in size 144 
square inches, and not exceeding 16 by 24 
inches square, 6c. per square foot (Old rate, 
same) ; above that and not exceeding 24 by 
30 inches square, 10c per square foot (Old 
rate, same) ; above that and not exceeding 
24 by 60 square inches, 23c. per square loot 
(Old rate, 35c); all above that, 38c. per 
square foot (Old rate, 60c.) 

Hut no looking-glass plates or plate 
glass, silvered, when framed, shall pay a 
less rate of duty than that imposed upon 
similar glass of like description not 
framed, but shall pay in addition thereto 
upon such frames the rate of duty appli- 
cable thereto when imported separate. 

Cast polished plate glas*. silvered or un- 
silvered, and cylinder, crown or common 
window glass, when bent, ground, ob- 
scured, frosted, sanded, enameled, beveled, 
etched, embossed, engraved, flashed, 
stained, colored, painted or otherwise or- 
namented or decorated, shall be subject to 
a duty of 10 p. c. in addition to the rates 
otherwise chargeable thereon (Old rate, 
same.) 

Spectacles, eyeglasses, goggles, opera 
glasses, and other optical instruments and 
frames for the same, 40 p. c. (Old rate, 60 

p. c) 

Glass beads, loose, strung or carded, 10 
p. c. (Old rates: 10 p. c loose, 60 p. c. strung 
on wire or thread.) 

Lenses of glass or pebble, wholly or 
partly manufactured, 35 p. c. (Old rate, 45 
p.c) 

Fusible enamel and glass slides for magic 
lanterns, 25 p. c. (Old rates: 45 p. c. on enam- 
el, 60 p. c on slides.) 

Ail stained or painted glass windows, or 
parts thereof, and all mirrors not exceed- 
ing in size 144 square inches, with or with- 
out frames or cases, and all manufactures 
of glass or of which glass is the compo- 
nent of chief value, not specially provided 
for in this act, 35 p. c (Old rate, windows 
and mirrors and chemical glassware, 45 
p. c ; n. e. 8. 60 p. c) 

Marble and Stone, and Manufac- 
tures or. 

Marble of all kinds in block, rough or 
squared only, 50c. per cubic foot (Old rate, 
65c) 

Marble, sawed, dressed, or otherwise, in- 
1 eluding marble slabs, mosaic cubes, and 



THE TARIFF OF 1894 — Continued. 



157 



marble paving- tiles, 85c. per cubic foot (no 
slab to be computed at less than one inch 
in thickness) (Old rate, $1.10.) 

Manufactures of marble, onyx, or ala- 
baster not specially provided for in this 
act, 45 p. c. (Old rates: Marble 50 p. c, onyx 
or alabaster 25 p. c.) 

Stone. 

Freestone, granite, sandstone, limestone 
and other building or monumental stone, 
except marble, unmanufactured, or un- 
dressed, not specially provided for in this 
act, 7c per cubic foot (Old rate, 11c.) 

Freestone, granite, sandstone, limestone 
and other building or monumental stone, 
except marble, not specially provided for 
in this act, hewn, dressed or polished, 30 
p. c. (Old rate, 40 p. c.) 

Grindstones, finished or unfinished, 10 
p. c. (Old rate, $1.75 per ton.) 

Slate. 

Slates, slate chimney pieces, mantles, 
slabs for tables, and all other manufactures 
of slate not specially provided for in this 
act, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 30 p. c.) 

ltoonng 6lates, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE C— METALS AND MA.NU- 
FACTUUES OF. 
Iron and Steel. 

Iron ore, including manganiferous iron 
ore, also the dross or residuum from burnt 
pyrites, 40c. per ton (Old rate 75c.) 

Iron in pigs, iron kentledge, spiegeleisen, 
ferro-manganese, ferro-silieon, wrought 
and ca-t scrap iron, and scrap steel, H per 
ton ; but nothing shall be deemed scrap 
iron or scrap steel except waste or refuse 
iron or steel fit only to be remanufactured 
(Old i ate, $6.) 

Hound iron, in coils or rods, less than 

7- 16 of an inch in diameter, and bars or 
shapes of rolled iron, not specially provid- 
ed for in this act, 8-10c. p»r lb. (Old rate, 
1 l-10e.) : Provided, That all iron in slabs, 

; blooms, loops, or other forms less finished 
than iron in bars and more advanced than 
pig iron, except castings, shall be subject 
to a duty of 5-10c. per lb. (Old rate, 8-10e.) 
Provided further, That all iron bars, 
blooms, billets, or sizes or shapes of any 
kind, in the manufacture of which char- 
coal is used as fuel, shall bo subject to a 
duty of 112 per ton (Old rate, #22.) (The 
MeKinley act also provided that round 
iron should not pay less than :i r > p. c.) 

Bar-iron, rolled or hammered, compris- 
ing flats not less than 1 ineh wide nor less 
than % inch thick, 0-10e. per lb. (Old rates 

8- IOc.) ; round iron not le<s than % ineh in 
diameter, and square iron not less than % 
Inch square, G-lOc. per lb. (Old rate. 9- 10c.) ; 
flats less than 1 ineh v ide, or less than % 
inch thick ; round iron less than % ineh and 

[ not less than 7 16 inch in diameter; an t 

I square iron less than % inch square, 6-10c. 

[ per lb. (Old rate, le.) 

Beams, girders, joists, angles, channels, 

I car-truck channels, T T, columnsand postH 
or parts or sections of columns and post", 
deck and bulb beams, and building forms, 
together with all other structural shapes 



<f iron or steel, whether plain or punched, 
or fitted for use, 6-10c. per lb. (Old rate, 
9-lOc.) 

Boiler or other plate iron or steel, excent 
saw plates hereinafter provided for, not 
thinner than No. 10 wire gauge, sheared or 
unsheared, and skelp iron or steel sheared 
or rolled in grooves, valued at one cent per 
pound or less, 5-10c. per lb. (Old rate, 
same); valued above one cent and not 
above one and one-half c nts, 6-10c. per lb.: 
valued above one and one-half cents and 
not above four cents per pound, 30 p. e. ; 
valued at over four cents per pound, 25 
p. c. : Provided, that all plate iron or steel 
thinner than No. 10 wire gauge shall pay 
duty as iron or steel sheets (Old rate varied 
from 5-10c. per lb. to 45 p. c.) 

Forgings of iron or steel, or forged iron 
or steel combined, of whatever shape, or in 
whatever stage of manufacture, not spe- 
cially provided for in this act, lJ4c. per lb. 
(Old rate, 2 3 10c.) : Provided, That no 
forgings of iron or steel, or forgings of 
iron and steel combined, by whatever 
process made, shall pay a less rate of duty 
than 35 p. c. (Old rate, 45 p. c.) 

Hoop, band, or scroll iron or steel, ex- 
cept as otherwise provided for in this act, 
30 p. c. (Old rate varied from lc to 1 3-10c. 
per lb.) 

Railway bars, made of iron or steel, and 
railways bars made in part of steel. T rails, 
and punched iron or steel flat rails, 7-20c. 
per lb. (Old rate, 6-IOc.) 

Sheets of iron or steel, common or black, 
including all iron or steel commercially 
known as common or black taggers iron or 
steel, and skelp iron or steel, valued at 
three cents per pound or less, thinner than 
No. 10 and not thinner than No. 20 wire 
gauge, 7-10c. per lb. (Old rate, le.) ; thinner 
than No. 20 wire gauge and not thinner 
than No. 25 wire gauge, 8-10c. per lb. (Old 
rate, 1 l-10e.) ; thinner than No. 25 wire 
gauge, 1 1-I0c. per lb. (Old rate, 14-1 c ) r 
corrugated or crimped, 1 l-10c. per lb. (Old 
rate, 1 4-10c.) : Provided, That all common 
or black sheet iron or sheet steel not thin- 
ner than No. 10 wire gauge shall pay duty 
as plate iron or plate steel. 

All iron or steel sheets or plates, and all 
hoop, band or scroll iron or steel, exce pt 
what are known commercially as tin plates, 
terne plates, and taggers tin, and herein- 
after provided for, when galvanized or 
coated with zinc or spelter, or other met- 
als, or any alloy of those metals, shall nay 
J4<;. per lb. (Old rate, %c.) more duty than 
the rates imposed by the preceding para- 
graph upon the corresponding gauges or 
forms of common or black sheet or tag- 
gers iron or steel. 

Sheet iron or sheet steel, polhhed, plan- 
ished, or glanced, by whatever name desig- 
nated, \%c. per lb. (Old rate, 2J^e.) : Pro- 
vided, That plate or sheet or taggers bon 
or steel, by whatever name designated, 
other than the polished, planished, or 
glanced herein provided for, which has 
been pickled or cleaned by acid, or by Any 
other material or process, or which is cold 
rolled, smoothed only, not polished, shall 
pay J^c. per lb. (Old rate, J4c) more duty 



158 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



than the corresponding' gauges of common 
or black sheet or taggers iron or steel. 

Sheets or plates ot iron or steel, or tag- 
gers iron or steel, coated with tin or lead, 
or with a mixture of which these metals, 
or either of them, is a component part, by 
the dipping or any other process, and com- 
mercially known as tin plates, terne plates, 
and taggers tin, 1 l-5c. per lb. (Old rate, 2 
2-10c): Provided, That the reduction of 
duty herein provided for shall take effect 
on and after October first, eighteen hun- 
dred and ninety-four. No article not spe- 
cially provided for in this Act, wholly or 
partly manufactured from tin plate, terne 

Elate, or the sheet, or plate 1' on or steel 
erein provided for, or of which such tin 
plate, terne plate, sheet, or plate iron or 
steel shall be the material of chief value, 
shall pay a lower rate of duty than that 
imposed on the tin plate, terne plate, or 
sheet, or plate iron or steel from which it is 
made, or of which it shall be the component 
thereof of chief value. 
(Old law: Manufactures of tin, 55 p. c.) 
Steel ingots, cogged ingots, blooms, and 
slabs, by whatever process made; die blocks 
or blanks; billets and bars and tapered or 
beveled bars ; steamer, crank, and other 
shafts; shafting; wrist or crank pins; con- 
necting rods and piston rods; pressed, 
sheared, or stamped shapes ; saw plates, 
wholly or partially manufactured; hammer 
molds or swaged steel; gun-barrel molds 
not in bars; alloys used as substitutes for 
steel in the manufacture of tools; all de- 
scriptions and shapes of dry sand, loam, or 
iron-molded steel castings; sheets and 
plates not specially provided for in this act; 
and steel in all forms and shapes not spe- 
cially provided for in this act, all of tho 
above valued at lc. per pound or less, 3-10e. 
per lb. (Old rate, 4 lOoj; valued above lc. 
and not above 1 4-10c per pound, 4-lOc- 
per lb. (Old rate, 5-10e.): valued above 1 
4-10e. and not above 1 8-10c. per pound, 6- 
10c. per lb. (Old rata, 8-10c); valued above 
1 8-10e. and not above 2 2-10c. per pound, 
7-10c. per lb. (Old rate, 9-10c.); valued 
above 2 2-10c. and not above 3c. per pound, 
9-10c per lb. (Old rate, 1 2-10c): valued 
above 3c. per pound and not above 4c. 
l»er pound, 1 2-10c. per lb. (Old rate, 1 6-10c); 
valued above 4c. and not above 7c. per 
pound, 1 3-lOc. per lb. (Old rate, 2c. ); valued 
above 7c. and not above 10c. per pound, 
1 9-lOc. per lb. (Old rate, 2 8-10c); valued 
above 10c. and not above 13c. per pound, 2 
4-10e. per lb. (Old rate, 3^c); valued above 
l ie. and not above 16c. per pound, 2 8-10c. 
per lb. (Old rate, 4 2-10c); valued above 
16c. per pound, 4 7-10c. per lb. (Old rate, 
7c.) 

Wire. 

Wire rods: Rivet, screw, fence, and other 
iron or steel wire rods, whether round, 
oval, flat, or square, or in any other shape, 
and nail rods, in coils or otherwise, valued 
at four cents or less per pound, 4-10c. per 
lb.; valued over four cents per pound, %c: 
Provided. That all round iron or steel rods 
smaller than number six wire gauge shall 
be classed and dutiable as wire. (Old rates: 



valued at 3Hc. per lb. or less, 6-10c; valued 
over 3>£c., 45 p. c.) 

Wire: Round iron or steel wire, all sizes 
not smaller than thirteen wire gauge, lJ4c. 
per lb ; smaller than thirteen wire gauge, 
and not smaller than sixteen wire gauge, 
1H£C. per lb.; smaller than sixteen wire 
gauge, 2c per lb.; all other iron or steel 
wire and wire or strip steel, commonly 
known as crinoline wire, corset wire, drill 
rods, needle wire, piano wire, clock and 
watch wires, and all steel wires, whether 
polished or unpolished, in coils or straight- 
ened, and cut to lengths, drawn cold 
through dies, and hat wire, flat steel wire, 
or sheet steel in strips, uncovered or cov- 
ered with cotton, silk, or other material, or 
metal, and all the foregoing manufactures 
of iron or steel, of whatever shape or form, 
valued above four cents per pound, shall 
pay a duty of 40 p. c: Provided, That arti- 
cles manufactured from iron or steel wire 
shall pay the maximum rate of duty which 
would be imposed upon any wire used in 
the manufacture of such articles and in 
addition thereto lc. per lb. 

(Old law.— Wire: wire made of iron or 
steel, not smaller than No. 10 wire gauge, 
lJ4c per lb.; smaller than No. 10 and not 
smaller than No. 16 wire gauge, l%e. per 
lb.; smaller than No. 16 and not smaller 
than No. 26 wire gauge, 2J4c. per lb.; smaller 
than No. 26 wire gauge, 3c. per lb.; Pro- 
vided, That iron or steel wire covered with 
cotton, silk, or other material, and wires or 
strip steel, commonly known as crinoline 
wire, corset wire, and hat wire, shall pay a 
duty of 5c. per lb.; and provided further, 
that flat steel wire, or 6heet steel in strips, 
whether drawn through dies or rolls, un- 
tempered or tempered, of whatsoever 
width, 25-1000 in. thick or thinner (ready 
for use or otherwise), shall pay a duty of 50 
p. c. ad valorem; and provided further, 
that no article made from iron or steel 
wire, or of which iron or steel wire is a 
component part of chief value, shall pay a 
less rate of duty than the iron or steel wire 
from which it is made either wholly or in 
part; and provided further, that iron or 
steel wire cloths, and iron or steel wire 
nettings made in meshes of any form, shall 
pay a duty equal in amount to that imposed 
on iron or steel wire used in the manufac- 
ture of inon or steel wire cloth, or iron or 
f teel wire nettings, and 2c. per lb. in ad- 
dition thereto. 

There shall be paid on iron or steel wire 
coated with zinc or tin, or any other metal 
(except fence wire and iron or steel, flat, 
with longitudinal ribs, lor the manufacture 
of fencing); %c. per lb. in addition to the 
rate imposed on the wire of which it is 
made; on iron wire rope and wire strand, 
lc. per lb. in addition to the rate imposed 
on the wire of which it is made; on steel 
wire rope and wire strand, 2c. per lb. in ad- 
dition to the rate imposed on the wire o'f 
which they or either of them are made; 
provided further, that all iron or steel wire 
valued at more than 4c. per lb. shall pay a 
(kity of not less than 45 p. c. ad valorem, 
except that card wire for the manufacture 
of card clothing shall pay a duty of 35 p. c.) 



THE TARIFF OP 1894.- Continued. 



159 



General Provisions. *• 
No allowance or reduction of duties for 
partial loss or damage in consequence of 
rust or of discoloration shall be made upon 
any description of iron or steel, or upon 
any article wholly or partly manufactured 
Of iron or steel. 

Manufactures of Iron and Steel. 

Anchors, or parts thereof, of iron or 
steel, mill irons atid mill cranks of wrought 
iron, and wrought iron for ships, and forc- 
ings of iron or steel, or of combined iron 
and steel, for vessels, steam engines and 
locomotives, or parts thereof, 1 2-10c. per 
lb. (Old rate, 1 8-10c.) 

Axles, or parts thereof, axle bars, axle 
blanks, or forgings for axles, whether of 
iron or steel, without reference to the stage 
or state of manufacture, l)£c. per lb.: Pro- 
vlded,That when iron or steel axles are im- 
ported fitted in wheels, or parts of wheels, 
of iron or steel, they shall bo dutiable at 
the s;uiie rate as the wheels in which they 
are fitted (Old rate, 2c.) 

An\ils of iron or steel, or of iron and 
steel combined, by whatever process made 
or in whatever stage of manufacture, l%c. 
per lb (Old rate, 2>£c) 

Blacksmiths' hammers and sledges, track 
tools, wedges, and crowbars, whether of 
iron or steel, l^c. per lb. (Old rate, %c.) 

Boiler or other tubes, pipes, flues, or stays 
of wrought iron or steel, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 
2^c.) 

Bolts, with or without threads or nuts, or 
bolt blanks, and finished hinges or hinge 
blanks, whether of iron or steeL lV£c. per 
lb. (Old rate, 2>4c.) 

Card clothing manufactured from tem- 
pered steel wire, 40c. per square foot (Old 
rate, 50c); all other, 20c. per square foot 
(Old rate, 25c.) 

Cast-iron pipe of every description, 6-10o. 
per lb. (Old rate, 9- 10c.) 

Cast-iron vessels, plates, stove plates, 
andirons, sadirons, tailors' irons, hatters' 
irons, and castings of iron, not specially 
provided for in this act, 8-10c. per lb. (Old 
rate, 1 2-10c.) 

Castings of malleable iron not specially 
provided for in this act, 9-l0o. per lb. (Old 
rate, \%c.) 

Cast nollow ware, coated, grazed, or 
tinned, 2c. per lb. (Old rate, 3c.) 

Chains of all kinds, made of ir#n or steel, 
30 p. c. 

(Old law.— Chain or chains of all kinds, 
made of iron or steel, not less than % in. 
in diameter, 1 6-10e. per lb.: less than % in. 
and not less than % in. in diameter, 1 8-10c. 
per lb.; less than % in. in diaeneter, 2)$c. 
per lb.; but. no chain or chairs of any de- 
scription shall pay a lower rate of duty 
than 45 p. c. ad valorem.) 

Cutlery. 

Penknives, pocket-knives* or erasers, of 
all kinds, valued at not more than thirty 
cents per dozen, 25 p. a; valued at more 
than thirty cento per doaen and not ex- 
ceeding fifty cents per doaen, 12*. per doz.; 
valued at moro than fifty cents per dozen 
and not exceeding ono dollar per dozen, 
25c. per doz.; valued aX more than one dol- 



lar per dozen and not exceeding one dollar 
and fifty cents per dozen, 40c. per doz.; 
valued at more than one dollar and fifty 
cents per dozen and not exceeding three 
dollars per dozen, 75c. per doz.; valued at 
more than three dollars per dozen, 50 p. c; 
and in addition thereto, on all the forego- 
ing valued at more than thirty eents per 
dozen and not more than three dollars per 
dozen, 25 p. c; Provided, That blades, han- 
dles, or any other parts of any or either of 
the articles named in this paragraph, im- 
ported in any other manner than assembled 
in penknives, pocket-knives, or erasers, 
shall be subject to no less rate of duty than 
herein provided for penknives, pocket- 
knives, or erasers, valued at more than 
thirty cents per dozen. 

(Old rates: Value not more than 50c. per 
doz., 12c. and 50 p. c; value more than 50c. 
and not exceeding $1.50 per doz., 50c. and 
50 p. c; value more than $1.50 and not ex- 
ceeding $3 per doz., $1 and 50 p. c; value 
more than $3 per doz., $3 and 50 p. c. Parts 
same rates as completed articles.) 

Swords, sword blades, and side arms, 35 
p. c. (Old rate, same.) 

Table and carving knives and forks, 
valued at more than four dollars per dozen 
pieces, razors and razor blades, wholly or 
partly finished, scissors and shears, 45 p. c; 
all other table knives, forks, steels, and all 
hunting, kitchen, bread, butter, vegetable, 
fruit, cheese, plumbers', painters', palette, 
and artists' knives; also all cooks' aud 
butchers' knives, forks, and steels, 35 p. c. 

(Old law.— Table knives, forks, steels, 
and all butchers', hunting, kitchen, bread, 
butter, vegetable, fruit, cheese, plumbers', 
painters', palette, and artists' knives of all 
sizes, finished or unfinished, valued at not 
more than $1 per doz. pieces, 10c. per doz.; 
valued at more than $1 and not more than 
$2, 35c. per doz.; valued at moro than $2 
and not more than $3, 40c. per doz.; valued 
at more than $3 and not moro than $8, $1 
per doz.; valued at moro than $8, v2 per 
doz., and in addition upon all the above- 
named articles, 30 p. c. ad valorem. All 
carving and cooks' knives and forks of all 
sizes, finished or unfinished, valued at not 
more than $4 per doz. pieces, $1 per doz.; 
valued at moro than H and not more than 
$8, $2 per doz. pieees ; valued at more than 
$8 and not moro than $ 12, $3 per doz. pieces; 
valued at moro than $12, $5 per doz. pieces, 
and in addition, upon all the above-named 
articles, 30 p. c. ad valorem.) 

Files, file blanks, rasps, and floats, of all 
cuts and kinds, 4 inches in length and un- 
der, 35c. per doz.; over 4 inches in length 
and under 9 inches, 60c. per doz.; 9 inches in 
length or over, $1 per doz. (Old rates: 4 
inches and under, 86c.J OVer4 and under 9 
inches, 75c; 9 and under 14 inches, $1.30 ; 
14 inches and over, $2.) 

Firearms. 

Muskets, muzzle-loading shotguns, and 
sporting rifles, and parts thereof. 25 p. o. 
(Old rate, 25 p. c; parts thereof, 45 p. c.) 

Sporting, breech-loading shotguns, com- 
bination shotguns and ritlcs, and pistols, 
and parts of all of the foregoing, 30 p. c. 
(Old rates: Doublo-barrollcd, breech-load- 



TH E TARIFF OF 1894 -Continued. 



1G0 



ing shotguns, worth not more than $6, $1/0 
and 35 p c; worth over $6 and not over $12, 
?4 and 35 p. c; worth more thau $12, $6 and 
35 p. c; parts thereof, 4") p. c\; single-bar- 
relled breech-loading shotguns, $1 and 35 p. 
e.; parts thereof, 45 p. c: pistols, worth not 
more th in $1.50. 40c. and 35 p. c.; worth 
more th n $1.50, $1 and 35 pi c; parts there- 
of. 45 p. e.) 

Sheets, plates, wares, or articles of iron, 
steel, or other metal, enameled or glazed 
with vitreous glasses, 35 p. e. (Old rate, 4") 
p. c.; enameled or g-lazed with more than 
one color, 50 p. c.) 

Nails, Spikes, Tacks, and Needles. 

Cut rails and cut SDikes of iron or steel, 
P. c. (Old rate, lc. per lb.) 

Horseshoe nails, hobnails, and all other 
wrought-iron or steel nails not specially 
provided for in this act, 10 p. c. (Old rate, 
4c per lb.) 

Wire nails made of wrought-iron or steel. 
25 n. c. (Old rates: 2 inches or longer not 
liyhter than No. 12 wire gauge, 2c. per lb.; 
from 1 to 2 inches, lighter than No. 12, but 
not lighter than No. 16, 2'fce.; shorter than 

1 inch, lighter than No. 16, 4c.) 

Spikes, nuts, and washers, and horse, 
mule, or ox sh >es, of wrought-iron or 
steel, 25 p. e. (Old rate, 1 8-10c. per lb.) 

Cut tacks, brads, or sprigs of all kinds, 
25 p. c. (Old rates: Not exceeding 16 oz. to 
the 1,000, 2J4c. per lb.; exceeding 16 oz., 
2Mc) 

Needles for knitting or sewing machines, 
crochet needles and tape needles, knitting 
and allother needles, nor specially provided 
for in this act, and bodkins of metal, 25 p. 
e. (Old rate, 35 p. c; not specially provided 
for, 25 p. c) 

Plates. 

Steel plates engraved, stereotype plates, 
electrotype plates, and plates of other ma- 
terials, engraved or lithographed, for 
printing, 25 p. c. (Old rate, same.) 

Railway fnh plates or solice bars, made 
of iron or steel, 25 p. c. (Old rate, lc. per 
lb.) 

Kivets of iron or steel, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 
2y 2 c. per lb.) 

Saws. 

Cross-cut saws, 6c. per linear foot (Old 
rate, 8c); mill saws, 10c. per linear foot 
(Old rates: not over 9 inches wide. 10c; 
over, 15c); pit, and drag saws, 8e. per linear 
foot (Old rates: not over 9 inches wide, 10c; 
over, 15c); circular saws, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 
no p. c); hand, back, and all other saws, not 
ppecfally provided for in this act, 25 p. c. 
(Old rate, 40 p. c .) 

Screws, commonly called wood-screws, 
more than 2 inches i length, 3c. p«'r lb. (Old 
i;i»e. 5c ) over 1 inch and not moro than 

2 inches in length, 5c per lb. (Old rate, 7c.) ; 
over y» inch nnd not. more than 1 inch In 
length", 7-. per lb. (Old r ite, lOc); % inch 
and less in length, 10c per lb. (Old rate, 
lie ) 

Umbrella and parasol ribs, and stretcher 
frames, tips, runners, handles, or other 
ps.rts thereof, made in wh le or chief part 
of iron, steel, or any other metal, 50 p. c 
(Old rate, 45 p. c) 



Wheels for railway purposes, or parts 
thereof, mado of iron or steel, and steel- 
tired wheels for railway purposes, whether 
wholly or partly finished, and iron or steel 
locomotive, cur, or other railway tires or 
parts thereof, wholly or partly manufac- 
tured, and ingots, cogged ingots, blooms, 
or blanks for the same, without regard to 
the degree of manufacture, lJ4c per lb.; 
Provided, That wheu wheels or parts there- 
of, of iron or steel, are imported with iron 
or steel axles fi 1 ted in them, the wheels and 
axles together shall be dutiable at the same 
rate as is provided for the wheels when 
imported separately. (Old rates : 2%c. per 
lb., except ingots, cogged ingots, blooms 
or blanks for same, l%c. per lb.) 

Miscellaneous Metals and Manu- 
factures of. 

Aluminum, in crude form, alloys of any 
kind in which aluminum is the component 
material of chief value, 10c. per lb. (Old 
rate, 15c.) 

Argentine, albata, or German silver, 
unmanufactured, lop. c. (Oldrate, 25 p. c.) 

Brass, in bars or pigs, old brass, clippings 
from brass or Dutch metal, and old sheath- 
ing, or 3*ellow metal, tit only for remanu- 
facture, 10 p. c. (Old rate, l^c. per lb.) 

Bronze powder, metallies or flitters, 
bronze or Dutch metal, or aluminum, in 
leaf, 40 p. c. (Old rates: Bronze powder, 
metallies or flitters, 12c. per lb.; bronze or 
Dutch metal, or aluminum, in leaf, 8c. per 
package of 1C0 leaves.) 

Copper. 

Copper in rolled plates, called braziers' 
copper, sheets, rods, pipes, and copper 
bottoms, also sheathing or yellow metal 
of Avhich copper is the component material 
of chief value, and not composed wholly 
or in part of iron ungalvauized, 20 p. c. 
(Old rate, 35 p. c.) 

Gold and Silver. 

Bullions nnd metal thread of gold, silver, 
or other metals, not specially provided for 
in this act, 2") p. c. (Old rate, 30 n. c.) 

Gold leaf, 30 p. c (Old rate, $2 per pack- 
age of 500 leave*.) 

Silver leaf and silver powder. 30 p. o. 
(Old rate, 75c per package of 500 leaves.) 
Lead. 

Lead ore and lead dross, %cperlb. : Pro- 
vided. That silver ore and all other ores 
containing lead shall pay a duty of 9£c per 
lb. on the lead contained therein, according 
to sample and assay at the port of entry. 
The method of sampling and assaying to bo 
t hat usually adopted for commercial pur- 
poses by public samnling works in the 
United States. (OM rates: Leadorennd 
lead dross, lHc. per lb.: Provided, That 
silver ore and a 1 ! oth r ores containing 
lead shall pay a dutv of l^c. per lb. on the 
1 'ad contained Ihe-ein, according to 
sample and assay at the port of entry.) 

Lead in pigs a»>d bars, molten and old 
r^luse lead run into blocks and bars, and 
old scrap lead fit only to be remanufac- 
turcd, lc per lb. : Provided, That in case 
any foreign country shall impose an ex- 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



port duty upon lend or© or lead dross or 
rilver op'S containing lead, exported to tho 
United States from such country, then the 
duty upon such ores and lead in pigs and 
tars, molten and refuse lead run into 
blocks iind bars, and old scrap lead fit only 
to be remanufaetured, herein provided 
for, when imported from such country, 
shall remain the Fame a* fixed by the law 
in force prior to the passage of this act. 
(Old rate. 2c, without proviso.) 

Lend in sheets, pipes, Fhot. glaziers' lend, 
and lead wire, l>£e. per lb. (Old rate, 2^c. 
perlb.) 

Nickel, nickel oxide, alloy of any kind in 
which nickel is the component material of 
chief value, 6c. per lb. (Old rate, 10c.) 

Mica, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 35 p. c.) 

Pens, metallic, except gold pens, 8c. per 
gross. (Old rate, 10c.) 

Penholder tins penholders or parts 
thereof, and gold pens, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 
30 p. c.) 

Pins, metallic, including pins with solid 
or glass heads, hairpins, safety pins, and 
hat. honnet, shawl, and belt pins not com- 
mercially known as jewelry, 25 p. c. (Old 
raie, 30 p. c.) 

Quicksilver. 7e. per lb. (Old rate, 10c.) 

Type metal. %c. per lb. for tiie lead con- 
tained therein (Old rate, lj^c); and new 
types, 15 p. c. (Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

"Watches. 

Chronometers, box or ship's, and parts 
thereof, 10 p. c. (Old rate same.) 

Watches and clocks, or parts thereof, 
whether separately packed or otherwise, 
25 p. c. (Old rate: Watches, 25 p. c; clocks, 
wooden movements. 35 p. c; metal and 
wood, 45 p. c; marble the chief value, 50 

Zinc or Spelter. 

Zinc in blocks or pigs, lc. per lb. (Old 
rate, ]%o.) 

Zinc in sheets, not polished nor further 
advanced lhan rolled, V/ic. per lb. (Old 
rate, 2%c.) 

Zinc, < Id and worn-out, fit only to be 
remanufaetured, %c. per lb. (Old rate, 

Manufactured articles or wares, not spe- 
cially provided for in this act, composed 
Wholly or in part of any metal, and wheth- 
er partly or wholly manufactured, 35 
p. c. (Old rate, 45 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE D.-WOOD AND MANU- 
FACTURES OF. 

Osier or willow, prepared for basket- 
maker's use, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 30 p. c.); 
manufact ures of osier or willow, 25 p. c. 
(Old rate, 40 p. c); chair cane, or reeds, 
wrought, or manufactured from rattans or 
reeds, 10 p. c. (Old rate, 10 p. c.) 

Casks and barrels, emp'y, sugar-box 
fdiooks, packing boxes and packing-box. 
shooks, ol wood, not specially provided for 
in this act, 20 p. e. (Old rate, 30 p. <:) 

Tooth picks of vegetable substance, 35 
p. c. (Old rate, 85 p. c, as manufactures of 
wood.) 

House or cabinet furniture, of wood, 
wholly or partly finished, manufactures of 



wood, or of which wood is tb<> component 
material of chief value, not specially pro- 
vided for in this act, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 
35 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE E.— SUGAR. 

That so much of the act entitled "An 
Act to reduce revenue, equalize duties, and 
for other purposes." approved October 1, 
1890, as provides for and authorizes the 
is>»ue of licenses to produce sugar, and for 
the payment of a bounty to ihe producers 
of sugar from beefs, sorghum, or sugar 
cane, grown in the United States, or from 
maple sap produced within the United 
States, be, and the same is hereby repealed, 
and hereafter it shall be unlawful to issue 
any license to produce sugar or to pay anv 
bounty for the production of any kind 
under tho said act. 

There 3hall be levied, collected and paid 
on all sugars and on all tank bottoms, 
sirups of cane juice or of beet juice, 
melada, concentrated melada, concrete 
and concentrated molasses, a duty of 40 
p. c, and upon all sugars nbove'No. 16 
Dutch standard in color, and upon all 
sugars whtch have been discolored, t hero 
shall be levied, collected, and paid a duty 
of Kc. perlb. in addition to the said duty 
of 40 p. c. ; and all sugars, tank bottoms, 
sirups of cane juico or of beet juice, 
melada, concentrated melada, concrete or 
concentr.ied molasses, which are imported 
from or are the product of any country 
which at tho time tho same are exported 
therefrom pays, directly or indirectly, a 
bounty on the export thereof, shall pay a 
duty of l-10c. per lb. in addition to the 
foregoing rates: Provided. That tho im- 
porter of sugar produced in a foreign 
country, the Government of which giants 
such direct or indirect bounties, may be 
relieved from this additional dutyund<r 
pitch regulations as the Secretary of the 
Treasury may prescribe, in case paid im- 
porter produces a cert itica to of paid gov- 
ernment that no indirect bounty has been 
received upon said sugar in excess of the 
tax collected upon tho beet or cane from 
which It was produced, and that no direct 
bounty has been or shall bo paid: Provided 
further, That nothing herein contained 
shall be so construed as to abrogate or In 
any manner impair or affect the provisions 
of the treaty of commercial reciprocity 
concluded between tho United States and 
the King of tho Hawaiian Islands on tho 
thirtieth day of January, 1875, or the pro- 
visions of any act of Conirress heretoforo 
passed for tho execution of tho same. That, 
there shall be levied, collected, and paid 
on molasses testing above 40 degrees and 
not above 50 degree* polarlscope, a duty of 
2c. per gal.; If testing above 50 degrees 
polarlscope, a duty of 4c. per gal. 

(Old law.— All sugars above No. Ifl Dutch 
standard in color shall pay a duty of 6-10c. 
per lb.; provided, that all such suyais 
above No. JO Dutch standard in color bhall 

f):ty l-10c. per lb. In addition to the rate 
loreln provided for, when exported from, 
or tho product of tiny country when and B> 
long as such country pays or shall here- 
after pay, directly or indirectly, a bounty 



162 



on the exporta tion of Any sup-arthat may 
be included in this grade which is greater 
than is paid on raw sugars of a lower sac- 
charine strength; and the Secretary of the 
Treasury shall prescribe suitable rules and 
leg nations to carry this provision into 
effect; and provided fun her, that all ma- 
chinery purchased abroad and erected 
in a beet sugar factory and used in the 

Production of raw sinrar in ihe United 
tatcs from beets produced therein shall 
be admitted duty free Until the 1st day of 
July, 1892; provided, that any duty col- 
lected on any of the above described ma- 
chinery purchased abroad and imported 
into the United States for the uses above 
indicated since January 1, 1890, shall be 
refunded.) 

Sugar candy and all confectionery, made 
wholly or in part of sugar, and on sugars 
after being refined, when tinctured, col- 
ored, or in any way adulterated. 35 p. c. ; 
glucose, or grape sugar, 15 p. c; saccharine, 
25 p. c. 

(Old law.— Sugar candy, and all confec- 
tionery, including chocolate confection- 
ery, made wholly or in part of sugar, 
valued at 12c. or less per lb., and on sugars 
after being refined, when tinctured, col- 
ored, or in any way adulterated, 5c. per lb.; 
all other confectionery, including choco- 
late confectionery, not specially provided 
for in this act, 50 p.c. ad valorem ; glucose, 
or grape sugar, %c. per lb.) 

SCHEDULE F.— TOBACCO AND MANU- 
FACTURES OF. 

Wrapper tobacco, unstemmed, imported 
in any bale, box, package, or in bulk. $1.50 
per lb.; if stemmed, $2.25 per lb. (Old rates, 
$2 and $2.75.) 

Filler tobacco, unstemmed, imported in 
any bale, box, package, or in bulk, 35c. per 
lb. ; if stemmed, 50c. per lb, (Old rate 
same): Provided, That the term wrapper 
tobacco, whenever used in this act shall be 
taken to mean that quality of leaf tobacco 
known commercially as wrapper tobacco: 
Provided further, That the term filler to- 
bacco, whenever used in this act, shall be 
taken to mean all leaf tobacco unmanufac- 
tured, not commercially known as wrapper 
tobacco: Provided further, That if any 
leaf tobacco imported in any bale, box, 
package, or in bulk shall be the growth of 
different countries, or shall differ in qual- 
ity and value, save as provided in the suc- 
ceeding provision, then the entire contents 
of such bale, box, package, or in bulk, 
shall be subject to the same duty as wrap- 
"per tobacco : Provided further. That if 
any bale, box, package, or bulk of leaf to- 
bacco of uniform quality contains exceed- 
ing fifteer per cent, thereof of leaves suit- 
able in color, fineness of texture, and size 
for wrappers for cigars, then tho entire 
contents of such bale, box, package, or 
bulk shall be subject to tho same duty as 
wrapper tobacco : Provided further, That 
collectors shall not permit entry to be 
made, except under regulations to be pre- 
scribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
of any leaf tobacco imported in any bale, 
box, package, or in bulk, unless the In- 



voices covering 4be~sam©"Sball specif y in 
detail the character of the leaf tobacco in* 
such bale, box, package, or in bulk, wheth-? 
er wrapper or filler tobacco, Quebrado orl 
self-working bales, as the case may be:| 
And provided further, That in the exam-] 
ination for classification of any invoice of 
imported leaf tobacco at least one bale if 
less than ten bales, and one bale in every j 
ten bales and more, if deemed necessary 
by the appraising officer, shall be examined 
by the appraiser or person authorized by 
law to make such examination, and for the 
purpose of fixing the classification and 
amount of duty chargeable on such in- 
voice of leaf tobacco the examination of 
ten hands out of each examined bale 
thereof shall be taken to be a legal exam- 
ination. 

Tobacco, manufactured or unmanufac- 
tured, of all descriptions, not specially 
enumerated or provided for in this act, 40c. 
per lb. (Old rate same.) 

Snuff and snuff flour, manufactured of 
tobacco, ground dry or damp, and pickled, 
scented, or otherwise, of all descriptions, 
50c. per lb. (Old rate same.) 

Cigars, cigarettes, and cheroots of all 
kinds, $4 per lb. and 25 p.c; and paper 
cigars and cigarettes, including wrappers, 
shall be subject to the same duties as are 
herein imposed upon cigars. (Old rate, 
$4.50 and 25 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE G.-AGRICULTT3RAL PROD- 
UCTS AND PROVISIONS. 
Animals, Live. 
All live animals, not specially provided 
for in this act, 20 p.c. (Old rates: Horses 
and Mules, $30; Horses worth over $150, 
30 p.c; cattle over 1 year old, $10; under, 
75c; Hogs, $1.50; Sheep over 1 year old, 
$1.50 ; under, 75c. ; all other live animals, 
20 p. c) 

Breadstuffs and Farinaceous Sub- 
stances. 

Buckwheat, corn or maize, cornmeal, 
oats, rye, rye flour, wheat, and wheat 
flour, 20 p. c. ; and oatmeal, 15 p. c (Old 
rates : Buckwheat, corn and oats. 15c. per 
bush.; cornmeal, 20c. ; rye, 10c. ; rye flour, 
y%c. per lb. ; oatmeal, lc. per lb. ; wheat, 
25c per bush.; wheat flour, 2*5 p. c.) 

Barley, and barley, pearled, patent, or 
hulled, 30 p. c ; barley malt, 40 p. c (Old 
rates : Barley, 30c. per bush. ; pearled, pat- 
ent, or hulled, 2c. per lb.; barley malt, 
45c per bush.) 

Macaroni, vermicelli, and all similar 
preparations, 20 p. c (Old rate, 2c. per lb.) 

Rice, cleaned, V/ 2 . per lb. (Old rate, 2c); 
uncleaned rice, or rice free of the outer 
hull and still having the inner cuticle on, 
8-1 Oc per lb. (Old rate, l^c.) ; rice flour 
and i ice meal, and rice, broken, which will 
pass through a sieve known commercially 
as No. 12 wire sieve, &a per lb. (Old rate 
same) ; paddy, or rice having the outer 
huil on, per lb. (Old rate same.) 
Dairy Products. 

Butter, and substitutes therefor, 4c. per 
lb. (Old rate, 6c.) 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



168 



Cheese. 4c. per lb. (Old rate, 6c.) 

Milk, preserved or condensed, 2c. per lb. 
(Old rate, 3c), including weight of pack- 
ages ; sugar of milk, 5c. per lb. (Old rate, 
8c.) 

Farm and Field Products. 

Beans, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 40c. per bush. 

jteans, pease, mushrooms, and other 
vegetables, prepared or preserved, in jars, 
bottles, or otherwise, and pickles and 
sauces of all kinds, 30 p. c. (Old rates. 40 p. c. 
on beans, pease and mushrooms, 45 p. c. on 
others.) 

Egtrs, 3c. per doz. (Old rate, 5c.) 

Hay, $2 per ton. (Old rate. $4.) 

Honey, 10c. per gal. (Old rate, 20c.) 

Hop?, 8c. per lb. (Old rate. 15c ) 

Onions, 20c. per bush. (Old rate. 40c.) 

Pease, dried, 20c. per bush. ; split pease, 
60c. per bush, of 60 Ins. ; pease in cartons, 
papers, or other small packages, lc. per lb. 
(Old rates same.) 

Potatoes, 15c. per bush, of 60 lbs. (Old 
rate, 25c.) 

Seeds. 

Castor beans or seeds, 25c. per bush, of 
50 lbs. (Old rate. 50c.) 

Flaxseed or linseed, poppy seed, and 
other oil seeds, not specially provided for 
in this act, 20c. per bush, of 56 lbs. (Old 
rate, 30c.) 

Garden seeds, agricultural seeds, and 
other seeds not specially provided for in 
this act, 10 p. c. (old rate, 20 p. v.) 

Vegetable* in their natural state, not 
specially provided lor in this act, 10 p. c. 
(Old rate. 25 p. c) 

Straw, 15 p. c. (Old rate, 30 p. c.) 

Teazles, 15 p. c. (Old rate, 30 p. c.) 
I Fish. 

Anchovies and sardines, packed, in oil or 
otherwise, in tin boxes measuring not 
more i ban 5 inches long, 4 inches wide, and 
inches deep, 10c. per whole box ; in 
half boxes, measuring not more than 5 
inches long, 4 inches wide, and \% inches 
deep, 5c. each ; In quarter boxes, measur- 
ing not more than 4% inches long, 3>£ 
inches wide, and 1J4 inches deep, 2)£c. each; 
when imported in any other form, 40 p. c. 
(Old rates same.) 

Fish, smoked, dried, salted, pickled, or 
otherwise prepared for preservation, %c. 
per lb. (Old rates: Fish, pickled, in bbis. 
or half bbls., and mackerel or salmon, 
pickled or salted, lc. ; smoked, dried, 
salted, n. e. s., %<i.) 

Herrinps, pickled, frozen, or salted, and 
salt water fish frozen or packed in ice, MSc 
per lb. (Old rates: Herrings, %u. ; salt 
water fish, %c.) 

Fish in cans or packages mado of tin or 
other material, except anchovies and sar- 
dines and tlsh packed In any other manner, 
not specially enumerated or provided for 
in this act, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 30 p. c.) 
Fruits and Nuts. 

Fruits.— Apples, green or ripe, dried, 
desiccated, evaporated, or prepared in any 
manner, 20 p. c. (Old rates: Green or ripe, 
25c. per bush ; others, 2c. per lb.) 

Dates and pineapples, 20 p. c. (Old rates : 



Green, ripe, and dried, free ; preserved, 35 
p. c.) 

Grapes, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 60c. per bbl.) 

Olives, green or prepared, 20 p. c. (Old 
rate, f ree ) 

Oranges, lemons, and limes, in packages, 
at the rate of 8c. per cubic foot of capacity 
in bulk, $150 per 1,000; and in addition 
thereto a duty of 30 p. c. ad valorem upon 
the boxes or barrels containing such 
oranges, lemons, or limes ; Provided, That 
the thin wood, so-called, comprising the 
sides, tops, and bottoms of orange and 
lemon boxc3of the growth and manufac- 
ture of the United States, exported as 
orange and lemon box shooks, may be re- 
imported in completed form, filled with 
oranges and lemons, by the payment of 
duty at one-half the rate imposed on simi- 
lar boxes of entirely foreign growth and 
manufacture. (Old rates: Per package, V/\ 
cubic feet or less, 13c; VA to 2% feet, 25c; 
214 to 5 feet, 50c; exceeding 5 feet, 10c. for 
each additional foot or fraction thereof; on 
boxes or barrels, 30 p. c.) 

I lums, prunes, figs, raisins, and other 
dried grapes, including Zante currants, 
1 He. per lb. (Old rates: Plums and prunes, 
2c; figs and raisins, 2J^c; other dried 
grapes, including Zante currants, free.) 

Comfits, sweetmeats and fruits preserved 
in sugar, sirup, or molasses, not specially 
provided for in this act, prepared or dessic- 
cated cocoanut or copra, and jellies of all 
kinds, 30 p. c. (Old rate, 35 p. c.) 

Frui's preserved In their own juices, 20 
p. c. (Old rate, 30 p. e.) 

Orange peel and lemon peel, preserved 
or candied. 30 p. c. (Old rate, 2c per lb ) 

Nuts.— Almonds, not shelled, 3c. per lb. 
(Old rate, 6c); clear almonds, shelled, 5c 
per lb. (Old rate, 7^c.) * 

Filberts and walnuts of all kinds, not 
shelled, 2c per lb. (Old rate, 3c); shelled, 
4c. per lb. (Old rate, 6c.) 

Peanuts or ground beans, 20 p. c. (Old 
rate, lc per lb. unstudied; l^e. shelled.) 

Cocoanuts in the shell, and other nuts, 
shelled or unshelled, not specially provided 
for in this act, 20 p. c. (Old rates: Cocoa- 
nuts, free ; others, l^c per lb.) 

Meat Products. 

Fresh beef, mutton, and pork, 20 p. o. 
(Old rate, 2c. per lb.) 

Extract of meat, 15 p. c. (Old rates: Fluid 
extract, 15c. per lb.; other, 36c) 

Lard, lc per lb. (Oid rate, 2c.) 

Meats of all kinds, prepared or preserved, 
not specially provided for in this act, 20 p. 
c (Old rates: Bacon and ham, 5c. per lb.; 
n. e. s., 25 p. c.) 

Poultry, 2c. per lb.; dressed, 3c. per lb. 
(Old rates 3 arid 6c.) 

Miscellaneous Products. 

Chicory root, burnt or roasted, ground 
or grauulated, or in rolls, or otherwise pre- 
pared, and not specially provided for in 
this act, 2c per lb. (Old rate, sume.) 

Cocoa, prepared or manufactured, not 
specially provided for in this act, 2c. per lb. 
(Old rate, same;; chocolate, sweetened, 
flavored. Or other, valued at 35c. per pound 
or less, 2c per lb.; valued at exceeding 86c. 



101 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.— Continued. 



per pound and chocolate confectionery, 35 
p. c, (O d rates : Chocolate, 2c. per lb.; cho- 
oolai© confectionery, worth 12c. or less, 6c. 
per lb.; worth more, 50 p, c.) 

Cocoa biuter or cocoa butterine, 3V£o. per 
lb. (Old rare, same.) 

Dandelion root and acorns prepared, and 
other articles use* las c ffee, or a9 substi- 
tutes for coffee, not specially provided for 
in this act, l^c. per lb. (Old rate, same.) 

Starch, including all preparations, from 
whatever substance produced, commonly 
used as starch, l^o. per lb. (Old rate, 2c.) 

Dextrine, burnt starch gum substitute, 
or British guui, lj^c. per lb. (Old rate, 
same ) 

Mustard, ground, or preserved, or pre- 
pared, in bottles or otherwise, 25 p. c. (Old 
rate, 10c. per lb.) 

Orchids, lily of the valley, azaleas, palms, 
and other plants used lor forcing under 
glass lor cut flowers or decorative pur- 
poses, 10 p. c. (Old rate free.) 

Spices, ground or powdered, not specially 
provided for in this act, 3c. per lb. (Old 
rate, 4c.) ; capsicum or red pepper, 2|^o. 
per lb. umrround (Old rate same) ; sage, lc. 
per lb. (Old rate, 3c.) 

Vinegar, 7Hc. per gal. The standird for 
vinegar shall be taken to be that strength 
which requires 35 grains of bicarbonate of 
potash to neutralize 1 oz. troy of \iuegar. 
(Old rate same.) 

SCHEDULE H. -SPIRITS, WINES AND 
OTHER BEVERAGES. 
Spirits. 

. Brandy and other spirits manufactured 
or distilled from grain or other materials, 
and not specially provided for in this act, 
$1.80 per proof gal. (Old rate, $2.50.) 

Each and every gauge or wine gallon of 
measurement shall be counted as at least 
ono proof gallon; and the standard for 
determining the proof of brandy and other 
spirits or liquors of any kind imported 
shall be the same as that which is defined 
in the laws relating to internal revenue; 
but any brandy or other spirituous liquors, 
imported in casks of less capacity than H 
gals., shall be forfeited to the United 
£ ates: Provided, That it shall be lawful 
for the Secretary of the Treasury, in his 
discretion, to authorizo tho ascertainment 
of the proof of wines, cordials, or other 
Pquors by distillation or otherwise. In 
L'ttsea where it is impracticable to ascertain 
Such proof by the me -ins prescribed by ex- 
isting law or regulations. (Old law same.) 

On all compounds or preparations (ex- 
cept as si>"cified in the preceding para- 
gr mh of the chemical schedule relating to 
medicinal preparations, of wh«ch alcohol is 
a component part), of which distil'od spir- 
its are a component part of chief value, 
not speciady provided for in this act, there 
shall bo levied a duty not less than thnt 
imposed upon distilled spirits. (Old law 
same.) 

Cordials, Pquors, arrack, absinthe, kirsch- 
a<»8er, ratatti and other spirituous bever- 
ages or bitters of all kinds containing spir- 
its and not specially provided for in this 
act, ?L80 per proof gal. (Old rate, $2.50.) 



No lower rate or amount of duty shall be 
levied, collected, and paid on brandy, snir 
its, and other spirituous beverages than 
that fixed by law for the description of 
first proof; but it shall be increased in pro 
portion for any greater strength than the 
strength of first proof, and all imitations 
of brandy or spirits or wines imported by 
any names whatever shall be subject to tho 
highest rate of duty provided for the gen 
uine articles respectively intended to be 
represented, and in no case less than $1 per 
gal. (Old rate, $1.50.) 

Bay rum or bay water, whether distilled 
or compounded, of first proof, and in pro 
portion for any great r strength than first 
proof, $1 per gal. (Old rate, $1.5j.) 

Wines. 

Champagne and all other sparkling 
wines, in bottles containing each not more 
than one quart and more than one pint, $8 
per doz. ; containing not more than one 
pint each and more than one-half pint, $4 
per doz. ; containing one-half pint each or 
less, $2 per doz. ; in bottles or other ves- 
sels con'aining more lhau one quart each, 
in addition to $8 per dozen bottles, on the 
quantity in excess of one quart, at the rate 
of $2.50 per gal. (Old rates, same.) 

Still wines, including ginger wine Or gin 
ger cordial and vermuth, in casks or pack 
ages other than bottles or jugs, if contain- 
ing 14 per cent, or less of absolute alcohol. 
30c. per gal. (Old rate, 50c); if containing 
more than 14 per cent, of absolute alcohol, 
50c. per gal. (Old rate, same) ; in bottles or 
jugs, per case of onedozen bottles or jugs, 
containing each not more than oneqiuirt 
and more than one pint, or twenty- four 
bottlesor jugs containing each not more 
than one pint, $1.60 per case (Old rate, 
same) ; and any excess beyond these quan- 
tities found in such .bottles or jugs shall be 
subject to a duty of 5c. per pint or fi ac- 
tional part thereof, but no separate or ad- 
ditional duty shall be assessed on tho bot- 
tles or jugs: Provided, That anv wines, 
ginger cordial, or vermuth imported con- 
taining more ihan 24 per cent, of alcohol 
shall be classed as spirits and pav duty ac- 
cordingly: And provided further, That 
there shall be no constructive or ot her al- 
lowance for breakage, leakage, or damage 
on wines, liquors, cordials, or distilled spir- 
its. Wines, cordials, brandy, and other spir- 
ii nous liquors imported in bottles or jug \ 
shall l>e packed in packages containing not 
less than one dozen bottles or jugs in each 
package, or duty shall bo paid as if such 
package contained at least one dozen bot- 
tles or jugs. The percentage of alcohol in 
wines and fruit juices shall bo determined 
in such manner as the Secretary of the 
Treasury shall by regulation prescribe. 
9 Ale, porter, and beer, in bottles or jugs. 
30c. per gal , but no separate or additional 
duty shall be assessed on the bottlesor jugs 
(Old rate, 40c.); otherwise than in bottles 
or jutfs, ]5c. per gal. (Old rate, 20c.) 

Maltevtract, including all preparations 
bearl ng the name and com mereialiy known 
as such, fluid, in casks, l5o. per gal. (Old 
rate, 20o.) ; in bottles or Jugs, 30c. per gal. 



THE TARIFFS) F 1894.-Continued. 



163 



(Old rate, 40c ) ; solid or condensed, Sfrprc. 
(Old rate, 40 p. c.) 

Cherry juice and prune juice or prune 
wine, and other fruit juice not specially 
provided for in this act, containing 18 per 
cent, or" less of alcohol, 50c. per gal. (Old 
rate. 60c.) ; if containing- more than 18 per 
cent, of alcohol, $1.80 per proof gal. (Old 
rate, $2.50.) 

Ginger ale or ginger beer, 20 p. c. ; but 
no separate or additional duty shall he as- 
sessed on the bottles (Old rates : In bottles 
containing not more than % pint, 13c. per 
doz. ; containing- y± to l l A pints, 26c. ; more 
than VA pints, 50c) 

All imitations of natural mineral waters, 
and all artificial mineral waters, 20 p. c. 
(Old rates : In bottles containing not more 
than 1 pint, 16c. per doz. ; I piut to 1 quart, 
25c. ; more than 1 quart, 20c.) 

SCHEDULE I.-COTTON MANUFAC- 
TURES. 

Cotton thread and carded yarn, warps or 
warp yarn, in singles, whether on beams or 
in bundles, skeins or cops, or in any other 
form, except spool thread of cotton here- 
inafter provided for, not colored, bleached, 
dyed, or advanced beyond the condition of 
singles by grouping or twisting two or 
more8ingle yarns together, 3c. per lb. on 
all numbers up to and including No. 15, 
l-5c. per number per lb. on all numbers ex- 
ceeding No. 15 and up to and including No. 
30, and ^c per number per lb. on all num- 
bers exceeding No. 30; colored, bleached, 
dyed, combed or advanced beyond the con- 
dition of singles by grouping or twisting 
two or more single yarns together, whether 
on beams or in bundles, skeins or cops, or 
in any other form, except spool thread of 
cotton hereinafter provided for, 6c per lb. 
on all numbers up to and including No. 20, 
and on all numbers exceeding No. 20, 3-10e, 
per numbor per lb.: Provided however, 
That In no case shall the du ty levied exceed 
8o. per lb. on yarns valued at not exceed- 
ing 25c per lb., nor exceed 15c. per lb. on 
yarns valued at over 25c. per lb. and not 
exceeding 40c. per lb.: And provided 
further, That on all yarns valued at more 
than 40c. per lb. thero shall bo levied, col- 
lected and paid a duty of 45 p. c. 

(Old law.— Cotton thread, yarn, warps or 
warp-yarn, whether single or advanced be- 
yond the condition of single, by grouping 
or twisting two or more single jams to- 
gether, whether on beams or in buudles, 
skelusor cops, or in any other form, ex- 
cept spool thread of cotton hereinafter 
provided for, valued at not exceeding 25o. 

f>er lb., 10c. per lb. ; valued at over25o. per 
b. and not exceeding 40c. per lb., 18o. per 
lb.; valued at over 40c. per lb. and not ex- 
ceeding 50c. per lb., 2:3c per lb ; valued at 
Over 50o. per lb. and not exceeding 60c. per 
lb., 28c. per lb. ; valued at over 60c. p»r lb. 
and not exceeding 70o. per lb., 33c. per lb. ; 
valued at over 70o. per lb. and not exceed- 
ing 80c. per lb., 38c. per lb. ; valued at over 
80c. per lb. and not exceeding $1 per lb.. 
48o. per lb.; valued at over $1 per lb., 60 
p.c. ad valorem.) 

Spool thread of cotton, containing on 
each spool uotoxcooding 110 yds. of thread, 



perdoz. (Old -rate, 7c); exceeding 100 
yds. on each spool, for every additional 100 
yds. of thread or fractional part thereof in 
excess of 100 yds., 5^c. per doz. (Old rate, 

7c) 

Cotton cloth not bleached, dyed, colored, 
stained, painted, or printed, and not ex- 
ceeding 5i) threads to the square inch, 
counting the warp and filling, 1c per sq. 
vd. (Old rate, 2c.) ; if bleached, lJ4c. per sq. 
yd. (Old rate, 2^c); if dyed, colored, 
stained, painted, or printed, 2c. per sq. yd. 
(Old rate, 4c.) 

Cotton cloth, not bleached, dyed, col- 
ored, stained, painted, or printed, exceed- 
ing 50 and not exceeding 100 threads to the 
square inch, counting the warp and filling, 
and not exceeding 6 sq. yds. to the pound, 
1J4C per sq. yd. (Old rate, 2&c); exceed- 
ing 6 and not exceeding 9 sq. yds. to the 
pound, l^cper sq. yd. (Old rate,2#c>;j 
exceeding 9 sq. yds. to the pound, per' 
sq. yd. (01d.ra.te, 2#c) ; if bleached and uot 
exceeding 6 sq. yds. to the pound, \y 2 c. per 
sq. yd. (Old rate, 3c); exceeding 6 and not 
exceeding 9 sq. yds. to the pound, l%c per: 
sq. yd. (Old rate, 3c.) ; exceeding 9 sq. yds.; 
to the pound, 2J<c. per sq. yd. (O'd rate, : 
3c); if dyed, colored, stained, painted, or 
printed, and not exceeding 6 sq. yds. to the 
pound, 2%c per sq. yd. (Old rate, 4c.) ; ex- 
ceeding 6 and not exceeding 9 f q. yds. to 
the pound, 3#c per sq. yd. (Old rate, 4c.) ; 
exceeding 9 sq. yds. to the pound. 3^c per 
sq. yd. (Old lute, 4c) : Provided, That on 
air cotton cloth not exceeding 100 threads 
to the square inch, counting the warp and 
filling, not bleached, dyed, colored, stained, 
painted, or printed, valued at over 7c. per 
sq. > d. (Old law, 654c ), 25 p. c. (Old rate, H5 
p. c) ; bleached, valued at over 9c. per so. 
yd., 25 p. c (Old rate, 35 p. c.) ; and dyed, 
colored, stained, painied or printed, valued 
at over )2c. per sq. yd., there shall bo lov- 
iod, collected and paid a duty of 30 p. c. 
(Old rate, 35 p. c.) 

Cotton cloth, not bleached, dyed, col- 
ored, stained, painted, or printed, exceed- 
ing 100 and not exceeding 150 threads to tho 
Square inch, counting the warp and filling, 
and not exceeding 4 sq. yds. to the pouuu, 
IJ^e.persq. yd. (Old rate, 3c); exceeding 
4 ana not exceeding fisq. yds. to tho pound. 
2o. persq. yd. (Old rate. 3c); exceeding 6 
and not exceeding 8 sq. yds. to the pound, 
2^o. persq. yd. (uld rato, '3c) ; exceeding 
8 sq. yds. to tho pound, 2%c per sq. yd. 
(Old rate, 3c.) ; if bleached, and not exceed- 
ing 4 sq. yds. to the pound, 2 l Ao. per sq. yd. 
(Old rato, 4c); exceeding 4 and notox- 
ceedlngOsq. vds. to the pound, 3c. per sq. 
yd. (Old rato, 4c.) ; oxceedlngOand not ex- 
ceodingl8 sq. yds. to tho pound, 8^0. per sq. 
yd. (Old rato. 4c) ; exceeding 8 sq. yds. to 
the pound, 3-^c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 4<* ) ; 
if dyed, colored, stained, painted or print- 
od, and not exceoding 4 sq. yds. to tho 
pound, 3^c. persq. yd. (Old rato, 5o.) : ex- 
ceeding 4 and not exoeeding 6 sq. yds. to 
the pound, 8%o. persq. yd. (uld rate, 5c) ; 
exoeeding 0 and not cxcm-dlng 8 sq. yds. to 
tho pound, 4>4c per sq. yd. (Old ruto. Go.) ; 
exceeding 8 sq. yds. to tho pound, 4J4o. per 
sq. yd. (Old rato, 6c) ; Provided. That uu 



166 



all cotton cloth exceeding- 100 and not ex- 
ceeding- 150 threads to the square Inch, 
counting the warp and filling, not bleached, 
dyed, colored, stained, painted, or printed, 
valued at over 9c. per sq. yd. (Old law7J^c), 
30 p. c. (Old rate, 40 p. c.) ; bleached,vaiued 
at over 11c. per sq. yd. (Old law 10c), 35 
p. o. (Old rate, 40 p. c); dyed, colored, 
stained, paintod, or printed, valued at over 
12HjC. per sq. yd., there shall be levied, col- 
lected and' paid a duty of 35 p. c. (Old rate, 
40 p. c.) 

Cotton cloth not bleached, dyed, colored, 
stained, painted, or printed, exceeding 150 
and not exceeding 300 threads to the square 
inch, counting the warp and filling, and 
not exceeding 3 l / 2 sq. yds. to the pound, 2c. 
per sq. yd. (Old rate, 3^c.) ; exceeding 3% 
and not exceeding 4 l A sq. yds. to the pound, 
3Mc per sq. yd. (Old rate, 3%o ) ; exceeding 
4>| and not exceeding 0 sq. yds. to the 
pound, 3c. persq. yd. (Old rate, 3^c.); ex- 
ceeding 6 sq. yds. to the pound, 3 l Ac per 
sq. yd. (Old rate, same) ; if bleached, and 
not "exceeding 3}4 sq. yds. to the pound, 
3%c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 4^c.) ; exceed- 
ing 3V6 and not exceeding 4Mj sq. yds. to the 
pound, 3>£c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 4j^c); 
exceeding 4^6 and not exceeding 6 sq. yds. 
to the pound, 4c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 
4MjC) ; exceeding 6 sq. yds. to the pound, 
4J4c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 4}£c.) ; if dyed, 
colored, stained, painted, or printed, 
and not exceeding 3% sq. yds. to the 
pound, 4J4c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 5Xc) ; 
exceeding 3% and not exceeding 4>£ sq. 
yds. to the pound, 4>£c per sq. yd. (Old 
rate, 6V^c); exceeding 4^ and not exceed- 
ing 6 sq. yds. to the pound, 4%c per sq. 
yd. (Old rate, 5^c ); exceeding 6 sq. yds. to 
the pound, 5c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 5^c) : 
Provided, That on all cotton cloth exceed- 
ing 150 and not exceeding 200 threads to the 
square inch, counting the warp and filling, 
not bleached, dyed, colored, stained, paint- 
ed, or printed, valued at over 10c. per sq. 
yd. (Old law 8o.), 35 p. c. (Old rate, 45 p. a); 
bleached, valued at over 12c. per sq. yd. 
(Old law 10c). 35 p. c. (Old rate, 45 p. c.) ; 
dyed, colored, stained, painted, or printed, 
valued at over 13^c. per sq. yd. (Old law 
13c.) there shall be levied, collected and 
paid a duty of 40 p. c. (Old rate, 45 p. c.) 

Cotton cloth not bleached, dyed, colored, 
stained, painted, or printed, exceeding 200 
threads to the square inch, counting the 
warp and filling, and not exceeding 3^ sq. 
yds. to the pound, 3c per sq. yd. (Old rate 
4^c.); exceeding 2*4 and not exceeding 
sq. yds. to the pound, 3^c. per sq. yd. (Old 
rate. 4^c): exceeding 3tf and not exceed- 
ing 6 sq. yds. to the pound, 4c. per eq. yd. 
(Old rate, 4V£c) ; exceeding 5 sq. yds. to the 
pound, 4^c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, same); if 
bleached, and not exceeding 3^ sq. yds. to 
the pound, 4c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 5V£c); 
exoeeding 2^6 and not exceeding 3^ sq. 
yds. to the pound, 4&c. per sq. yd. (Old 
rate, ty£c.)\ exceeding 3*4 and not exceed- 



ing 6 sq. yds. to the pound, 5c. per sq. yd, 
(Old rate, 5M>c); exceeding 5 so. yds * 
the pound, 5Kc per eq. yd. (Old rate. 



same); if dyed, colored, painted, or print- 
ed, and not exceeding 3% sq. yd9. to the 



pound, 5-^c per sq. yd. (Old rate, 6%c.) ; 
exceeding 3)4 sq. yds. to the pound, 6^c 
per sq. yd. (Old rate, 6%c) : Provided, That 
on all such cotton cloths not bleached, 
dyed, colored, stained, painted, or printed, 
valued at over 12c per sq. yd. (Old law 
10c); bleached, valued at over 14c per sq. 
yd. (Old law 12c); and dyed, colored* 
stained, painted, or printed, valued at over 
16c. per sq. yd. (Old law 15c.) , there shall be 
levied, collected and paid a duty of 35 p. c, 
(Old rate, 45 p. c) 

The term cotton cloth, or cloth, where- 
ever used in the foregoing paragraphs of 
this schedule, shall be held to include all 
woven fabrics of cotton in the piece, 
whetner figured, fancy or plain, not spe- 
cially provided for in this act, the warp 
and filling threads of which can be counted 
by unraveling or other practicable means. 

Clothing ready made, and articles of 
wearing apparel of every description, 
handkerchiefs, and neckties or neckwear, 
composed of cotton or other vegetable 
fiber, or of which cotton or other vege- 
table fiber is the component material of 
chief value, made up or manufactured 
wholly or in part by the tailor, seamstress 
or manufacturer, all of the foregoing not 
specially provided for In this act, 40 p. c. 
(Old rate, 50 p. c.) 

Plushes, velvets, velveteens, corduroys, 
and all pile fabrics composed of cotton or 
other vegetable fiber, not bleached, dyed, 
colored, stained, painted, or printed, 40 p. c. 
(Old rate, 10c per sq. yd. and 30 p. c); on 
all such goods if bleached, dyed, colored, 
stained, painted, or printed, 47^ p. c. (Old 
rates: Bleached, 13c. and 30 p. c. ; dyed, 
etc., 14c. and 30 p. c.) 

Chenille curtains, table covers, and all 
goods manufactured of cotton chenille, or 
of which cotton chenille forma the compo- 
nent material of chief value, 40 p. c. (Old 
rate, 60 p. c); sleeve linings or other cloths, 
composed of cotton and silk, whether 
known as silk stripe sleeve lining, silk 
stripes, or otherwise, 43 p. c. (Old rate, 50 
p. c.) 

Stockings, hose and half-hose, made on 
knitting machines or other frames, com- 
posed of cotton or other vegetable fiber 
and uot otherwisespeciallv provided for in 
this act, 30 p. c. (Old rate, 3o p. c.) 

Stockings, hose and half-hose, selvedged, 
fashioned, narrowed or shaped wholly or 
in part by knitting machines or frames, or 
knit by hand, including such as are com- 
mercially known as seamless or clocked 
stockings, hose or half-hose, and knitted 
shirts or drawers, all of the above com- 
posed of cotton or other vegetable fiber, 
finished or unfinished, 50 p. c. (Old rates : 
btockings, hose and half-hose, valued at 
not more than 60c per doz. pairs, 20c. and 
20 ]f. c. ; valued at 60c. to $2, 50c and 30 
p. c ; valued at $3 to $4,75c an d 40 p. c. ; 
valued at more than $4, $1 and 40 p. a; 
shirts and drawers, valued at not more 
than $1.50 per doz., 35 p. c • valued at $1^0' 
to $3, a and 35 p. c. ; valued at S3 to $5. 
£1.25 and 40 p. c. ; valued' at $5 to $7, $1.50 
and 40 p. c. ; valued at more than $7, $2ao4 
40 p. c.) 



THE TARIFF OF 1894 



Cords, braids, boot, shoe and corset lac- 
ings, tapes, gimps, galloons, webbing, gor- 
ing, suspended and braces, woven, braided 
or twisted lamp or candle wicking, lining 
for bicycle tires, spindle binding, any of 
the above made of cotton or other vege- 
table fiber and whether composed in part 
of India rubber or otherwise, 45 p. c. (Old 
rate, 40 p. c.) 

All manufactures of cotton, including 
cotton duck and cotton damask, in the 
piece or otherwise, not specially provided 
for in this act, and including cloth having 1 
India rubber as a component material, 35 
p. c. (Old rate, 40 p. c.) 

(Old law.— Collars and cuffs composed en- 
tirely of cotton, 15c. per doz. and 35 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE J. — FLAX, HEMP AND 
JUTE, AND MANUFACTURES OF. 

Flax, hackled, known as "dressed line," 
l^c. per lb. (Old rate, 3c.) 

Hemp, hackled, known as " dressed line," 
leper lb. (Old rate, 2J^c ) 

Yarn, made of jute, 30 p. c. (Old rate, 35 
p. c.) 

Cables, cordage, and twine (except bind- 
ing twine), composed in whole or in part 
of New Zealand hemp, istle or Tampico 
fiber, man iia. nsal grass, or sunn, 10 p. c. 
(Old rates: Composed of Tampico fiber, 
manila, sit=al grass, or sunn, l%c. per lb. ; 
hemp, 2%c ; tarred, 3c.) 

Hemp and jute carpets and carpetings 
20 p. c. (Old rate, 6c. per sq. yd.) 

Flax gill nett.ng, nets, webs, and seines, 
40 p . c. (Old rates : When yarn is not high- 
er than No. 20, 15c. and 35 p. c. ; finer, zOc. 
and 45 p. c.) 

Oilcloth for floors, stamped, painted, or 
printed, including linoleum, corticene, 
cork carpet;", figured or plain, and all other 
oilcloth (except silk oilcloth), and water- 
proof cloth, not specially provided for in 
this act, valued at 25c. or less per square 
yard. 25 p. c. (Old rate, 40 p. c); valued 
above 25c. per square yard, 40 p. c. (Old 
rate, 15c. and 30 p. c.) 

' Linen hydraulic hose, made in whole or* 
in part of flax, hemp, or jute, 40 p. c. (Old 
rate. 20c. per lb.) 

Yarns or threads composed of flax or 
hemp, or of a mixture of either of these 
substances. 35 p. c. (Old rates : Valued at 
13c. or less per lb., 6o. ; valued at more than 
13e., 45 p. c.) 

Collars and cuffs, composed wholly or in 
part of linen. 30c. per doz. pieces, and in 
addition thereto 30 p. c. (Old rate, 30c. and 
40 p. c); shirts and all other articles of 
wearing apparel of every description, not 
specially provided for in thisact, composed 
wholly or in part of linen, 50 p. c. (Old 
rate, 55 p. c.) 

Tapos composed of flax, woven with or 
without metal threads, on reels or spools, 
designed expressly for use in the manufac- 
ture of measuring tapes, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 
60 p. c.) 

I Laces, edgings, net tings and veilings, em- 
broideries, insertings, neck rufliings, ruch- 
Ings, trimmings, tuckings, lace window 
curtain 8, tamboured articles, and at tides 
embroidered by hand or machinery, em- 



.— Continued. 167 



broidered handkerchiefs, and articles 
made wholly or in part of lace, rufflings, 
tuckings, or rucbings, all of the above- 
named articles, composed of flax, jute, 
cotton, or other vegetable fiber, or of 
which these substances or either of them, 
or a mixture of any of them is the compo- 
nent material of chief value, not specially 
provided for in this act, 60 p. c. (Old rate, 
60 p. c.) 

All manufactures of flax, hemp, jute, or 
other vegetable fiber, except cotton, or of 
which these substances or either of them 
is the component material of chief value, 
not specially provided for in thisact, 35 
p. c. (Old rates: Valued at 5c. per lb. or 
less, 2c. ; valued at more than 5c. per lb., 
40 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE K.-WOOL AND MANU- 
FACTURES OF WOOLS. 

On flocks, mungo, shoddy, garnetted 
waste, and carded waste, and carbonized 
noils, or carbonized wool, 15 p. c. (Old 
rates: Flocks and mungo, 10c. per lb.; 
others, 30c); and on wool of the sheep, 
hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, or other 
like animals, Ml the form of roving, roping, 
or tops, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 30c. per lb.) 

On woolen and worsted yarns made whol- 
ly or in part of wool,worsted,the hair of the 
camel, goat, alpaca, or other animals, val- 
ued at not more than 40c. per lb., 30n. c. : 
valued at more than 40c. per lb., 40 p. e. 
(Old rates: Valued at not more than 30c., 
27>»$c. and 35 p. c. ; 30 to 40c, 33c and 36 p. c; 
more than 40c, 38%c. and 50 p. cj 

On knit fabrics, and all fabrics made on 
knitting machines or frames, not includ- 
ing wearing apparel, and on shawls made 
wholly or in part of wool, worsted, the hair 
of the camel, goat, alpaca, or other ani- 
mals, valued at not exceeding 40c. per lb., 
35 p. c; valued at more than 40c per lb., 
40 p. c. (Old rates: Valued at not more 
than 30c, 830. and 40 p. c ; 30 to 40c. 38^c 
and 40 p. c: more than 40c, 44c. and 50 p. c.) 

On blankets, hats of wool, and flannels 
for underwear and felts for printing ma- 
chines, composed wholly or in part of 
wool, the hair of the camel, goat, alpacii. 
or other animals, valued at not more than 
30c per lb., 25 p. c. (Old rate, lQ%c. and 30 
p. c); valued at more than 30 and not more 
than 40c per lb., 30 p. c (Old rate, 22c and 
35 p.c); valued at more than 40c per lb., 3.*> 
p. c. (Old rate, 33c and 35 p. c ; valued at 
more than 50c, 38J^c and 40 p. c.) : Pro- 
vided, That on blankets over three yards 
in length the same duties shall be paid iik 
on woolen and worsted cloths, and on flan- 
nels weighing over 4 oz. per eq. yd., the 
same duties as on drcs goods. 

On women's and children's dress goods, 
coat linings, Italian cloth, bunting, or 
goods of similar description or character, 
and on all manufactures, composed wholly 
or in part of wool, worsted, the hair of tho 
camel, goat, alpaca, or other animals, in- 
cluding such as havo India rubber as a 
component material, and not specially pro- 
vided for in this act. valued nt not over 60c. 
per lb., 40 p. c. ; valued at more than 60c 
per lb., 60 p. o. 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.— Continued. _. 



(Old law.— On women's and children's 
dress goods, coat linings, Italian cloths, 
and goods of similar character or descrip- 
tion of which the warp consists wholly of 
cotton or other vegetable material, with the 
remainder of the fabric wholly or in part 
of wool, worsted, the hair of the camel, 
goat, alpaca, or other animals, valued at 
not exceeding 15c. per sq. yd., 7c. per sq. 
yd., and in addition thereto 40 p. c; valued 
at above 15c. per sq. yd., 8c. per sq. yd., and 
in addition thereto 50 p. c. : Provided, That 
on all such goods weighing over4oz. per 
sq. yd. the duty per lb. shall be four times 
the duty imposed by this act on a pound of 
unwashed wool of the first class, and in ad- 
dition thereto 50 p. c. On women's and 
children's dress goods, coat linings, Italian 
cloth, bunting, and goods of similar de- 
scription or character composed wholly or 
in part of wool, worsted, the hair of the 
Garael, goat, alpaca, or other animals, and 
not specially provided for in this act, the 
duty shall be 12c. per sq. yd., and in addi- 
tion thereto 50 p. c. : Provided, That on all 
such goods weighing over 4 oz. per sq. yd., 
the duty per lb. shall be four times the 
duty imposed by this act on a pound of 
unwashed wool of the first class, and in 
addition thereto 50 p. c.) 

On clothing:, ready made, and articles of 
wearing apparel of every description, made 
up or manufactured wholly or in part, not 
specially provided for in this act, felts 
not specially provided for in this act, all 
the foregoing composed wholly or in part 
of wool, worsted, the hair of the camel, 
goat, alpaca, or other animals, including 
those havinur India rubber as a component 
material, valued at above SI. 50 per lb., 60 
p. c; valued at less than $1.50 per lb., 45 p. c. 

(Old law.— On clothing, ready made, and 
articles of wearing apparel of every de- 
scription, made up or manufactured, whol- 
ly or in part, not specially provided for in 
this act? felt not woven and not specially 
provided for in this act, and plushes 
and other pile fabrics, all the foregoing, 
composed wholly or in part of wool, wor- 
sted, the hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, or 
other animals, the duty per pound shall be 
4>6 times the duty imposed by this act on a 
pound of unwashed wool of the first class, 
and in addition thereto 60 p. c.) 

On cloaks, dolmans, jackets, talmas, ul- 
sters, or other outside garments for ladies' 
and children's apparel, and goods of simi- 
lar description or used for like purposes, 
and on knit wearing apparel, composed 
wholly or in part of wool, worsted, the 
hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, or other 
animals, madeupor manufactured, wholly 
or in part, 50 p. c. 

(Old law. -The duty per lb. shall be 4)4 
times the duty imposed bv this act on a 
pound of unwashed wool of the first class, 
und in addition thereto 60 p. c.) 

On webbinirs, gorings, suspenders, braces, 
beltings, bindings, braids, galloons, fringes, 
gimps, cords, cords and tassels, dress trim- 
mings, laces, embroideries, head nets, net- 
tings and veilings, button*, or barrel but- 
tons, or buttons of other forms, for tassels 
or ornaments, any of the foregoing which 



' are elastic or non-elastic, made of wool, 
worsted, the hair of the camel, >roat, al- 
paca, or other animals, or of which wool, 
worsted, the hair of the camel, goat, al- 
paca, or other animals is a component ma- 
terial, 50 p. c. 

(Old law.— On webbings, gorings, suspen- 
ders, braces, beltings, bindings, braids, gal- 
loons, fringes, gimps, cords, cords and tas- 
sels, dress trimmings, laces and embroider- 
ies, head nets, buttons, or barrel buttons, 
or buttons of other forms, for tassels or 
ornaments, wrought by hand or braided 
by machinery, any of the foregoing which 
are elastic or non-elastic, made of wool, 
worsted, the hair of the camel, goat, al- 
paca, or other animals, or of which wool, 
worsted, the hair of the camel, goat, al- 
paca, or other animal is a component ma- 
terial, the duty shall be 60c. per lb., and in 
addition thereto 60 p. c.) 

Aubusson, Axminster, Moquette, and 
Chenille carpets, figured or plain, carpets 
woven whole for rooms, and all carpets or 
carpeting of like character or description, 
and oriental, Berlin, and other similar rugs, 
40 p. c. (Old rate, 60c. per sq. yd. and 40 p. c.) 

Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay velvet car- 
pets, figured or plain, and all carpets or 
carpeting of like character or description, 
40 p. c. (Old rate, 60c. and 40 p. c.) 

Brussels carpet, figured or plain, and all 
carpets or carpeting of 1 i ke character or de- 
scription, 40 p. c. (Old rate, 44c. and 40 p. c.) 

Velvet and tapestry velvet carpets, fig- 
ured or plain, printed on the warp or 
otherwise, and all carpets or carpeting of 
like character or description, 40 p. c. (Old 
rate, 40c. and 40 p. c.) 

Tapestry brussels carpets, figured or 
plain, and all carpets or carpetings of like 
character or description, printed on the 
warp or otherwise, 42K P. c. (Old rate, 28c. 
and 40 p. c.) 

Trenle ingrain, three-ply, and all chain 
Venetian carpets, 32}£ p. c. (Old rate, 19c. 
and 40 p. c.) 

Wool Dutch and two-ply ingrain carpets, 
80 p. c. (Old rate, 14c. and 40 p. c.) 

Druggets and bookings, printed, colored, 
or otherwise, felt carpeting, figured or 
plain, 30 p. c. (Old rates: Druggets and 
bookings. 22c. and 40 p. c. ; felt carpeting, 
11c. and 40 p. c.) 

Carpets and carpeting of wool, flax, or 
cotton, or composed in part of either, not 
specially provided for in this act, 30 p. o. 
(Old rate, 50 p. c.) 

Mats, rugs for floors, screens, covers, 
hassocks, bed sides, art squares, and other 
portions of carpets or carpeting, made 
wholly or in part of wool, and not specially 
provided for in this act, shall be subjected 
to the rate of duty herein imposed on car- 
pets or carpetings of like character or 
description. 

The reduction of the rates of duty herein 
provided for manufactures of wool stiall 
take effect Jan. 1, 1895. 

SCHEDULE L.-SILKS AND SILK 
GOODS. 

Silk partially manufactured from co- 
coons or from waste silk, and not further. 



THE TARIFF OF 1894,-Continued. 



advanced or manufactured than carded or 
combed silk, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 50c. per 
lb.) Thrown silk, not more advanced than 
singles, tram, organzine, sewing silk, 
twist, floss, and silk threads or yarns of 
every description, and spun silk in skeins, 
cops, wa'ps, or on beams, 30 p. c. (Old 
rates : Thrown, 30 p. c; spun, 35 p. c.) 

Velvets, chenilles, or other pile fabrics, 
composed of silk, or of which silk is the 
component material of chief value, $1.50 
per lb.; plushes, composed of silk, or of 
which silk is the component material of 
chief value, $1 per lb. ; but in no case shall 
the foregoing articles pay a less rate of 
duty than 50 p. c. (Oil rates: Less than 75 
p. c. silk, 81.50 per lb. and 15 p. c. ; 75 p. c. 
or more silk, $:l.50and 15 p. c.) 

Webbings, gorin^s, suspenders, braces, 
beltings, bindings, braids, galloons, fringes, 
cords, and tassels, any of the foregoing 
which are elastic or non-elastic, buttons, 
and ornaments, made of silk, or of which 
silk is the component material of chief 
Vflue, 45 p. c. (Old rate, 50 p. c.) 

Laces and articles made wholly or in part 
of lace, and embroideries, including arti- 
cles or fabrics embroidered by hand or 
machinery, handkerchiefs, neck rufllings 
and ruchings nettings and veilings, cloth- 
ing ready made, and articles of wearing 
apparel of every description, including 
knit goods made up or manufactured 
Wholly or in part by the tailor, beamstress, 
or manufacturer, composed of silk, or of 
which t-ilk is the component material of 
chief value, and beaded silk goods, not 
specially provided for in this act, 50 p. c. 
(Old rate, 60 p. c.) 

All manufactures of silk, or of which 
silk is the component material of chief 
value, including those having India rubber 
as a component material, not specially 
provided for in this act, 45 p. c. (Old rate, 
Sc. per oz. and 60 p. c. when composed in 
part of India rubber ; others, 50 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE M -PULP, PAPERS, AND 
BOOKS. 
Pulp and Paper. 

Mechanically -ground wood pulp and 
chemical wood pulp unbleached or 
bleached, 10 p. c. (Old rates: Mechanically 
ground, $2.50 per ton; chemical, un- 
bleached, $6; chemical, bleached, $7.) 

Sheathing paper and roofing felt, 10 p. c. 
(Old rate : Sheathing paper, 10 p. c. ; roof- 
ing felt, 20 p. c.) 

Printing paper, unsized, sized or glued, 
suitable only for books and newspapers, 15 
p. c. (Old rates : Unsized, 15 p. o. ; sized, 20 
p. c.) 

Papers known commercially as copying 
paper, filtering paper, silver paper, and 
tissue paper, white, printed, or colored, 
made up in copying books, r"ums, or in 
any other form, 35 p. c. (Old rate, 8c. per 
lb. and 15 p. c); albuminized or sohsitized 
paper, and writing paper and envelopes 
embossed, engraved, printed or ornaroont- 
ed,30p.o. (Old rate*: A Ibumenlzed or sen- 
sitized, 35 p. c. ; writing paper and envoi- 
opes, embossed, engraved, printed or oiuu- 
montcd, 25 p. c.) 



Parchment papers, and surface-coated 
papers, and manufactures thereof, card- 
boards, and photograph, autograph, and 
scrap albums, wholly or partially manu- 
factured, 30 p. c. (Old rate, 35 p. c.) Litho- 
graphic prints from either stone or zino, 
bound or unbound (except cigar labels and 
bands, lettered or blank, music, and illus- 
trations when forming a part of a periodi- 
cal or newspaper and accompanying the 
same, or if bound in, or forming part of 
printed books), on paper or other material 
not exceeding 8-1 000 of an inch in thick- 
ness, 20c. per lb.; on paper or other material 
3xceeding8-l,0tWof an inch and not exceed- 
ing 20-1,000 of an inch in thickness, and ex- 
ceeding 35 square inches cutting size in di- 
mensions, 8c. per lb.; prints exceeding 8- 
1.000 of an inch and not exceeding 20-1,000 
of an inch in thickness, and not exceeding 
35 square inches cutting size in dimensions, 
5c. per lb.; lithographic prints from either 
stone or zinc on cardboard or other ma- 
terial, exceeding 20 1,0:0 of an inch in 
thickness, 6c. per lb. (Old rate, on all above, 
35 p. e.); lithographic cigar labels and 
bands, lettered or blank, printed from 
either stone or zinc, if printed in less than 
ten colors, but not including bronze or 
metal leaf printing, 20c per lb. (Old rate, 
25 p. c); if printed in ten or more colors, 
or in bronze printing, but not including 
metal leaf printing, 30c. per lb. (Old rate, 
25 p. c); if printed in whole or in part in 
metal leaf, 40c. per lb. (Old rate, 45 p. c.) 

Manufactures of Paper. 

Paper envelopes, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 25c. 
per M.) 

Paper hangings and paper for screens or 
fire boards, writing paper, drawing paper, 
and all other paper not specially provided 
for in this act, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

Blank books of all kinds, 20 p c. (Old 
rate, 25 p. e.); books, including pamphlets 
and engravings bound or unbound, photo- 
graphs, etchings, maps music, charts, and 
all printed matter not specially provided 
for in this act, 25 p. c. (Old rate, same ) 

Playing cards, in packs not exceeding 54 
cards and at a like rate for any number in 
excess. 10c. per pack and 50 p. c. (Old rate, 
50 p. c.) 

Manufactures of paper, or of which paper 
is the component material of chief value, 
not specially provided for in this act, 20 p. 
c. (Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

SCHEDULE N.— SUNDRIES. 

Hair pencils, brushosand feather dusters, 
85 p. c. (Old rate, 40 p. v.); brooms, 20 p. c. 
(Old rate, 10 p. c>; bristles, sorted, bunched, 
or prepared in any manner, 7}<c. por lb. 
(Old rate. 10c.) 

Buttons and Button Forms. 

Button forms: Last Inns, mohair, clotb, 
silk, or other manufactures of cloth, woven 
or made in patterns of such size, shape, or 
form, or out in sttch manner as to bo fit for 
buttons exclusively, 10 p. o. (Old rate, 
same.) 

Buttons commercially known as agate 
buttons, 25 p. e. (Old rate, sauio); pearl and 
shell buttons, wholly or partially matiufac- 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



tUred, le., button measure of 1-40 of 1 inch 
per gross and 15 p. c (Old rate, 2^c. and 
25 p. c.) 

Buttons of ivory, vegetable ivory, glass, 
bone or horn, wholly or partially manufac- 
tured, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 50 p. c.) 

Shoe buttons, made of paper, board, 
papier mache, pulp, or other similar ma- 
terial not specially provided for in this act, 
25 p. c. (Old rate, lc. per gross.) 

Coal, bituminous and shale, 40c. per ton 
(Old rate, 75c); coal slack or culm such as 
will pass through a half inch screen, 15c. 
per ton (Old rate, 30c.) 

Coke, 15 p. c. (Old rate, 20 p. c.) 

Corks, wholly or partially manufactured, 
10c. per lb. (Old rates: Cork bark in 
squares or cubes, 10c. per lb.; corks, 15c.) 

Dice, draughts, chess-men, chess-balls, 
and billiard, pool, and bagatelle balls, of 
ivory, bone, or other materials,.50 p. c. (Old 
rate, same.) 

Dolts, doll heads, toy marbles of what- 
ever material composed, and all other toys 
not composed of rubber, china, porcelain, 
parian, bisque, earthen or stone ware, and 
not specially provided for in this act, 25 
p. c. This paragraph shall not take effect 
until January 1, 1895 (Old rate, 35 p. c.) 

Emery grains, and emery manufactured, 
ground, pulverized, or refined, 8-10c. per lb. 
(Old rate, lc.) 

Explosive Substances. 

Fire-crackers of all kinds, 50 p. c, but no 
allowance shall be made for tare or damage 
thereon (Old rate, 8c. per lb.) 

Fulminates, fulminating powders, and 
like articles, not specially provided for in 
this act, 30 p. c. (Old rate, same.) 

Gunpowder, and all explosive substances 
used for mining, blasting, artillery, or 
sporting purposes, when valued at 20c. or 
less per pound, 5c. per lb.; valued above 20c. 
per pound, 8c. per lb. (Old rates, same.) 

Matches, friction or lucifer, of all de- 
scriptions, 20 p. c. (Old rates : Per gross of 
boxes containing not less than 100 matches, 
per box, 10c.; other forms, lc. per 1,000 
matches.) 

Musical instruments or parts thereof (ex- 
cept pianoforte actions and parts thereof), 
strings for musical instruments not other- 
wise enumerated, cases for musical instru- 
ments, pitch pipes, tuning forks, tuning 
hammers, and metronomes, 25 p. c. (Old 
rates, according to material.) 

Percussion caps, 30 p. c. (Old rate, 40 p.c); 
blasting caps, $2.07 per 1,000 (Old rate, 40 
p. c.) 

Feathers and downs of all kinds, when 
dressed, colored, or manufactured, includ- 
ing quilts of down and other manufactures 
of down, and also including dressed and 
finished birds suitable for millinery orna- 
ments, and artificial and ornamental feath- 
ers, fruits, grains, leaves, flowers, and 
stems, or parts thereof, of whatever ma- 
terial composed, suitable for millinery use, 
not specially provided for in this act, 35 
p. c. (Old rate, oO p. c.) 

Furs, dressed on the skin but not made 
up into articles. 20 p. c; furs not on the 
Bkin, prepared for hatters' use, 20 p. c. (Old 
rate, same.) » 



Fans of all kinds, except common palm- 
leaf fans, 40 p. c. (Old rates, according to 

material.) 

Gun wads of all descriptions, 10 p. c. (Old 
rate, 35 p. c.) 

Hair, human, if clean or drawn, but not 
manufactured, 20 p. c. (Old rate, same.) 

Hair, curled, suitable for beds or mat- 
tresses, 10 p. c. (Old rate, 15 p. c.) 

Hair cloth, known as " crinoline cloth," 
6c. per sq. yd. (Old rate, 8c.) 

Hair cloth, known as " hair seating," 20c. 
per sq. yd. (Old rate, 30c.) 

Hats for men's, women's, and children's 
wear, composed of the fur of the rabbit, 
beaver, or other animals, or of which such 
fur is the component material of chief 
value, wholly or partially manufactured, 
including fur hat bodies, 40 p. c. (Old rate, 
55 p. c.) 

Jewelry and Precious Stones. 

Jewelry : All articles, not specially pro- 
vided for in this act, commercially known 
as " jewelry," and cameos in frames, 35 p. c. 
(Old rate, 50 p. c.) 

Pearls, including pearls strung but not 
set, 10 p. c. (Old rate, same.) 

Precious stones of all kinds, cut but not 
set, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 10 p. c); if set, and 
not specially provided for in this act, in- 
cluding pearls set, 30 p. c. (Old rate, 25 p. a); 
imitations of precious stones, not exceed- 
ing an inch in dimensions, not set, 10 p. c. 
(Old rate, same.) And on uncut precious 
stones of all kinds, 10 p. c. (Old rate, free.) 

Leather, and Manufactures of. 

Sole leather, 10 p. c. (Old rate, same.) 

Bend or belting leather, and leather not 
specially provided for in this act, 10 p. c. 
(Old rate, same.) 

Calfskins, tanned, or tanned and dressed, 
dressed upper leather, including patent, 
enameled, and japanned leather, dressed or 
undressed, and finished ; chamois or other 
skins not specially enumerated or provided 
for in this act, 20 p. c. (Old rate, same); 
bookbinders' calfskins, kangaroo, sheep, 
and goat skins, including lamb and kid 
skins, dressed and finished, 20 p. c. (Old 
rate, same); skins for morocco, tanned but 
unfinished, 10 p. c. (Old rate, same); piano- 
forte leather and pianoforte action leather, 
20 p. c. (Old rate, 35 p. c); boots and shoes, 
made of leather, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 25 p. c.) 

Leather cut into shoe uppers or vamps, 
or other forms, suitable for conversion into 
manufactured articles, 20 p. c. (Old rate, 35 
p. c.) 

G loves made wholly or in part of leather, 
whether wholly or partly manufactured, 
shall pay duty at the following rates, the 
lengths stated in each case being the ex- 
treme length when stretched to their full 
extent, namely: 

Ladies* or children's "glace" finish, 
SchmaSchen (of sheep origin), not over 14 
inches in length, SI perdoz. pairs (Old rate, 
$1.75) ; over 14 inches and not over 17 inches 
in length, $1.50 per doz. pairs (Old rate, 60 
p.c); over 17 inches in length, $2 per doz. 
pairs (Old rate, 50 p. a); men's r ' glace" 
finish, Schmaschen (sheep), $3 per doz. pairs 



THE TARIFF OF 1894,-Continued. 



(Old rates: Not over 14 inches, 50 p. c.; over 
14 inches, $1 per doz. and 50 p. c.) 

Ladies 1 or children's "glace 1 ' finish, 
lamb or sheep, not over 14 inches in length, 
81.75 per doz. pairs (Old rate, $2.25) ; over 
14 and not over 17 inches in length, $2.75 

f>er doz. pairs (Old rate, 50 p. c); over 17 
nches in length, $3.75 per doz. pairs (Old 
rate, 30 p. c.) Men's " glace 11 finish, lamb 
or sheep, $4 per doz. pairs (Old rates : Not 
over 14 inches, 50 p. c. ; over 14 inches, $1 
and 50 p. c.) 

Ladies 1 or children's "glace 1 ' finish, 
goat, kid, or other leather than of sheep 
origin, not over 14 inches in length, $2.25 
per doz. pairs (Old rates: Kid, $3 25 per doz. 
pairs; others, 50 p. c); over 14 and not 
over 17 inches in length, |3 per doz. pairs 
[Old rate, 60 p.c); over 17 inches in length, 
$4 per doz. pairs (Old rate, 50 p. c.) ; men's 
" glace 1 ' finish, kid, goat, or other leather 
than of sheep origin, $4 per doz. pairs 
(Old rates : Not over 14 inches. 50 p. c; over 
14 inches, $1 per doz. pairs and 50 p. c.) 

Ladies' or children's, of sheep origin.with 
exterior grain surface removed, by what- 
ever name known, not over 17 inches in 
length, $1.75 per doz. pairs (Old rate, 50p. 
p.); over 17 inches in length, $2.75 per doz. 
pairs (Old rate, 50 p. a); men's, of sheep 
origin, with exterior surface removed, by 
whatever name known. $4 per doz. pairs 
(Old rates: Not over H inches, 50 p. c. ; 
over 14 inches, $1 per doz. pairs and 50 p. c.) 

Ladies' or children's kid, goat, or other 
leather than of sheep origin, with exterior 

train surfaoe removed, by whatever name 
nown, not over 14 inches in length, $2.25 
per doz. pairs (Old rate, 50 p. c); over 14 
inches and not over 17 inches in length, $3 
per doz. pairs (Old rate, 50 p.c); over 17 
inches in length, $4 per doz. pairs (Old 
rate, 60 p.c); men's goat, kid, or other 
leather than of sheep origin, with exterior 
grain surface removed, by whatever name 
known, $4 per doz. pairs (Old rates: Not 
over 14 inches, 50 p. c. ; over 14 inches, $1 
per doz. pairs and 50 p. c.) 

In addition to the foregoing rates, there 
shall be paid on all leather gloves, when 
lined, $1 per doz. pairs. (Old rate, same.) 

Glove tranks, with or without the usual 
accompanying pieces, shall pay 75 p. c. of 
the duty provided for the gloves in the 
fabrication of which they are suitable. 

(The old law provided that no gloves 
Should pay less than 50 p. c.) 

Miscellaneous Manufactures. 

Manufactures of amber, aebestos, blad- 
ders, coral, cork, catgut or whipgut or 
wormgut, jet, paste, spar, wax, or of which 
these sub>tances or either of them is the 
component material of chief value not 
specially provided for In this act, 25 p. c. 
(Old rate, same.) 

Manufactures of bone, chip, grass, horn, 
India rubber, palm leaf, straw, weeds, or 
whalebone, or of which these substances 
or either of them is the component materi- 
al of chief value, not specially provided 
in this act, 25 p. c. (Old rate, 30 p. c) But 
the terms grass and straw shall bo under- 
stood to mean these substances in their 



171 



natural form and structure and not the 
separated fiber thereof. 

Manufactures of leather, fur, gutta- 
percha, vulcanized India rubber, known as 
hard rubber, human hair, papier-mache, 
plaster of Paris, indurated fiber wares, and 
other manufactures composed of wood or 
other pulp, or of which these substances or 
either of them is the component material 
of chief value, all of the above not special- 
ly provided for in this act, 30 p. c (Old 
rates: Manufactures of plaster of Paris, as 
earthenware ; others 35 p. c.) 

Manufactures of ivory, vegetable ivory, 
mother-of-pearl, gelatine, and shell, or of 
which these substances or either of them 
is the component material of chief value, 
not specially provided for in this act, and 
manufactures known commercially as 
bead, beaded or jet trimmings, 35 p. c. (Old 
rates: Bead, beaded or jet trimmings, 45 
p. c ; others, 40 p. c.) 

Masks, composed of paper or pulp, 25 
p. c. (Old rate, 35 p. c) 

Matting and mats made of cocoa fiber 
or rattan, 20 p. c. (Old rates : Matting, 12c 
per sq. yd. ; mats, 8c. per sq. ft.) 

Pencils of wood filled with lead or other 
material, and slate pencils covered with 
wood, 50 p. c (Old rate, 50c per gross and 
30 p. c); all other slate pencils, 30 p. c (Old 
rate, 4c. per gross.) 

Pencil leads not in wood, 10 p. c. (Old 
rate, same.) 

Photographic dry plates or films, 25 p. c 
(Old rate. 60 p. c) 

Pipes, pipe bowls, of all materials, and 
all smokers' articles whatsoever, not spe- 
cially provided for in this act, including 
cigarette books, cigarette-book covers, 
pouches for smoking or chewing tobacco, 
and cigarette paper in all forms, 50 p. c. 
(Old rate, 70 p. c .); all common tobacco 
pipes and pipe bowls made wholly of clay, 
and valued at not more than 50c per gross, 
10 p. c. (Old rate, 15c. per gross.) 

Umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades, cov- 
ered with material composed wholly or In 
part of silk, wool, worsted, the hair of 
the camel, goat, alpaca, or other animals, 
or other material than paper, 46 p. c. (Old 
rates: Covered with material composed 
wholly or in part of silk or alpaca, 66 p. c. ; 
covered with worsted, the huir of th<> nun- 
cl or other animals, n. e. s., or other ma- 
terial than paper, 45 p. c.) 

Sticks lor umbrellas, and sunshades, If 
plain or carved, finished or unfinished, 30 
p. c. (Old rate, 35 p. c; carved, 50 p. c.) 

Waste, not specially provided for in this 
act, 10 p. c. (Old rate, same.) 

FREE LIST. 

(Unless otherwise specified, also free 
under old law.) 

Section 2.— On and after the first day of 
August, 1804, unless otherwise provided for 
in this act, the following articles, when im- 
ported, shall bo free from duty : 

Acids used for medicinal, ohemical, or 
manufacturing purposes, not Bpeoially 
provided for in this act. 

Aconite. 

Acorm, raw, dried or undried, but nn- 
ground. 



172 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.— Continued. 



Abates, unmanufactured. 
Albumen. 

Alizarin, and alizarin colors or dyes, nat- 
ural or artificial. 

Amber and amberoid, unmanufactured, 
or crude gum. 

Ambergris. 

Aniline salts. 

Any animal imported ppecially f or breed : 
ing purposes fcball be admitted free : Pro 
vided, That no such animal shall be admit- 
ted tree unless pure bred of a recognized 
breed, and duly registered in the book of 
record established for that breed, and the 
Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe 
such additional regulations as may be re- 
quired for the 6tiict enforcement of this 
provision. Cattle, horses, sheep or other 
domestic animals which have strayed 
across the boundary line into any foreign 
country, or have been or may be driven 
across such boundary line by the owner for 

fmsturage purposes, together with their 
ncrease, may be brought back to the 
United States free of duty under regula- 
tions to be prescribed by the Secretary of 
the Treasury. 

Animals brought into the United States 
temporarily for a period not exceeding six 
months, for the purpose of exhibition or 
competition for prizes offered by any agri- 
cultural or racing association ; but a bond 
shall be given in accordance with regula- 
tions prescribed by the Secretary of the 
Treasury ; also, teams of animals, includ- 
ing their harness and tackle and the wag- 
ons or other vehicles actually owned by 
persons emigrating from foreign countries 
to the United States with their families, 
and in actual use for the purpose of such 
emigration under such regulations as the 
Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe ; 
and wild animals intended for exhibition 
in zoological collections for scientific and 
educational purposes, and not for sale or 
profit. 

Annatto, roucou, rocoa, or Orleans, and 
all extracts of. 

Antimony ore, crude sulphite of, and an- 
timony, as regulu8 or metal. (Old rate, as 
regulus or metal, %c. per lb.) 

Apatite. 

Argal, or argol, or crude tartar. 

Arrow root, raw or unmanufactured. 

Arsenic and sulphide of, or orpiment. 

Arseniate of aniline. 

Art educational stops, composed of glass 
and metal, and valued at not more than 6c. 
per gross. 

Articles imported by the United States. 
(Old rates, according to material.) 

Articles in a crude state used in dyeing 
or tanning not specially provided lor in 
this act. 

Articles the growth, produce, and man- 
ufacture of the United States, when re- 
turned after having been exported, with- 
out having been advanced in value or im- 
proved in condition by any process of 
manufacture or other means; casks, bar- 
rels, carboys, hairs, and other vessels of 
American manufacture exported filled 
with American products, or exported 
empty and returned filled with foreign 



product?, including shooks when returned 
as barrels or boxes ; als > quicksilver flasks 
or bottle8,of either domestic or foreign 
manufacture, which shall have been actu 
ally exported from the United States; but 
proof of the identity of such articles shall 
be made, under general regulations to be 
prescribed by the Secretary of the Treas 
ury, but the exemption of bags from duty 
shall apply only to such domestic bags 89 
may be imported by the exporter thereof 
and if any such articles are subject to in- 
ternal tax at the time of exportation such 
tax shall be proved to have been paid be- 
fore exportation and not refunded : Pro 
vided, That this paragraph shall not apply 
to any article upon which an allowance of 
drawback has been made, the reimporta 
tion of which is hereby prohibited except 
upon payment of duties equal to the draw- 
backs allowed ; or to any article manufac- 
tured in bonded warehouse and exported 
under any provision of law: And provided 
further, That when manufactured tobacco 
which has been exported without payment 
of internal-revenue tax shall be reimport- 
ed it shall be retained in the custody of 
the collector of customs until internal- 
revenue stamps in payment of the legal 
duties shall be placed thereon. 

Asbestos, unmanufactured. 

Ashes, wood and lye of, and beet-root 
ashes. 

Asphaltum and bitumen, crude or dried 
but not otherwise manipulated or treated. 
Asafetida. 

Bagging for cotton, gunny cloth, and all 
similar material suitable for covering cot- 
ton, composed in whole or in part of hemp 
flax, jute, or jute butts. (Old rates : valued 
at 6c. or less per sq. yd., 1 6-10c.; valued at 
more than 6c, 1 8-lUc.) 

Balm of Gilead. 

Barks, cinchona or other, from whioh 
quinine may be extracted. 

Baryta, carbonate of, or witherite, and 
baryta, sulphate of, Or barytes, unmanu 
factured, including barytes earth. (Old 
rates: Carbonate of, or witherite, free; 
other, $1.12 per ton.) 

Bauxite, or beauxite. 

Beeswax. 

Bells, broken, and bell metal broken and 
fit only to be remanufactured. 

All binding twine manufactured in whole 
or in part from New Zealand hemp, istle or 
Tampico fiber, sisal grass, or sunn, of sin- 
gle ply and measuring not exceeding 600 
feet to the pound, and manila twine not 
exceeding 650 feet to the pound. (Old rate, 
7-10c. per lb.) 

Bird skins, prepared for preservation, 
but not further advanced in manufacture. 

Birds and land and water fowls. 

Bismuth. 

bladders, and all integuments of animals, 
and fish sounds or bladders, crude, salted 
lor preservation, and unmanufactured, 
not specially provided for in this act. 

Blood, dried. 

Blue vitriol, or sulphate of copper. (Old 
rate, 2c. per lb.) 
Bologna sausages. 

Bolting cloths, especially for milling pur- 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.- Continued. 



es, but not suitable for the manufacture 
or wearing apparel. 

Bones, crude, or not burned, calcined, 
ground, steamed, or otherwise manufac- 
tured, and bone dustor animal carbon, and 
bone ash, fit only for fertilizing purposes. 

Books, engravings, photographs, bound 
or unbound, etchings, music, maps, and 
chai ts. which shall have been printed more 
than twenty years at the date of importa- 
tion, and all hydrographic charts, and 
scientific books and periodicals devoted to 
original scientific research, and publica- 
tions issued for their subscribers by scien- 
tific and literary associations or academies 
or publications of individuals for gratu- 
itous private circulation, and public docu- 
ments issued by foreign government? 
(Old rates: Books, engravings, photo 
graphs, bound or unbound, etchings, maps 
and charts, which shall have been printed 
and bound and manufactured more than 
20 years, free; others, 25 p. c.) 

Books and pamphlets printed exclusively 
in languages other than English ; also 
books and music, in raised priut, used ex- 
clusively by the blind. 

Books, engravings, photographs, etch- 
ing*, bound or unbound, maps and charts 
imported by authority or for the useof the 
United States or for the use of the Library 
of Congress. 

Books, maps, music, lithographic prints, 
and charts, specially imported, not more 
than two copies in any o i.c invoice, in good 
faith, for the use of any society incorpor- 
ated or established for educational, philo- 
sophical, literary, or religious purposes, or 
for the encouragement of the fine arts, or 
for the use or by order of any college, 
academy, school, or seminary of learning; 
in the United States, or any State or public 
library, subject to such regulations as the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe. 
(Old rate, State or public library, 25 p. c; 
others, free.) 

Books, libraries, usual furniture, and 
similar household effects of persons or 
families from foreign countries, if actually 
used abroad by them not less than one year 
and not intended for any other person or 
persons, nor for sale. 
Brazil paste. 

Braids, plaits, lacrs, and similar manu- 
factures composed of straw, chip, grass, 
palm leaf, willow, osier, or rattan, suitable 
for making or ornamenting hats, bonnets, 
and hoods. 

Brazilian pebble, unwrought or unmanu- 
factured. 

Breccia, in block or slabs. 

Bristles, crude, not sorted, bunched, or 
prepared. (Old rate, 10c. per lb.) 

Bromine. 

Broom com. (Old rate, |8 per ton.) 
Bullion, goid or silver. 
Burgundy pitch. 

Uurlaps, and bags for grain made of bur- 
laps. (Old rates: Burlaps not exceeding 60 
inches in length, l%o. per lb.; burlaps in 
bag lengths, and bam for grain, 2c.) 
Cabbages. (Old rate, 3o. each.) 

Old ^ oins and medals, and other antiqui- 
ties, but the term "antiquities" as used 



in this act shall include only such articles 
as arcrsuTttabte for soHvenirs-or cabine-Lcol- 
lections, and which shall have been pro- 
duced at any period prior to the year 1700. 

Cadmium. 

Calamine. 

Camphor, crude. 

Castor or castoreum. 

Catgut, whipgut, or wormgut, unmanu- 
factured, or not further manufactured 
than in strings or cords. 

Cerium. 

Chalk, unmanufactured. 
Charcoal. 

Chicory root, raw, dried, or undried, but 
unground. 

Cider. (Old rate, 5c. per gal.) 

Civet, crude. 

Chromate of iron or chromic ore. (Old 
rate, 15 p. c) 

Clay— Common blue clay in casks suita- 
ble for the manufacture of crucibles. 

Coal, anthracite, and coal stores of Amer- 
ican vessels, but none shall be unloaded. 

Coal tar, crude, and all preparations ex- 
cept medicinal coal tar preparations and 
products of coal tar, not colors or dyes.. not 
specially provided for in this act. (Old 
rates : Coal tar, crude, free ; others, 10 p. c. 

Cobalt and cobalt ore. 

Coecnlus indicus. 

Cochineal. 

Cocoa, or cacao, crude, leaves, and shells 
of. 
Coffee. 

Coins, gold, silver, and copper. 
Coir, and coir yarn. 

Copper imported in the form of ores (Old 
rate, on each lb. fine copper therein, ^c.) 

Old copper, fit only for manufacture, 
clipping from new copper, and all compo- 
sition metal of which copper is a compo- 
nent material of chief vaiue not specially 
provided for in this act. (Old rate. Jc. 
per lb.) 

Copper, regulus of, and black or coarse 
copper, and copper cement. (Old rate, On 
each lb. of fine copper therein, lc.) 

Copper, in plates, bars, ingots, or pigs, 
and other forms, not manufactured, not 
specially provided for in this act. (Old rate, 
l«4c per lb.) 

Copperas, or sulphate of Iron. (Old rate, 
3-10c. per lb.) 

Coral, marine, uncut, and unmanufac- 
tured. 

Cork wood or cork bark, unmanufac- 
tured. 

Cotton, and cotton waste or flocks. 

Cotton ties of iron or steel cut to lentrths, 
punched or not punched, whh or without 
buckles, for baling cotton. (Old rate, 2-10c. 
per lb. in addition to rates for hoop iron.) 

Cryolite, or kryolith. 

Cudbear. 

Curling stones, or quoits, and curllng- 
stone handles. 
Curry, and ourry powder. 
Cutcn. 

Cuttlefish bone. 

Dandelion roots, raw, dried, or undrlcd. 
but unground. 

Diamonds; miners', glaziers', and en- 
gravers 1 diamonds not sot, and diamond 



THE TARIFF OF J 894. -Continued. 



174 



dust or bort, and jewels to be used Jn the 
manufacture of watches or clocks. 

Divi-divi. 

Dragon's blood. 

Drugs, such as barks, beans, berries, bal- 
sams, buds, bulbs, bulbous roots, excres- 
cences, fruits, flowers, dried fibers, dried 
insects, grains, gums and gum resin, herbs, 
leaves, lichens, mosses, nuts, roots and 
stems, spices, vegetables, seeds aromatic, 
seeds of morbid growth, weeds, and woods 
used expressly for dyeing; any of the fore- 
going drugs, which are not edible, and 
which have not been advanced in value or 
condition by refining or grinding, or by 
other process of manufacture, and not 
specially provided for in this act. 

Eggs of birds, fish, and insects: Provided, 
however, That this shall not be held to in- 
clude the egers of game birds, the importa- 
tion of which is prohibited except speci- 
mens for scientific collections. 

Emery ore. 

Ergot. 

Common palm leaf fans, and palm leaf 
unmanufactured. 
Farina. 

Fashion plates, engraved on steel or cop- 
per or on wood, coloi*ed or plain. 

Feathers and downs for bedB, and feath- 
ers and downs of ali kinds, crude or not 
dressed, colored, or manufactured, not 
specially provided for in this act. (Old rates: 
For beds, free ; others, 10 p. c.) 

Feldspar. 

Felt, adhesive, for sheathing vessels. 
Fibrin, in all forms. 

Fish, frozen or packed in ice fresh. (Old 
rates : Product of American fisheries free ; 
foreign fisheries, %c. per lb.) 

Fish for bait. 

Fish skins. 

Flint, flints, and ground flint stones. 

Floor matting manufactured from round 
or split straw, including what is commonly 
known as Chinese matting. 

Fossils. 

Fruit plants, tropical and semi-tropical, 
for the purpose of propagation or cultiva- 
tion. 

Fruits and Nuts. 

Fruits, green, ripe or dried, not specially 
provided for in this act. 
Tamarinds. 

Brazil nuts, cream nuts, palm nuts, and 
pnlin-nut kernels not otherwise provided 
for. 

Furs, undressed ; dressed fur pieces suit- 
able only for use in the manufacture of 
hatter's fur. (Old rates: Undressed, free; 
dressci. 20 p. e.) 

Fur skius of all kinds not dressed in any 
manner. 

Gambier. 

Glass, broken, and old glaps, which can 
not be cut for use, and fit only to be re- 
manufactured. 

Glass plates or disks, rough-cut or un- 
wrought, for u«e in the manufacture of 
optical instruments, spectacles and eye- 
glasses, and suitable only for such use: 
Provided, however, That such disks ex- 
ceeding 8 inches in diameter may be pol- 



ished sufficiently to enable the character oX 
the glass to be determined. 

Grasses and Fibers. 

Istle or Tampico fiber, jute, jute butts, 
manila, sisal grass, sunn, flax straw, flax 
not hackled, tow of flax or hemp, hemp 
not hackled, hemp, flax, jute, and tow 
wastes, and all other textile grasses or 
fibrous vegetable substances, unmanufac- 
tured or undressed,- not, specially provided 
for in this act. (Old rates: Flax straw, $6 
per ton ; flax not packed, lc. per lb. ; tow 
of flax or hemp, J^c. per lb. ; hemp, not 
hackled, $25 per ton ; hemp waste, ^c. per 
lb. ; others, free.) 

Gold-beaters' molds and gold-beaters' 
skins. 

Grease and oils, including cod oil, such 
as are commonly used in soap-making or 
in wire-drawing, or for stuffing or dress- 
ing leather, and which are fit only for such 
uses, not specially provided for in this act. 
(Old rates: Cod oil, foreign fisheries, 8c. 
per gal. ; others free.) 

Guano, manures, and all substances ex- 
pressly used for manure. 

Gunny bags and gunny cloths, old or 
refuse, fit only for remanufacture. 

Gutta percha. crude. 

Hair of horse, cattle, and other animals, 
cleaned or uncleaned, drawn or undrawn, 
not specially provided for in this act ; and 
human hair, raw, uncleaned, and not 
drawn. 

Hides and skins, raw or uncured, whether 
dry, salted, or pickled. 

Hide cuttings, raw, with or without hair, 
and all other glue stock. 

Hide rope. 

Hones and whetstones. 
Hoofs, unmanufactured. 
Hop roots for cultivation. 
Horns, and p*rts of, unmanufactured, 
including horn strips and tips. 
1 ee. 

India rubber, crude, and milk of, and old 
scrap or refuse India rubber, which has 
been worn out by use, and is fit only for 
remanufacture. 

Indigo, and extracts or pastes of, and 
carmines. (Old rates: Indigo, free; ex- 
tracts or pastes of, %c. per lb.; carmines 
of, 10c. per lb.) 

Iodine, crude, and resublimed. (Old rates: 
Crude, free ; resublimed, 30c. per lb.) 

Ipecac. 

Iridium. 

Ivory, sawed or cut into logs, but not 
otherwise manufactured, and vegetable 
ivory. (Old rates: Vegetable ivory, free; 

other, 20 p. c.) 
Jalap. 

.let, unmanufactured. 

.loss stick, or Joss light. 

Junk, old. 

Kelp. 

Kieserite. 

Kyanite, or cyanlte, and kainite. 
Lac-dye, crude, seed, button, stick, and 
shell. 
Lac spirits. 
Lactarine. 

Lava, unmanufactured. 
Leeches. 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



175 



Lemon juice, lime juice, and sour-orange 
juice. 

Lioorice root, unground. 

Lifeboats and life-saving apparatus spe- 
cially imported by societies incorporated 
or established to encourage the saving of 
human life. 

Lime, citrate of. 

Lime, chloride of, or bleaching powder. 
Lithographic stones not engraved. 
Litmus, prepared or not prepared. 
Loadstones. 

Madder and munjeet, or Indian madder, 
ground or prepared, and all extracts of. 

Magnesia, sulphate of, or Epsom salts. 
(Old rate. 3- 10c. per lb.) 

Magnesite, or native mineral carbonate 
of magnesia. 

Magnesium. 

Magnets. 

Manganese, oxide and ore of. 

Manna. 

Manuscripts. 

Marrow, crude. 

Marsh mnllows. 
. Medals of gold, silver, or copper, and 
other metallic articles manufactured as 
trophies or prizes, and actually received or 
bestowed and accepted as honorary dis- 
tinctions. 

Meerschaum, crude or unmanufactured. 

Milk, fresh. (Old rate, 5c. per gal.) 

Mineral waters, all not artificial, and 
mineral salts of the same, obtained by 
evaporation, when accompanied by duly 
authenticated certificate, showing thsi t 
they are in no way artificially prepared, 
and are the product of a designated min- 
eral spring; lemonade, soda water, and 
all similar waters. (Old rates: Mineral 
waters, all not artificial free ; salts, etc., 
25 p. c.) v ® 

Minerals, crude, or not advanced in 
value or condition by refining or grinding, 
or by other process of manufacture, not 
specially provided for in this net. 

Models of inventions and of other im- 
provements in the arts, including p. uterus 
lor machinery, but no article shall be 
deemed a model or pattern which can be 
fitted for use otherwise. 

Molasses testing not above 40 degrees 
polariscope test, aud containing 20 p. c. or 
less of moisture. 

Moss, seaweeds, and vegetable substan- 
ces, crude or unmanufactured, not other- 
wise specially provided for in this act. 

Musk, crude, in natural pods. 

Myrobolan. 

Needles, hand-sewing and darning. 

Newspapers and periodicals; but the 
term " periodicals " as herein used shall be 
understood to embrace only unbound or 
piiper-covered publications, containing 
current literaturo of the day and issued 
regularly at suited periods, as weekly, 
monthly, or quarterly. 

Nux vomica. 

Oakum. 

Ocher and ochery earths, sienna and 
sienna earths, umber and umber earths, 
not specially provided for in this act, dry. 
(Old rate, V\c. per lbJ 

Oil cake*. . . 



Oils : Almond, amber, crude and rectified 
ambergris, anise or anise seed, aniline, aspic 
or spike lavender, bergamot, cajeput, cara- 
way, cassia, cinnamon, cedrat, chamomile, 
citronella, or lemon grass, civet, cotton 
seed, croton, fennel, Jasmine or Jasimine, 
Juglandium, Juniper, lavender, lemon, 
limes, mace, neroli or orange flower, en- 
fleurage grease, nut oil or oil of nuts not 
otherwise specially provided for in this 
act; orange oil, olive oil for manufactur- 
ing or mechanical purposes unfit for eat- 
ing and not otherwise provided for in this 
act; otter of roses, palm and cocoanut, 
rosemary or anthoss, sesame or sesamum 
seed or bean, thyme, origanum red or 
white, valerian; and also spermaceti, 
whale, and other fish oils of American 
fisheries, and all fish and other products, 
of such fisheries; petroleum, crude or re- 
fined : Provided, That if there be imported 
into the United States crude petroleum, or 
the products of crude petroleum produced 
in any country which imposes a duty on 
petroleum or its products exported from 
the United States, there shall be levied, 
paid and collected upon said crude petro- 
leum or its products so imported, 40 p. c. 
(Old rates: Petroleum, crude, 10 p. c. ; re- 
fined, 20 p. c. ; others, free.) 

Opium, crude or unmanufactured, and 
not adulterated, containing 9 p. c. and over 
of morphia. 

Orange and lemon peel, not preserved, 
candled, or otherwise prepared. 

Orchil, or orchil liquid. 

Ores, of gold, silver, and nickel, and 
nickel matte. 

Osmium. 

Paintings, in oil or water colors, original 
drawings and sketches, and artists 1 proofs 
of etchings and engravings, and statuary, 
not otherwise provided for in t his act, but 
the term "statuary" as herein used shall 
be understood to include only professional 
productions, whether round or in relict, in 
marble, stone, alabaster, wood, or metal, 
of a statuary or sculptor, and the woid 
"painting," as used in this act. shall not bo 
understood to include such ns are mado 
wholly or in part by stenciling or other 
mechanical process. (Old rates: Artists' 
proofs of sketches and engravings, 25 p. c. ; 
original drawings or sketches, 20 p. o. ; 
others, 15 p. c.) 

Palladium. 

Paper stock, crude, of every description, 
including all grasses, fibers, rags, waste, 
shavings, clippings, old paper, r>pe cuds, 
waste rope, waste baggintr, old or refused 
gunny bags or gunny cloth, ftnd poplar 
otner woods, lit ouly to bo convorted 
into paper. 

Para fllne. 

Parchment and vellum. 

Pearl, mother of. not sawed or out, or 
otherwise manufactured. 

Pease, green, in bulk or in barrols, sacks, 
or similar packages(Old rate, 40c. per bush.) 

Poltriesund other usual goods and effects 
of Indians passing or repassing the bound- 
ary lino of the United States, under such 
regulations iih the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury may prcscrlbo: Provided, That this 



170 



THE TARIFF OF 1894-Continued. 



exemption shall not apply to goods in bales 
or other packages unusual among Indians. 

Personal and household effects not mer- 
chandise of citizens of the United States 
dying in foreign countries. 

I'ewter and britannia metal, old, and fit 
only to be reman u tact u red. 

Philosophical and scientific apparatus, 
utensils, instruments and preparations, in- 
cluding bottles and boxes containing the 
s;une; statuary, casts of marble, bronze, 
alabaster, < r plaster of Paris; paintings, 
drawings, and etchings, specially imported 
in good faith for the use of any society or 
institution incorporated or established for 
religious, philosophical, educational, scien- 
tific, or literary purposes, or for encour- 
agement of the fine arts, and not intended 
lor sale. 

Phosphates, crude or native. 

Plant's, trees, shrubs, and vines of all 
kinds commonly known as nursery stock, 
not specially provided for in this act (Old 
rate, 20 p. c.) 

Planter of Paris and sulphate of lime, un- 
ground. 

Platiua, in ingots, bars, sheets, and wire. 

Platinum, unmanufactured, and vases, 
retorts, and otuer apparatus, Vessels, and 
pirts thereof composed of platinum 
adapted for chemical uses. 

Plows, tooth and disk harrows, harvest- 
ers, reapers, agricultural drills, and plant- 
ers, mowers, horserakes, cultivators, 
threshing machines and cotton gins : Pro- 
vided, That all art cles mentioned in this 
p iraaraph if imported from a country 
which lays an import duty on like articles 
imported from the United States, shall be 
subject to the duties existing prior to the 
pass tge of this act. (Old rate, 45 p. c.) 

Plumbago. 

Plush, black, known commercially as 
hatters' plush, composed of silk, or of silk 
and cotton, and used exclusively for mak- 
ing men's hats. (Old rate, 10 p. e.) 

Polishing-stones, and burnishing-stones. 

Potash, crude, carbonate of, or ** black 
salts." Caustic potash, or hydrate of, i n- 
ciuding refined in sticks or rolls. Nitrate 
of potash, or saltpeter, crude. Sulphate 
of potash, crude or refined. Chlorate of 
potash. Muriate of potash. 

Professional books, implements, instru- 
ments, and tools of trade, occupation, or 
employment, in the actual possession at 
i he t iine of persons arriving in the United 
states; but this exemption shall not be 
C'lhstrued to include machinery or other 
art icles imported for use in any manufac- 
turing establishment, or forany other per- 
son or persons, or for sale, nor shall it be 
construed to include theatrical scenery, 
properties, and apparel, but such articles 
brought by proprietors or managers of 
theatrical exhibitionsnrriving from abroad 
lor temporary use by them in such exhibi- 
t ions and not for any other person and not 
for sale and which have been used by them j 
abroad sh ill be admitted free of duty un- 
der such regulations as the Secretary of the 
Treasury may prescribe ; but bonds shall | 
be given for the payment to the United : 
States of such duties a9 may beimposed by 1 



law upon any and all such articles as shall! 
not be exported within six months after 
such impor- ation : Provided, That the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury may in his discre- 
tion extend such period for a further term 
of six months in case application shall be 
made therefor. 
Pulu. 
Pumice. 

Quills, prepared or unprepared, but not 
made up into complete articles. 

Quinia, sulphate of, and all alkaloids or 
salts of cinchona bark. 

Rags, not otherwise specially provided 
for in this act. 

Regalia and gems, statues, statuary, and 
specimens or casts of sculpture where spe- 
cially imported in good faith for the use 
of any society incorporated or e>tabli.-hed 
solely for educational, philosophical, liter- 
ary, or religious purposes, or for the en- 
couragement of fine arts, or for the use or 
by order of any college, academy, school, 
seminary of learning, or public library in 
the United States; but the term " regalia" 
as herein us d shall be held to embrace 
only sueh insignia of rank f>r office or em- 
blems, as may bo worn upon the person or 
I borne in the hand during public exercises 
! of the society or institution, and shall not 
include artn-'les of furniture or fixtures, or 
of regular wearing apparel, nor personal 
property of individuals. 
Rennets, raw or prepared. 
Saffron and safflower, and extract of, and 
saffron cake. 
Sago, crude, and sago flour. 
Salaciue. 

Salt in bulk, and salt in bigs, sacks, bar- 
rels, or other packages, but the coverings 
shall pay the same rate of duty as if im- 
ported separately : Provided, That if salt 
is imported from any ( ountry whether in 
dependent or a dependency which imposes 
a duty upon salt exported from the 
United States, then there shall be levied 
paid, and collected upon such salt the rate 
of duty existing prior to ihe passage of 
this act. (Old rates: In bags, sacks, bar- 
rels or other packages, 12c. per 100 lbs. ; 
bulk, 8c.) 
Sauerkraut. 
Sausage skins. 

Seeds; anise, canary, caraway, carda- 
mom,- coriander, cotton, croton, cummin, 
tennel, fenugreek, hemp, hoarhound, mus- 
tard, rape. Saint John's bread or bene, sug- 
ar beet, mangel-wurzel, sorghum or sugar 
cane for seed, and all flower and grass 
seeds; bulbs and roots, not edible ; all the 
foregoing not specially provided for in this 
act. 

Selep, or saloup. 

Shells of all kinds, not cut, ground, or 
otherwise manufactured. 
Shotgun barrels, forged, rough bored. 
Shrimps, and other shellfish, canned or 
otherwise. (Old rates: Canned, 30 p. o.; 
others, free.) 

Silk, raw, or as reeled from the cocoon, 
but not doubled, twisted, nor advanced in 
manufacture in anyway. 
Silk oocoons and silk waste. 
Silk worm'sreggs. 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.- Continued. 



177 



Skeletons and other preparations of 
anatomy. 
Snails. 

Soda, nitrate of, or cubic nitrate, and 
chlorate of. 

Sulphate of Rod a, or salt cake, or niter 
cake. (Old rate, $1.25 per ton.) 

Sodium. 

Sparterre, suitable for making or orna- 
menting hats. 

Specimens of natural history, botany, 
ana mineralogy, when imported for cabi- 
nets or as objects of science, and not for 
sale. 

Spices. 

Cassia, cassia vera, and cassia buds, un- 
ground. 

Cinnamon, and chips of, unground. 
Cloves and clove stems, unground. 
Ginger-root, unground and not preserved 
or candied. 
Mace. 
Nutmegs. 

Pepper, black or white, unground. 

Pimento, unground. 

Spunk. 

Spurs and stilts u«*edin the manufacture 
of earthen, porcelain, and stone ware. 

Stamps: Foreign postage or revenue 
stamps, canceled or uncanceled. (Old rate, 
25 p. c.) 

Stone and sand : Burr stone in blocks, 
rough or manufactured, or bound up into 
millstf»ne< ; cliff stone, unmanufactured ; 
pumice stone, rotten stone, and sand, crude 
or manufactured. (Old rates: Burr stones, 
manufactured, bound up iuto millstones, 
15 p. c. ; others, free.) 

Storax or styrax. 

Strontia, oxide of, and protoxide of 
strontian, and strontianito, or mineral car- 
bonate of s i rontia. 

Sulphur, lac or precipitated, and sulphur 
or inimstone, crude, in bulk, sulphur ore, 
as pyrites or flulphu ret of iron in its nat- 
ural state, containing in excess of 25 p. C 
of sulphur, and sulphur not otherwise pro- 
vided for. 

Sulphuric ncid : Provided, That upon 
sulphuric acid imported fr«»m any coun- 
try, whether independent or a dependence, 
which i in poses a duty upon sulphuric acid 
exported from the Utiited States, thero 
shall he levied, and collected, tho rate of 
duty existing prior to thepassagoof this 
act. (O.d rate : Sulphuric acid, n. e. s., J4c 
per lb.) 

Sweeping* of Rilver and gold. 

Tallow and wool grease, including that 
known commercially as degras or brown 
wool g-ease. (Old rates: Tallow, lc. per 
lb. ; word grease, J^c.) 

Tapioca, cassava or cassady. 

Tar and pitch of wood, aud pitoh of coal 
tar. 

Tea and tea plants. 

Teeth, natural, or unmanufactured. 

Terra alba. 

Terra japonioa. 

Tin ore. cassitcrlte or black oxide of tin, 
and tin in bars, blocks, pigs, or grain or 
granulated. 

Tinsel wire, lame, or lahn. 

Tobacco stems. 



Tonquln, tonqua, or tonka beans. 

Tripoli. 

Turmeric. 

Turpentine, Venice. 
Turpentine, spirits of. 
Turtles. 

Types, old, and fit only to bo remanu- 
factured. 
Uranium, oxide and salts of. 
Vaccine virus. 
Valonia. 

V< rdigris, or subacetate of copper. 

Wafers, unmedicated, and not edible. 

Wax, vegetable or mineral. 

Wearing apparel and other personal ef- 
fects (not merchandise) < f persons arriv- 
ing in tho United States ; but this ex- 
emption shall not be held lo include arti- 
cles not actually in use and necessar y and 
appropriate for the use of s"ch persons for 
the purposes of their journey and present 
comfort and convenience, or which are 
intended for any other person or persons, 
or for sale. 

Whalebone, unmanufactured. 

Wood. 

Logs, and round unmanufactured timber 
not specially enumerated or provided for 
in this act. 

Firewood, handle bolts, heading bolts, 
stave bolts, and shingle holts, hop poles, 
fence po^t-s, railroad ties, sli p timb«r, 
and ship plunking, not specially provided 
for in this act. (Old rates: raving posts, 
railroad ties, telephone and telegraph 
poles, ail of cedar, 20 p. c; others, free.) 

Timber, hewn aud sawed, and timber 
used for spars and in building wharves. 
(Old rate, 10 p. c.) 

Timber, squared or sided. (Old rate, ^c. 
per cubic ft.) 

Sawed boards, plank, deals, and other 
lumber, rough or dressed, except board-, 
plank, deals, and other lumber of Cedar, 
lignum-vitee, lancewood, ebony, box, 
granadilla, mahogany, rosewood, satin- 
wood and other cabinet woods. (Old rate, SI 
per M ) 

I'ino clapboards. (Old rate, $1 por M.) 

Spruce clapboards. (Old rate, fcl.50 per M ) 

Hubs for wheels, posts last blocks, wag- 
on blocks, oar blocks, pun blocks, heading, 
aud all like blocks or sticks, rough hewn or 
sawed onlv. (Old rate, 20 p. c.) 

Laths. (Old rate, 15c. per M.) 

Pickets and palings. (Old rate, 10 p. c.) 

Shingles. (Old rates : White pine, 20c. per 
M.; others, 30c. per M.) 

8taves of wood of all kinds, wood un- 
manufactured: Provided, That all of the 
articles mentioned in paragraphs 672 to 083, 
inclusive, when Imported from any coun- 
try which lays an export duly or imposes 
discriminating «tumpago dues on any ol 
tbera. shall bo subj«'Ct to tho duties exist- 
ing prior to the passage of this act. (old 
rates : Staves, 10 p. c; veneers, 20 p. c.) 

Woods, namoly, cedar, lignum-vitro, 
lanoewood, ebony, box, granadilla, ma- 
hogany, rosewood, sutinwood, and all 
forms of oabinct woods •« the log, rougn 
or hewn; bamboo and rattan unmanufac- 
tured ; briar root or briar wood, aud simi- 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.— Continued. 



lar wood unmanufactured, or not further 
manufactured than cut into blocks suita- 
ble for the articles into which they are in- 
tended to be converted ; bamboo, reeds, 
and sticks of partridge, hair wood, pi- 
mento, orange, myrtle, and other woods, 
not otherwise specially provided for in this 
act, in the rough, or not further manufac- 
tured than cut into lengths suitable for 
sticks for umbrellas, parasols, sun-shades, 
whips, or walking canes; and India ma- 
lacca joints, not further manufactured 
than cut into suitable lengths for the man- 
ufactures into which they are intended to 
be converted. 

All wool of the sheep, hair of the camel, 
goat, alpaca, and other like animals, and 
all wool and hair on the skin, noils, yarn 
waste, card waste, bur waste, slubbing 
waste, roving waste, ring waste, and all 
waste, or rags composed wholly or in part 
of wool, all the foregoing not otherwise 
herein provided for. 

(Old rates.— All wools, hair of the camel, 
goat, alpaca, and other like animals, and 
wool aud hair on the skin : 

Glass 1.— Wools of the merino, blood, 
immediate or remote, down clothing wools 
and wools of like character with the fore- 
going, including those usually imported 
from Buenos Ayres, New Zealand, Aus- 
tralia, Cape of Good Hope, Russia, Great 
Britain, Canada, and elsewhere, and all 
wools not described in Classes 2 or 3,11c. 
per lb. 

Class 2.— Combing wool, Canada long 
wools, and hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, 
and other like animals, 12c. per lb. 

Class 3.— Donskoi, native. South Ameri- 
can, Cordova, Valparaiso, native Smyrna, 
Russian camel's hair, and wools usually 
imported from Turkey, Greece, Egypt and 
Syria, valued at 13c. or less per pound, 32 
p. c; valued at more thau 13c. per pound, 
50 p. c. 

Wools of Class 1, imported washed, twice 
the duty above named. Wools of Classes 1 
aud 2, when imported scoured, three times 
the duty above named. 

Wools or hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, 
or like animals, changed in character, for 
the purpose of evading the duty, twice the 
foregoing rates. 

Wools or hairs advanced in manufacture, 
and roping, roving or tops, shall pay the 
duties imposed on manufactures ot wool. 

Nails, yarn waste, card waste, bur waste, 
slubbing waste, roving wacte. ring waste, 
and all waste, n. e. s., 30c. per lb. 

Rags, composed wholly or in part of 
wool, 10c. per lb.) 

Works of art, the production of Ameri- 
can artists residing temporarily abroad, or 
other works of art, including pictorial 
paintings on glass, imported expressly for 
presentation to a national institution, or to 
any State or municipal corporation, or in- 
corporated religious society, college, or 
other public institution, including stained 
or painted window glass or stained or 
painted glass windows; but such exemption 
fhall be subject to such regulations as the. 
secretary of the Treasury may prescribe. | 

Works of art, drawings, engravings, I 



photographic pictures, and phflosophical 
and scientific apparatus brought by pro- 
fessional artists, lecturers, or scientists ar- 
riving from abroad for use by them tem- 
porarily for exhibition and in illustration, 
promotion, and encouragement of art, 
science, or industry in the United States, 
and not for sale, and photographic pic- 
tures, imported for exhibition by any as- 
sociation established in good faith and duly 
authorized under the laws of the United 
States, or of any State, expressly and solely 
for the promotion and encouragement of 
science, art, or industry, and not intended 
for sale, shall be admitted free of duty, 
under such regulations as the Secretary o) 
the Treasury shall prescribe; but bonds 
shall be given for the payment to the 
United States of such duties as may be im- 
posed by law upon any and all such arti- 
cles as shall not be exported within six 
months after such importation : Provided, 
That the Secretary of the Treasury may, in 
his discretion, extend such period for a 
further term of six months in cases where 
applications therefor shall be made. 

Works of art collections in illustration 
of the progress of the arts, science or man- 
ufactures, photographs, works in terra 
cotta, parian, pottery, or porcelain, and 
artistic copies of antiquities in metal or 
other material, hereafter imported in good 
faith for permanent exhibition at a fixed 
place by any society or institution estab- 
lished for the encouragement of the arts 
or of science, and all like articles imported 
in good faith by any society or association 
for the purpose of erecting a public monu- 
ment, and not intended for sale, nor for 
any other purpose than herein expressed ; 
but bonds shall be given undei*euch rules 
and regulations as the Secretary of the 
Treasury may prescribe, for the payment 
of lawful duties which may accrue should 
any of the articles be sold, transferred, or 
used contrary to this provision, and such 
articles shall be subject, at any time, to ex- 
amination and inspection by the proper 
officers of the customs : Provided, That the 
privileges of this and the preceding section 
shall not be allowed to associations or cor- 
porations engaged in or connected with 
business of a private or commercial char- 
acter. 

Yams. 

Zaffer. 

Sec. 3. -That there shall be levied, col- 
lected, and paid on the importation of all 
raw or unmanufactured articles, not 
enumerated or provided for in this act, a 
duty of 10 p. c. ; and on all articles manu- 
factured, in whole or in part, not provided 
for in this act, a duty of 20 p. c. (Old rates 
same.) 

Sec. 4.— That each and every imported 
article, not enumerated in this act, which 
is similar, either in material, quality, 
texture, or the use to which it may be 
applied, to any article enumerated in this 
act as chargeable with duty shall pay the 
same rate of duty which is levied on the 
enumerated article which it most resem- 
I les in any of the particulars before men- 
tioned ; aud if any non-enumerated article 



THE TA1UPF OP 1894.- Continued. 



equally resembles two or more enumerated 
articles on which different rates of duty 
are chargeable there shall be levied on 
such non-enumerated article the same rate 
of duty as is chargeable on the article 
which it resembles pnying the highest rate 
of duty ; and on articles not enumerated, 
manufactured of two or more materials, 
the duty shall be assessed at the highest 
rate at which the same would be charge- 
able if composed wholly of the component 
material thereof of chief value ; and the 
words ''component material of chief val- 
ue." wherever used in this act, shall be 
held to mean that component material 
which shall exceed in value any other 
single component material of the article: 
and the value of each component material 
shall be determined by the ascertained 
value of such material in its condition as 
found in the article. If two or more rates 
of duty shall be applicable to any imported 
article it shall pay duty at the highest of 
such rates. 

Sec. 5.— That all articles of foreign manu- 
facture, such as are usually or ordinarily 
marked, stamped, branded, or labeled, and 
all packages containing such or other im- 
ported articles, shall, respectively, be 
plainly marked, stamped, branded, or la- 
beled in legible English words, so as to in- 
dicate the country of their origin and tho 
quantity of their contents; and until so 
marked, stamped, branded, or labeled, they 
shall not be delivered to the importer; 
should any article or imported merchan- 
dise be marked, stamped, branded, or la- 
beled so as to indicate a quantity, number, 
or measurement in excess of the quantity, 
number, or measurement actually con- 
tained in such article, no delivery of the 
same shall be made to the importer until 
the mark, brand, stamp, or label, as the 
case may be, shall be changed so as to 
conform to the facts of the case. 

Sec. 6.— That no article of imported mer- 
chandise which shall copy or simulate the 
name or trade-mark of any domestic man- 
ufacture or manufacturer shall bo admit- 
ted to entry at any custom house of tho 
United States. And in order to aid the 
officers of tho customs in enforcing this 
prohibition, any domestic manufacturer 
who has adopted trade-marks may require 
his name and residence and a description 
of his trade-marks to bo recorded in books 
which shall be kept for that purpose in the 
Department of the Treasury under such 
regulations as the Secretary of tho Treas- 
ury shall prescribe, and may furnish to the 
Department facsimiles of such trade- 
marks; and thereupon tho Secretary of 
the Treasury shall cause one or more cop- 
ies to be transmitted to each collector or 
other proper officer of the customs. 

Sec. 7.— That all materials of foreign 
production which may bo necessary for 
the construction of vessels built in 
the United States for foreign account 
and ownership or for the purposo of 
being employed in tho foreign trade, 
Ipcluding the trade between tho At- 
lantic and Pacific ports of the United 
States, and all such materials necessary for 



179 



the building of their machinery, and all 
articles necessary for their outfit and 
equipment, after the passage of this act, 
may be imported in bond under such regu- 
lations as the Secretary of the Treasury 
may prescribe; and upon proof that such 
materials have been used for such pur- 
poses no duties shall be paid thereon. But 
vessels receiving the benefit of this section 
6hall not be allowed to engage in the 
coastwise trade of the United States more 
than two months in anyone year except 
upon th© payment to the United States of 
the duties of which a rebate is herein al- 
lowed : Provided, That vessels built in tho 
United States for foreign account and 
ownership 6hall not be allowed to en ga go 
in the coastwise trade of the United States. 

Seo. 8— That all articles of foreign pro- 
duction needed for the repair of American 
vessels engaged in foreign trade, including 
the trade between the Atlantic and Pacific 
ports of the United States, may be with- 
drawn from bonded warehouses free of 
duty, under such regulations as the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury may prescribe. 

Sec. 9. -That all articles manufactured 
in whole or in part of imported materials, 
or of materials subject to internal rev- 
enue tax, and intended for exporta- 
tion without being charged with duty 
and without having an internal rev- 
enue stamp affixed thereto shall, under 
such regulations as the Secretary of 
the Treasury may prescribe, in order 
to be so manufactured and exported be 
made and manufactured in bonded ware- 
houses similar to those known and desig- 
nated in Treasury Regulations as bonded 
warehouses, class 6: Provided, That the 
manufacturer of such articles shall first 
give satisfactory bonds for the faithful 
observance of all the provisions of law 
and of such regulations as shall be pie- 
scribed by the Secretary of tho Treasury : 
Provided further. That the manufacture 
of distilled spirits from grain, starch, mo- 
lasses or sugar, including all dilutions or 
mixtures of them or eit her of them, shall 
not be permitted in such manufacturing 
warehouses. 

Whenever goods manufactured in any 
bonded warehouse established under tho 
provisions of tho preceding paragraph 
shall be exported directly therefrom, or 
shall be duly laden for transportation and 
immediate exportation under tho super- 
vision of the proper officer who shall bo 
duly designated for that purpose, such 
goods shall be exempt from duty and from 
the requirements relating to revenue 
stamps. 

Any materials used in the manufacture 
of such goods, and any packages, cover- 
ings, vessels, brands and labels used in put- 
ting up the samo may, under the regula- 
tions of tho Secretary of the Treasury, bo 
cortveyed without tho payment of revenue 
tax or duty into any bondod manufactur- 
ing warehouse, and importod goods may, 
under the aforesaid regulatlons.be trans- 
ferred without the exaction of duty from 
any bonded warehouse Into any bonded 
manufacturing warehouse; but this priv- 



ISO 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



ilego shall not be held to apply to imple- 
liente, machinery, or apparatus to be ur-ed 
n the construction or repair of any bond- 
d manufacturing warehouse or for the 
prosecution of the business carried ou 
therein. ' ' * i 

No articles or materials received into 
such bonded manufacturing warehouse 
shall be withdrawn or removed therefrom 
except for direct shipment and exporta- 
tion or for transportation and immediate 
exportation in bond under the supervision 
of the officer duiy designated therefor by 
tli 3 collector of the port, who shall certify 
to such shipment and exportations, or la- 
deningfor transportation, as the case may 
be, de.-eribingthe articles by their mark or 
herwise, the quantity, the date of expor- 
tation, and the name of the vessel. All 
labor performed and services rendered un- 
der these provisions shall be under the 
supervision of a duly designated ofiicer of 
tue customs and at the expense of the 
manufacturer. 

A careful account shall be kept by the 
collector of all merchandise delivered by 
liim to any bonded manufacturing ware- 
house, and a sworn monthly return, veri- 
fied by the customs officers in charge shall 
be made by the manufacturers containing 
a detailed statement of all imported mer- 
chandise used by him in the manufacture 
of exported articles. 

Before commencing business the propri- 
etor of any manufacturing warehouse 
shall file with the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury a list. of all the articles intended to 
be manufactured in such warehouse and 
state the formula of manufacture and the 
names and quantities of the ingredients to 
be used therein. 

Articles manufactured under these pro- 
visions may be withdrawn under such reg- 
ulations as' the Secretary of the Treasury 
may prescribe for transportation and de- 
livery into any bonded warehouse at an 
exterior port for the 6ole purpose of im- 
mediate export therefrom. 

The provisions of Revised Statutes thirty- 
four hundred and thirty-three shall, so 1ar 
as may be practicable, apnly to any bonded 
manufacturing warehouse established un- 
der this act and to the merchandise con- 
veyed therein. 

Pec. 10.— That all persons are prohibited 
from importing into the United States 
from any foreign country any obscene 
book, pamphlet, paper, writing, advertise- 
ment, circular, print, picture, drawing, or 
other representation, figure, or image on 
or of paper or other material, or any cast, 
instrument, or Oihcr article of an immoral 
nature, or any drug or medicine, or any 
article whatever for the prevention of con- 
ception or for causing unlawful abortion 
or any lottery ticket or any advertisement 
of any lottery. No such articles, whether 
imported separately or contained in pack- 
ages with other goods entitled to entry, 
shall be admitted to entry; and all such 
articles shall be proceeded against, seized, 
and forfeited by due course of law. All 
such prohibited articles and the package in 
which they are contained in the course of 





importation shall be detained br the officer 
of customs, and proceedings taken against 
the same as hereinafter prescribed, unless 
it appears to the satisfaction of the collec- 
tor of customs that the obscene articles 
contained in the package were inclosed 
thereiu without the knowledge or consent 
of the importer, owner, agent, or con-t 
signee: Provided* That the drugs herein* 
before mentioned, when imported in bulk 
and not put up for any of the purpose^ 
hereinbefore" specified, are excepted from 
the operation of this section. 

Sec. 11.— That whoever, being an officer, 
agent, or employee of the Government of 
the United btates, shall knowingly aid or 
abetany person engaged in any violation of 
any of the provisions of law prohibiting 
importing, advertising, dealing in, exhibit- 
ing, or sending or receiving by mail ob- 
scene or indecent publications or represen- 
tations, or means for preventing concep- 
tion or procuring abortion, or other arti- 
cles of indecent or immoral use or ten* 
dency, shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and shall for every offense be pun«* 
ishable by a fine of not more than|$5,000, or 
by imprisonment at hard labor for not 
more than ten years, or both. 

Sec. 12— That any judge of any district 
or circuit court of the United States, with- 
in the proper district, before whom com- 
plaint in writing of any violation of the 
two preceding sections is made, to the eat* 
isfaction of such judge, and founded on 
knowledge or belief, and if upon belief, 
setting forth the grounds of such belief, 
and supported by oath or affirmation of 
the complainant, may issue, conformably 
to the Constitution, a warrant directed td 
the marshal or anv deputy marshal in the 
proper district, directing him to search for, 
seize, and take possession of any such arti- 
cle or thing mentioned in the t wo preced* 
ing sections, and to make due and immedi- 
ate return thereof to the end that the same 
may be condemned and destroyed by pror 
ceedings, which shall be conducted in the 
same manner as other proceedings in thd 
case of municipal seizure, and with the 
same right of appeal or writ of error. 

Sec. 13.— That machinery for repair may 
bo imported into the United States with- 
out payment of duty, under bond, to be 
givenjn double the appraised^value there-* 
of, to be withdrawn pnd exported after 
said machinery shall have been repaired ? 
and the Secretary of the Treasury is au- 
thorized and directed to prescribe such 
rules and regulations as may be necessary 
to protect the revenue against fraud and 
secure the identity and character of all 
such importations when again withdrawn 
and exported, restricting and limiting the 
export and withdrawal to the same portof 
entry where imported, and also limiting all 
bonds to a period of time of not more than 
six months from the date of the im porta" 
tion. 

Sec. 14 —That a discriminating duty of lp 
p. c. ad valorem, in addition to the duties 
imposed by law, shall be levied, collected 
and paid on all goods, wares, or merchan- 
dise which shall be imported in vessels not 



I 

THE TAKIFF OF 1894,-ContInucd. 



of the United States ; but this discriminat- 
ing duty shall not apply to goods, wares, 
and merchandise which shall be imported 
in vessels not of the United States, en- 
titled, by treaty or any Act of Congress, to 
be entered in the ports of the United 
States on payment of the same duties as 
shall then bo paid on goods, wares and 
merchandise imported, in vessels of the 
United States. 

Sec. 15.— That no goods, wares or mer- 
chandise, unless in cases provided for by 
treaty, shall be imported into the United 
States from any foreign port or place, ex- 
cept in vessels of the United States, or in 
such foreign vessels as truly and wholly 
belong to the citizens or subjects of that 
con ntry of which the goods are the growth, 
production, or manufacture, or from 
which such goods, wares or merchandise 
can only bo, or most usually are, first 
shipped for transportation. All goods, 
wares, or merchandise imported contrary 
to this section, and the vessel wherein the 
6ame shall be imported, together with her 
cargo, tackle, apparel, and furniture, shall 
beforf ited to the United States ; andsuch 
goods, wares, or merchandise, ship, or ves- 
sel, and cargo shall be liable to be seized, 
prosecuted, and condemned in like man- 
ner, and under the same regulations, re- 
strictions, and provisions as have been 
heretofore established for the recovery, 
collection, distribution, and remission of 
forfeitures to the United States by thesev- 
eralrevenue laws. 

Sec. 16.— That the preceding section shall 
not apply to vessels or goods, wares, or 
merchandise imported in vessels of a for- 
eign nation which does not maintain a sim- 
ilar regulation against vesselsof the United 
States. 

Sec. 17 — That the importation of neat 
cattle and the hides of neat cattle from 
any foreign country into the United States 
is prohibited : Provided, That the operation 
of this section shall be suspended as to any 
foreign country or countries, or any parts 
of such country or conn tries, whenever the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall officially 
determine, and give publio notice thereof 
that such importation will not tend to the 
introduction or spread of contagious or 
infectious diseases among the cattle of the 
United States; and the Secretary of the 
Treasury is hereby authorized and empow- 
ered, and it shall be his duty, to make all 
necessary orders and regulations to carry 
this section into effect, or to suspend the 
same as herein provided, and to send copies 
thereof to the proper officers in the United 
States, and to such officers or agents of the 
United States in foreign countries as ho 
shall Judge necessary. 

Sec 18. -That any person convicted of a 
willful violation of any of the provisions 
of the preceding section shall be fined not 
exceeding $500, or imprisoned not exceed- 
ing one year, or both, in the discretion of 
the court. 

Sec. 19.— That upon the reimportation of 
articles once exported of the growth, prod- 
uct, or manufacture of the United States, 
upon which, no internal tax has been as- 



1S1 



ses5ed or paid, or upon which pitch tax "has 
been paid and refunded by allowance or 
drawback, th«re shall bo levied, collected, 
and paid a duty equal to the tax imposed 
by the internal revenue laws upon such ar- 
ticles, except articles manufactured in 
bonded warehousesaud exported pursuant 
to law, which shall be subject to the bame 
rate of duty as if originally imported. ' 

Sec. 20.- That whenever any vessel 
laden with merchandise in whole or in 
part subject to duty has been sunk in 
any river, harbor, bay, or waters subject to 
the jurisdiction of the United States, and 
within its limits, for the period of two 
years, and is abandoned by tho owner 
thereof, any person who may n»ise su<h 
vessel shall be permits d to bring any mer- 
chandise recovered therefrom into tho port 
nearest to the place where such vessel was 
so raised free fiom the payment of any 
duty thereupon, but under such regula- 
tions as the Secretary of the Treasury may 
prescribe. 

Sec. 21. -That the works of manufac- 
turers engaged in smelting or refining 
metals, or both smelting and reflniiiK, in 
the United States may be designated as 
bonded warehouses under such regulations 
as the Secretary of the Treasury may pre- 
scribe: Provided, Thatsuch manufaetureis 
shall first give satisfactory bonds to the 
Secretary of the Treasury. Ores or metals 
in any crude form requiring smelting or 
refining to make them readily available in 
the arts, imported into the United Mates 
to be smelted or refinej and intended to be 
exported In a refined but unmanufacttmd 
state, shall, under such rules as the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury may prescribe, and 
under tho direction of the proper officer, 
be removed in original packages or in bulk 
from the vessel or other vehicle on M hieli 
they have been imported, or from the 
bonded warehouse in which t he same may 
be. into the bonded warehouse in which 
such smelting or refining, or both, may bo 
carried on, for tho purposo of being 
smelted or refined, or both, without pay- 
ment of duties thereon, and may there bo 
smelted or refined, together with other 
metalsof homoor foreign production: Pro- 
vided, That each day a quantity of refined 
metal equal to the amount of imported 
metal smelted or refined Unit dayt-hall be 
set aside and such metal so tot aside shall 
not bo taken from said works except for 
transportation to another bonded ware- 
house or for exportation, under tho direc- 
tion of the proper officer having charge 
thereof asaforesald, whose certificate, de- 
scribing the articles by their marks or 
otherwise, tho quantity, the dato of im- 
portation, and tho name of vossel or other 
vehicle by which it was imported, with 
such additional particulars as may from 
time to time bo required, shall bo received 
by tho collector of customs as sufficient 
evidence of tho exportation of tho metal, 
or it may be removed under such regula- 
tions as tho Secretary of tho Treasury may 
prescribe, upon entry and payment of 
duties, for domestic consumption. All 
labor performed and services rendered ut> 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.— Continued. 



182 



der these regulations 6hall be under the 
supervision of an officer of the customs, to 
be appointed by the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, and at the expense of the manufac- 
turer. 

Sec. 22.— That where imported materials 
on which duties have been paid are used in 
the manufacture of articles manufactured 
or produced in the United States, there 
shall be allowed on the exportation of such 
articles a drawback equal in amount to the 
duties paid on the materials used, le3S one 
p. c. of such duties: Provided, That when 
the articles exported are made in part from 
domestic materials the imported materials, 
or the parts of the articles made from such 
materials, shall so appear in the completed 
articles that the quantity or measure there- 
of may be ascertained : And provided fur- 
ther. That the drawback on any article al- 
lowed under existing law shall be con- 
tinued at the rate herein provided. That 
the imported materials used in the manu- 
facture or production of articles entitled 
to drawback of customs duties when ex- 
ported shall, in all cases where drawback of 
duties paid on such materials is claimed, bo 
identified, the quantity of such materials 
used and the amount of duties paid thereon 
shall be ascertained, the facts of the man- 
ufacture or production of such articles in 
the United States and their exportation 
therefrom shall be determined, and the 
drawback due thereon shall be paid to the 
manufacturer, producer, or exporter, or 
the agent of either or to the person to 
whom such manufacturer, producer, ex- 
porter, or agent shall in writing order such 
drawback paid, under such regulations 
as the Secretary of the Treasury shall pre- 
scribe.' 

Sec. 50.— That the collector or chief offi- 
cer of the customs at any port of entry or 
delivery shall issue a license to any reputa- 
ble and competent person desiring to 
transact business as a custom-house bro- 
ker. Such license shall be granted for a 
period of one year, and may be revoked 
for cause nt any time bythe Secretary of 
the Treasury. From and after the ]st day 
of August, 1894, no person shall transact 
business as a custom-house broker without 
a license granted in accordance with this 
provision ; but this act shall not bo so con- 
strued as to prohibit any importer from 
transacting business at a custom-house 
pertaining to his own importations. 

Sec. 51.— That all goods, wares, articles, 
and merchandise manufactured wholly or 
in part in any foreign country by convict 
l.tbor shall not bo entitled to entry at any 
of tho ports of tho United States, and the 
importation thereof is hereby prohibited, 
and the Secretary of the Treasury is au- 
thorized to prescribe such regulations as 
may be necessary lor the enforcement of 
.this provision. 

Sec 52.— That tho value, of foreign coin, 
as expressed in the money of account of 
the United States, shall be that of the pure 
metal of such coin of standard valuo ; and 
the values of tho standard coins in circula- 
tion of tho various nations of the world 
shall be estimated quarterly by the Di- 



rector of the Mint, and be proclaimed by 
the Secretary of the Treasury immediately 
after the passage of this act and thereafter 
quarterly on the 1st day of January, April, 
July, and October in eaeh year. And the 
values so proclaimed shall be followed in 
estimating the values of all foreign mer- 
chandise exported to the United States 
during the quarter for which the value is 
proclaimed, and the date of the consular 
certification of any invoice shall, for the 
purposes of this section, be considered the 
date of exportation : Provided, That the 
Secretary of the Treasury may order the 
reliquidation of any entry at a different 
value, whenever satisfactory evidence 
shall be produced to him showing that the 
value in United States currency of the 
foreign money specified in the invoice was, 
at the date of certification, at least 10 p. c. 
more or less than the value proclaimed 
during the quarter in which the consular 
certification occurred. 

Sec. 53. -That section 2,801 of the Revised 
Statutes be amended so as to read : 

" Sec. 2,804.— No cigars shall be imported 
unless the same are packed in boxes of 
more than 500 cigars in each box ; and no 
entry of any imported cigars shall be al- 
lowed of less quantity than 3,000 in a single 
package; -and all cierars on importation 
shall be placed in public store or bonded 
Avarehouse, and shall not be removed there- 
from until the same shall have been in- 
spected and a stamp affixed to each box in- 
dicating such inspection, and also a serial 
number to be recorded in the custom- 
house. And the Secretary of the Treasury 
is hereby authorized to provide the requis- 
ite stamps and to make all necessary regu- 
lations for carrying. the above provisions 
of law into effect." 

Sec. 54.— Thiit from and after the 1st day 
of January, 1895, and until the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1900, there shall be assessed, levied, 
collected, and paid annually upon the 
gains, profits, and income received in the 
preceding calendar year by every citizen of 
the United States, whether residing at 
home cr abroad, and every person residing 
therein, whether said gains, profits, or in- 
como be derived from any kind of prop- 
erty, rents, interest, dividends, or salaries, 
or from any profession, trade, employ- 
ment, or vocation carried on in the United 
States or elsewhere, or from any other 
source whatever, a tax of 2 p. c. on the 
amount so derived over and above $4,000, 
and a like tax shall be levied, collected, 
and paid annually upon the gains, profits, 
and income from all property owned and 
of every business, trade, or profession car- 
ried on in the United States by persons re- 
siding without tho United States. And the 
tax herein provided for shall be assessed, 
by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue 
and collected, and paid upon tho gains, 
profits, and income for the year ending 
the 31st d iyof December next preceding 
the time for levying, collecting, and paying 
said tax. 

Sec. 55— That in estimating the gains, 
profits, and income of any person there 
shall be included all income derived from 



THE TARIFF OF 1894 .-Continued. 



interest upon notes, bonds, and other se- 
curities, except such bonds of the United 
States, the principal and interest of which 
are by the law of their issuance exempt 
from all Federal taxation ; profits realized 
within the year from sales of real estate 
purchased within two years previous to 
the close of the year for which income is 
estimated; interest received or accrued 
upon all notes, bonds, mortgages, or other 
forms of indebtedness bearing interest, 
whether paid or not, if good and collect- 
ible, less the interest which has become 
due from said person, or which has been 
paid by him during the year; the amount 
of all premium on bonds, notes, or cou- 
pons; the amount of sales of live stock, 
sugar, cotton, wool, butter, cheese, pork, 
beef, mutton, or other meats, hay, and 
aud grain, or other vegetable or other pro- 
ductions, being the growth or produce of 
the estate of such person, less the amount 
expended in the purchase or production 
of said stock or produce, and not including 
any part thereof consumed directly by the 
family; money and the value of all per- 
sonal property, acquired by gift or in- 
heritance; all other gains, profits, and in- 
come derived from any source whatever, 
except that portion of the salary, compen- 
sation, or pay received for servjces in the 
civil, military, naval, or other service of 
the United States, including Senators, 
Representatives, and Delegates in Con- 
gress, from which the tax has been de- 
ducted, and except that portion of any 
salary upon which the employer is re- 
quired by law to withhold, and does with- 
hold the tax and pays the same to the 
officer authorized to receive it. In com- 
puting incomes the necessary expenses 
actually incurred in carrying on any busi- 
ness, occupation, or profession shall be 
deducted and also all interest due or paid 
within the year by such person on existing 
indebtedness. And all national, State, 
county, school, and municipal taxes, not 
including those assessed against local bene- 
fits, paid within the year shall bo deducted 
from the gains, profits, or income of tho 
person who ha3 actually paid the same, 
whether such person bo owner, tenant, or 
mortgagor; also losses actually sustained 
during the year, incur red in trado or, aris- 
ing from fires, storms, or shipwreck, and 
not compensated for by insurance or 
otherwise, and debts ascertained to bo 
worthless, but excluding all estimated de- 
preciation of values and losses within tho 
year on sales of real estate purchased with- 
in two years provious to tho year for 
which income is estimated : Provided, 
That no deduction shall be made for any 
amount paid out for new buildings, per- 
manent improvements, or betterments, 
made to increase tho value of any property 
Or estate: Provided further. That only ono 
deduction of $4,000 Bhall bo mado from tho 
aggregate income of all tho members of 
any family, composed of ono or both par- 
ents, and ono or more minor children, or 
husband and wifo ; that guardians shall bo 
allowed to make a deduction in favor of 
each and every ward, except that in case 



where two or more wards are comprised in 
one family, and have joint property inter- 
ests, the aggregate deduction in their favor 
shall not exceed $4,000 : And provided fur- 
ther. That in cases where the salary or 
other compensation paid to any person in 
the employment or service of the United 
States shall not exceed the rate of $4,000 
per annum, or shall bo by fees, or uncer 
tain or irregular in the amount or in the 
time during which the same shall have 
accrued or been earned, such salary or 
other compensation shall be included in 
estimating the annual gains, profits, or in- 
come of the person to whom the same shall 
have been paid, and shall include that por- 
tion of any income or salary upon which 
a tax has not been paid by the employer 
where the employer is required by law to 
pay on the excess over $4,000: Provided 
also, That in computing the income of any 
person, corporation, company, or associa 
tion there shall not be included tho 
amount received from any corporation, 
company, or association as dividends upon 
the stock of such corporation, company, 
or association if the tax of 2 p. c. has been 
paid upon its net profits by said corpora- 
tion, company, or association as required 
by this act. 

Sec. 56. -That it shall be the duty of all 
persons of lawful age having an income of 
more than $3,000 for the taxable year, com- 
puted on tho basis herein prescribed, to 
make and render a list or return, on or bo- 
foro the day provided by law, in such form 
and manner as may be directed by tho 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with 
the approval of tho Secretary of tho Treas- 
ury, to the collector or a deputy collector 
of tho district in which they reside, of the 
amount of their income, gains, and prof- 
its, as aforesaid ; and all guardians and 
trustees, executors, administrators, agents, 
x'ecei vers, and all persons or corporations 
acting in any fiduciary capacity, shall make 
and render a list or return, as aforesaid, to 
tho collector or a deputy collector of tho 
district in which such person or corpora- 
tion acting in a fiduciary capacity resides 
or does business, of the amount of income, 
gains, and profits of any minor or person 
for whom they act. but persons having less 
than $3,500 incomo are not required to 
make such report; and tho collector or 
deputy collector, shall require every Hht or 
return to bo verified by the oath or af- 
firmation of tho party rondoring it, 
and may increase tho amount of any 
list or roturn if ho has reason to be- 
lievo that tho samo is understated; and 
In case any such person having a tax- 
able incomo shall neglect or refuso to 
make and render such list and roturn, or 
shall render a willfully falso or fraudulent 
list or return, it shall bo tho duty of tho 
collector, or deputy collector, to mako 
such list, according to tho best Information 
he can obtain, by the examination of such 
person, or any other evidence, and to add 
50 p. c. as a ponalty to tho amount of tho 
tax duo on such list In all cases of willful 
neglect or refusnl to make and render a 
list or roturn; and in all cases of a willfully 



m 



THE TARIFF OF 1894 —Continued. 



false or fraudulent list- or -return-bavin^ 
been rendered to add 100 p. c. as a penalty 
to the amount of tax ascertained to be 
clue, the tax and the additions thereto as a 
penally to be assessed and collected In the 
manner provided for in other cases of will- 
ful neglect or refusal to render a list or 
return, or of rendering- a false or fraudu- 
lent return : Provided, That any pei*son, or 
corporation, in his, her, or its own behalf, 
or as such fiduciary, shall be permitted to 
declare, under oath or affirmation, the 
form and' manner of -which shall be pre- 
scribed by the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue, with the approval of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, that he, she, or his, or 
her, or its ward or beneficiary, was not 
possessed of an income of $4,000, liable to 
be assessed according to the provisions of 
this act ; or ma / declare that he, she, or it, 
or his, her, or its ward oo beneficiary has 
been assessed and has paid an income tax 
elsewhere in the same year, under author- 
ity of the United States, upon all his, her, or 
its income, grains, or profits, and upon all the 
income, gains, or profits for which he, she, 
or it is 1 able as 6uch fiduciary, as pre- 
scribed by law; and if the collector or 
deputy collector shall be satisfied of the 
truth of the declaration, such person or 
corporation shall thereupon be exempt 
from income tax in the said district for 
that year; or if the list or return of any 
person or corporation, company, or asso- 
ciation shall have been increased by tho 
collector or deputy collector, such person 
or corporation, company or association, 
may be permitted t > prove the amount of 
income liable to be assessed; but such 
proof shall not bo considered as conclusive 
of the facts, and i o deductions claimed in 
sneh cases shall be made or allowed until 
approved by tho collector or deputy col- 
lector. Any person or company, corpora- 
tion, or association feeling aggrieved by 
the decision of the deputy collector, in 
Mich cases may appeal to the collector of 
1 he district, and his decision thereon, un- 
1 -S3 reversed by the Commissioner of In- 
ternal Revenue, shall be final. If dissatis- 
iied with the decision of the collector such 
person or corporation, company or associ- 
ation may submit the case, with all the 
papers, to the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue for his decision, may furnish tne 
testimony of witnesses to prove any rele- 
vant facts hnviny served notice to that 
effect upon the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue, as herein prescribed. 

Such notice shall state the time and 
place at which, and the officer before whom 
the testimony will be taken; the name, 
age, residence, and business, of the pro- 
posed witness, with the questious to be 
propounded to tho witness, or a brief 
statement of the substance of tho testi- 
mony ho is expected to give: Provided, 
That the Government may at tho same 
time and place take testimony upon like 
notice to rebut the testimony of the wit- 
nesses examined by the person taxed. 

Tho notice shall be delivered or mailed 
to tho Commissioner of Internal Revenue 
a sufficient number of days previous to 



the day fixed for taking the testimony, to 
allow him, after its receipt, at least five 
days, exclusive of the period required for 
mail communication with the place at 
which the testimony ii to be taken, in 
which to give, should he so desire, instruc- 
tions as to the cross-examination of the 
proposed witness. 

Whenever practicable, the affidavit or 
deposition shall betaken before a collector 
or deputy collector of internal revenue, in 
which case reasonable notice shall be given 
to the collector or deputy collector of the 
time fixed for taking the deposition or affi- 
davit: 

Provided further. That no penalty shall 
be assessed upon any person or corpora- 
tion, company, or association for such 
neglect or refusal or for making or render- 
ing a willfully false or fraudulent return, 
except alter reasonable notice of the time 
and place of hearing, to be prescribed by 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, so 
as to give the person charged an oppor- 
tunity to be heard. 

Sec. 67.— The taxes on incomes herein im- 
posed shall be due and payable on or before 
theism day of July in each year; and to 
any sum or sums aunually due ami unpaid 
after the 1st day of July as aforesaid, and 
for ten days after notice and demand 
thereof by the collector, there shall be lev- 
ied, in addition thereto, tho sum of 5 p. c. 
on the amount of taxes unpaid, and inter- 
est at the rate of 1 p. c. per mouth upon 
said tax from the time the same becomes 
due, as a penalty, except from the estates 
of deceased, insane, or insolvent persons. 

Sec. 58.— Any nonresident may receive 
the benefit of the exemptions herein befote 
provided for by tiling with ihe d"putv col- 
lector of any district a true list of all his 
property and sources of income in the 
United States and complying with the pro- 
visionsof section 56 of thisact as if a resi- 
dent. In computing income; he shall in- 
clude ail income from every source, but 
unless he be a citizen of the United States 
he shall only pay on that part of the in- 
come which is derived from any source in 
the United States. In case such nonresi- 
dent fails to file such statement, the col- 
lector of each district shall collect the tax 
on the income derived from property sit- 
uated in his district, subject to income tax, 
making no allowance for exemptions, and 
all property belonging io such nonresident 
shall be liable to distraint for tax: Pro- 
vided, That nonresident corporations shall 
be subject to the same lawsastotax as 
resident corporations, and the collection of 
the tax shall be made in the same manner 
as provided for collections of taxes against 
nonresident persons. 

Sec. 59.— That there shall be assessed, 
levied, and collected, except as herein oth- 
erwise provided, a tax of SJ p. c. annually 
on'the net profits or income above actual 
operating and business expenses, including 
expenses for materials purchased for man- 
ufacture or bous'ht for resale, losses, and 
interest on bonded and other indebtedness 
of all banks, banking institutions, trust 
companies, savings institutions, fire, ma- 



THE TARIFF OF lS04.-Continucd . IS5 



rino, lifo, and other insurance companies, 
rail mud, cauul, turnpike, < anal-navigatiou, 
slack- wuter, telephone, telegraph, express, 
elect ric-ligbt, gas, water, street-railway 
cOmpani>s, and all oth' r corporations. 
Companies, or associations doing business 
,for profit in the United States, no matter 
;How created and organized, but not in- 
cluding part uerships. 

That said tax shall bo paid on or before 
the first d:iy of July in each year ; and if 
the pre?. dent or other chief officer of any 
corporation, company, or association, or in 
the caso of any foreign corporation, com - 
pany, or associat ion, the resident manager 
or agent Shall neglect or refuse to file with 
the collector of the internal-revenue dis- 
trict in which said corporation, company, 
or association shall be located or been- 

£' aged in business, a statement verified by 
is OTth or affirmation, in such form as 
'shall be prescribed by the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, with the approval of 
the Secretary of theTreasury,showingthe 
amount of net pronts or income received 
'by said corporation, company, or associa- 
tion during the whole calendar year last 
preceding the date of filing such state- 
men t as hereinafter required, the corpora- 
tion, company, or association making de- 
fault shall forfeit as a penalty the sum of 
$1,000 and 2 p. c. on the amount of taxes 
•due, for each month until the same is paid, 
the payment of said penalty to be enforced 
"as provided in other cases of neglect and 
'refusal to make return of taxes under the 
internal-revenue laws. 
. The net profits or income of all corpora- 
tions, companies, or associations shall in- 
clude the amounts paid to shareholders, or 
carried to the account of any fund, or used 
for construction, enlargement of plant, or 
any other expenditure or investment paid 
from the net annual profits made or ac- 
quired by said corporations, companies, or 
associations. 

That nothing herein contained shall ap- 
ply to States, counties, or municipalities; 
nor to corporations, companies, or associa- 
tions organized and conducted solely for 
charitable, religious, or educational pur- 
poses, including fraternal beneficiary so- 
cieties, orders, or associations operating 
upon the lodge system and providing for 
the payment of life, sick, accident, and 
other benefits to the members of such so- 
cieties, orders, or associations and depend- 
ents of such members ; nor to the stocks, 
shares, funds, or securities held by any 
fiduciary or trustee for charitable, relig- 
ious, or educational purposes; nor to build- 
ing and loan associations or companies 
which make loans only to their sharehold- 
ers ; nor to such savings banks, savings in- 
stitutions or societies as shall, first, have 
no stockholders or members except depos- 
itors and no capital except deposits; sec- 
ondly, shall not receive deposits to an ag- 
gregate amount in any one year, of more 
than $l,0ii0from the same depositor; third- 
ly, shall not allow an accumulation or total 
of deposits, by any one depositor, exceed- 
ing $10,000; fourthly, shall actually divide 
and distribute to its depositors, ratably to 



deposits, all the earnings ovrr the neces- 
sary and proper expenses of such bank, in- 
stitution, or society, excent such as shall 
be applied to surplus; fifthly, shall not 
possess, in any form, a surplus fund ex- 
ceodinglO p. c. of its aggregate deposit-;: 
nor to such savings banks, savings in>1 itu- 
tions or societies composed of members 
who do not participate in the profits there- 
of and which pay interest or dividends 
only to their depositors; nor to that part 
of the business of any savings bank, insti- 
tution, or other similar association having 
a capital Stock, that is conducted on the 
mutual plan solely for the benefit of its 
depositors on such plan, and which shall 
keep its accounts of its business conducted 
on such mutual plan separate and apart 
from its other accounts. 

Nor to any insurance company or asso- 
ciation which conductsall its business sole- 
ly upon the mutual plan, and only for tho 
benefit of its policyholders or members, 
and having no capital stock and no stock 
or share holders, and holding all its prop- 
erty in trust and in reserve for its policy- 
holders or members ; nor to that part < f 
the business of any insurance company 
having a capital stock and stock and share 
holders, which is conducted on the mutual 
plan, separate from its stock plan of insur- 
ance, and solely for the benefit of tho 
policy-holders and members insured on 
said mutual plan, and holding alt the prop- 
erty belonging to and derived from said 
mutual part of its business in trust and re- 
serve for the benefit of its policy-holdet s 
and members insured on said mutual plan. 

That all State, county, municipal, and 
town taxes paid by corporations, compan- 
ies, or associations, shall be included in t he 
operating and business expenses of such 
corporations, companies, or associations. 

Sec. 62.— That there shall bo levied, col- 
lected, and paid on all salaries of officers, 
or payments for services to persons in tho 
civil, military, naval, or other employ- 
mentor service of tho United Stat< s, in- 
cluding Senators and Representatives and 
Dc legates in Congress, when exceeding tho 
rate of $4,000 per annum, a tax of 2 p. c. 
on the excess above the said $4,000; and it 
shall bo the duty of all pay mast errand all 
disbursing officers under the Government 
of the United States, or persons in tho em- 
ploy thereof, when making any payment 
to any officers or persons as aforesaid, 
whose compensation is determined by a 
fixed salary, or upon settling or adjusting 
tho accounts of such officers or persons, to 
deduct and withhold the aforesaid tax of 2 
p. c. ; and the pay roll, receipts, or account 
of officers or persons paying such tax as 
aforesaid shall be made to exhibit the fact 
of such payment. And it shall bo the duty 
of the accounting officers of the Treasury 
Department, when auditing the accounts 
of any paymaster or disbursing officer, < r 
any officer withholding his salary from 
moneys received by him, or when settling 
or adjusting tho accounts of any such offi- 
cer, to require evidence that tho taxes 
mentioned In this sect'on have been de- 
ducted and paid over to the Treasurer of 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



180 



the United States, or other officer author- 
ized to receive th« same. Every corpora- 
tion which pays to any employee a salary 
or compensation exceeding $4,000 per an- 
num shall report the same to the collector 
or deputy collector of his district and said 
employee shall pay thereon, subject to the 
exemptions herein provided for, the tax 
of 2 p. c. on the excess of his salary over 
$4,000: Provided, That salaries due to 
State, county, or municipal officers shall 
be exempt from the income tax herein 
levied. 

Sec. 63— That sections 3167, 3172, 3173, 
and 8.76 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States as amended are hereby 
amended so as to read as follows : 

u Seo. 3167.— That it shall be unlawful for 
any collector, deputy collector, agent, 
clerk or other officer or employee of the 
United States to divulge or make known 
in any manner whatever not provided by 
law to any person the operations, style of 
of work orapparatusof any manufacturer 
or producer visited by him in the discharge 
of his official duties, or the amount or 
source of income, profits, losses, expendi- 
tures, or any particular thereof, set forth 
or disclosed in any income return by any 
person or corporation, or to permit any 
income return or copy thereof or any 
book containing any abstract or particu- 
lars thereof, to be seen or examined by 
any person except asprovided bylaw ; and 
it shall be unlawful for any person to 
print or publish in any manner whatever 
not provided bylaw, any income return, 
or any part thereof or the amount or 
source of income, profits, losses, or expen- 
ditures appearing in any income return ; 
and any offense against the foregoing pro- 
vision shall be a misdemeanor, and be pun- 
ished by a fine not exceeding $1,000, or by 
imprisonment not exceeding one year, or 
both, at the discretion of the court; and 
if the offender be an officer or employee of 
the United States he shall be dismissed 
from office and be incapable thereafter of 
holding any office under the Government. 1 ' 

** Seo. 3172— That every collector shall, 
from time to time, cause his deputies to 
proceed through every part of his district 
and inquire after and concerning all per- 
sons therein who are liable to pay any in- 
ternal revenue tax, and all persons owning 
or having the care and management of any 
objects liable to pay any tax, and to make 
a list of such persons and enumerate said 
objects. 

*• Sec. 3.173— That it shall be the duty of 
any person, partnership, firm, association, 
or corporation, made liable to any duty, 
special tax, or other tax imposed by law, 
when not otherwise provided for, in case 
of a special tax, on or before the 31st day 
of July in each year, in case of income tax 
on or before the 1st Monday of March in 
each year, and in other cases before the 
day on which the taxes accrue, to moke a 
list or return, verified by oath or affirma- 
tion, to the collector or a deputy collector 
of the district where located, of the arti- 
cles or objects, including the amount of 
annual income, charged with a duty or 



tax, the quantity of goods, wares, and" mer- 
chandise made or sold, and charged with a 
tax, the several rates and aggregate 
amount, according to the forms and regu- 
lations to be prescribed by the Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue, with the ap- 
proval of the Secretary of the Treasury, 
for which such person, partnership, firm, 
association, or corporation is liable : Pro- 
vided, That if any person liable to pay duty 
or tax, or owning, possessing, or having the 
care or management of property, goods, 
wares, and merchandise, articles or objects 
liable to pay any duty, tax, or license, shall 
fail to make and exhibit a list or return re- 
quired by law, but shall consent to disclose 
the particulars of any and all the property, 
goods, wares, and merchandise, articles and 
objects liable to pay any duty or tax, or 
any business or occupation liable to pay 
any tax as aforesaid, then, and in that case 
it shall be the duty of the collector or 
deputy collector to make such list or re- 
turn, which, being distinctly read, con- 
sented to,and signed and verified by oath or 
affirmation by the person so owning, pos- 
sessing, or having the care and manage- 
ment as aforesaid, may be received as the 
list of such person: Provided further. 
That in case no annual list or return has 
been rendered by such person to the col- 
lector or deputy collector, as required by 
law, and the person shall be absent from 
his or her residence or place of business at 
the time the collector or a deputy collector 
shall call for the annual list or return, it 
shall be the duty of such collector or dep- 
uty collector to leave at such place of resi- 
dence or business, with some one of suita- 
ble age and discretion, if such be present, 
otherwise to deposit in the nearest post- 
office a note or memorandum addressed to 
such person, requiring him or her to ren- 
der to such collector or deputy collector 
the list or return required by law, within 
ten days from the date of such note or 
memorandum, verified by oath or affirma- 
tion. And if any person on being notified 
or required as aforesaid shall refuse or 
neglect to render such list or return within 
the time required as aforesaid or whenever 
any person who is required to deliver # 
monthly or other return of objects subject 
to tax fails to do so at the time required, 
or delivers any return which, in the opin- 
ion of the collector, is false or fraudulent , 
or contains any undervaluation or under 
statement, it shall be lawful for the col- 
lector to summon such person, or any other 
person having possession, custody, or care 
of books of account containing entries ie- 
lating to the business of such person, or 
any other person he may deem proper, to 
appear before him and produce such 
books, at a time and place named in the 
summons, and to give testimony or answer 
interrogatories, under oath, respecting any 
objects liable to tax or the returns thereof. 
The collector may summon any person re 
siding or found within the State in whicj 
his district lies ; and when the person in- 
tended to be summoned does not reside 
and can not be found within such State, he 
may enter any collection district where 



THE TAHIFF OF 1894 -Continued. 



187 



such person may be found, and there make 
the examination herein authorjzed. And 
to this end he may there exercise all the 
authority which ne might lawfully exercise 
iu the district fur which ho was commis- 
sioned. 

'* Sec. 3176.— When any person, corpora- 
tion, company, or association refuses or 
neglects to render any return or list requir- 
ed by law, or renders a false or fraudulent 
return or list, the collector or any deputy 
collector shall make, according" to the best 
information which he can obtain, including 
that derived from the evidence elicited by 
the examination of the collector, and on 
his own view and information, such list or 
return, according to the form prescribed, 
of the income, property, and objects liable 
to tax owned or possessed or under the care 
or management of such person, or corpor- 
ation, company, or association and the 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue shall 
assess all taxes not paid by stamps, in- 
cluding the amount, if any, due for special 
tax, income or other tax, and in case of any 
return of a false or fraudulent list or val- 
uation intentionally he shall add 100 p. c. 
to such tax ; and in case of a refusal or 
neglect, except in cases of sickness or ab- 
sence, to make a list or return, or to verify 
the same as aforesaid, he shall add 50 p. c. 
to such tax. In case of neglect occasioned 
by sickness or absence as aforesaid the col- 
lector may allow such further time for 
making and delivering such list or return 
as he may deem necessary, not exceeding 
30 days. The amount so added to the tax 
shall be collected at the same time and in 
the same manner as the tax unless the 
negleot or falsity is discovered after the 
tax has been paid, in which case the amount 
so added shall bo collected in the same 
manner as the tax; and the list or return so 
made and subscribed by such collector or 
deputy collector shall be held prima facie 
good and sufficient for all legal purposes." 

Sec. 65.— That every corporation, com- 
pany, or association doing business for 

t>rotit shall make and render to the col- 
ector of its collection district, on or before 
the 1st Monday of March in every year, be- 
ginning with the year 1895, a full return, 
verified by oath or affirmation, In such 
form as the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue may prescribe, of all the follow- 
ing matters for the whole calendar year 
last preceding the date of such return : 

First. The gross profits of such corpora- 
tion, company, or association, from all 
kinds of business of every name and 
nature. 

Second. The expenses of such corpora- 
tion, company, or association, exclusive of 
interest, annuities, and dividends. 

Third. The net profits of such corpora- 
tion, company, or association, without al- 
lowance for interest, annuities, or divi- 
dends. ; * . 

Fourth. The amount paid on account of 
Interest, annuities, and dividends, stated 
separately. -t 

Fifth. Tho amount paid in salaries of 
HOOO or less to each person employed. 

Sixth. The amount paid in salaries of 



more than $4,000 to each person employed 
and the name and address of each of such 
persons and the amount paid to each. 

Sec. 66. -That it shall be the duty of 
every corporation, company, or association 
doing business for profit to keep full, reg- 
ular, and accurate books of account, upon 
which all its transactions shall be entered 
from day to day, in regular order, and 
whenever a collector or deputy collector 
Of the district in which any corporation, 
company, or association is assessable shall 
believe that a true and correct return of 
the income of such corporation, company, 
or association has not been made, he shall 
make an affidavit of such belief and of the 
grounds on which it is founded, and file the 
same with the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue, and if SMid Commissioner shall, 
on examination thereof, and after full 
hearing upon notice given to all parties, 
conclude there is good ground for such be- 
lief he shall issue a request in writing to 
such corporation, company, or association 
to permit an inspection of the books of 
such corporation, company, or association 
to be made ; and if such corporation, com- 
pany, or association shall refuse to comply 
with such request, then the collector or 
deputy collector of the district shall make 
from such information as he can obtain an 
estimate of the amount of such income and 
then add 50 p. c. thereto, which said ps- 
sessment so made shall then be the lawful 
assessment.of such income. 

Skc. 68.— That itshall be the duty of every 
collector of internal revenue, to whom any 
payment of any taxes other than the tax 
represented by an adhesive stamp or other 
engraved stamp is made under the proviso- 
ions of this act, to give to the person mak- 
ing such payment a full written or printed 
receipt, expressing the amount paid and 
the particular account for which such 
payment was made; and whenever 
such payment is made, such collector 
shall, if required, give a separate 
receipt for each tax paid by any 
debtor, on account of payments made to 
or to be made by him to separate creditors 
in such form that such debtor can con- 
veniently produce the same separately 
to his several creditors in satisfaction of 
their respective demands to the amounts 
specified in su -h receipts; and such receipts 
shall be sufficient evidence in favor of such 
debtor, to justify him in withholding the 
amount therein expressed from his next 
payment to his creditor; but such creditor 
may, upon glviug to his debtor a full 
written receipt, acknowledging the pay- 
ment to him of whatever sum may be 
actually paid, and accepting the amount of 
tax paid as aforesaid (specifying the same) 
as a further satisfaction of the debt to that 
amount, require the surrender to him of 
such collector's receipt. 

Sec. 72.— That on and after the 1st day of 
August, 1894, there shall be levied, col- 
lected, and paid, by adhesive stamps, a tax 
of two oents for and upon every pack of 
playing cards containing not more than 64 
cards, manufactured and sold or removed, 
and also upon every pack inthostookof 



188 



THE TARIFF OF 18»4.-Continued. 



any dealer on and after that date ; and the 
Counni.-sionor of Internal Kevenuo, with 
the approval of the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury. '-hall make regulations as to dies and 
adhesive stamps. 

Sec. 73.— That in all cases where an ad- 
hesive stamp is used for denoting the tax 
imposed by this act upon playing cards, 
except as hereinafter provided, the person 
using or affixing the same shall write 
thereon the initials of his name and the 
date on which such stamp is attached or 
used, so that it may not again be used. And 
every person who fraudulently makes use 
of an adhesive stamp to denote any tax 
imposed by this act without, so effectually 
eanclliny and obliterating such stamp 
shall forfeit the sum of $50. The Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue is authorized 
to prescribe ^ueh method for the cancella- 
tion of starap3 as substitute for, or in ad- 
dition to toe method prescribed in this sec- 
tion as he may deem expedient and effect- 
ual. And he is authorized, in his discretion, 
to make the application of such method 
imperative upon the manufacturers of 
playing cards. 

Sec. 74.— That every manufacturer of 
playing cards shall register with the col- 
lector of the district his name or stylo, 
place of residence, trade, or business, and 
the place where such business is to be car- 
ried on. and a fail« re to register as herein 
provided and required shall subject such 
person to a penalty of $50. 

Sec. 75— That the Commissioner of Inter- 
on I icevenue shall cause to be prepared, for 
payment of the tax upon playiug cards, 
suitable stamps denoting the tax thereon. 
Such stamps shall be furnished to collectors 
requiring them, and collectors shall if 
there be any manufacturers of playing 
cards within their respective districts, keep 
on hand at all times a supply equal in 
amount to two months' Sides thereof, and 
shall sell the same only to such manufac- 
turer.-? as have registered as required by 
law and to importers of playing cards, who 
are required to affix the same to imported 
playing cards, and to persons who are re- 
quired by law to affix the same to stocks of 
playing cards on hand when the tax there- 
on imposed first takes effect. Every col- 
lector shall keep an accouut of the num- 
ber and denominate values of the stamps 
sold by him to each manufacturer and to 
other persons above described. 

Sec 76.— That if any person shall forge 
or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be 
forged or counterfeited, any stamp, die, 
plate, or other instrument, or any part of 
any stamp, die, plate, or other instrument 
which shall have been provided or may 
hereafter be provided, made, or used in 
pursuance of the provisions of this act, or 
of any previous provisions of law on the 
same 'subjects, or shall forge, counterfeit, 
or resemble, or cause or procure to be 
forged, counterfeited, or resembled, the 
impression or any part of the impression 
of any such stamp, die, plate, or instru- 
ment, ns aforesaid, upon any paper, or 
shall stamp or mark, or cause or procure 
to bo stamped or marked any paper with 



any such forged or counterfeited stamp, 
die, plate, or other instrument or part of 
any stamp, die, plate, or other instrument, 
as aforesaid, with intent to defraud the 
United States of any of the tuxes here* 
Dy imposed, or any part thereof ; or if any 
person shall utter, or sell, or expose to salo 
any paper, article, or thing having there* 
upon the impression of any such counter- 
feited stamp, die, plate, or other instru- 
ment, or any part of any stamp, die, plate, 
or other instrument, or any such forged, 
counterfeited,. or resembled impression, or 
part of impression, as aforesaid, knowing 
the same to be forged, counterfeited, or 
resembled ; or if any person shall knowr 
ingly use or permit the use of any stamp, 
die, plate, or other instrument which shall 
have been so provided, made, or used, as 
aforesaid, with intent to defraud the 
Uni ed States ; or if any person shall 
fraudulently cut, tear, or remove, or cause 
or procure to be cut, torn, or removed, the 
impression of any stamp, die, plate, or other 
instrument, which shall have been pro- 
vided, made, or used in pursuance of this 
act, or of any previous provisions of law 
on the same subjects, from any paper, or 
any instrument or writing charged or 
chargeable with any of the taxes imposed 
by law ; or if an / person shall fraudulently 
use, join, fix, or place, or cause to bo used, 
joined, fixed, or placed, to, with, or upon 
any paper, or any instrument or writing 
charged or chargeable with any of the 
taxes hereby imposed, any adhesive stamp, 
or the impression of any stamp, die, plate, 
or other instrument, which shall have been 
provided, made, or used in pursuance of 
law, and which shall hav3 been cut, torn, 
or removed from any other paper or any 
instrument or writing charged or charge- 
able with any of the taxes imposed by law ; 
or if any person sh«ll willfully remove or 
cause to be removed, alter or cause to bo 
altered, the canceling or defacing marks 
on any adhesive stamp, with intent to use 
the same, after it shall have been once 
used, or shall knowingly or willfully sell 
or buy such washed or restored stamps or 
offer the same for sale, or give or expose 
the same to any person for use, or know- 
ingly use the same, or prepare the samo 
with intent for the further use 1 hereof ; or 
if any person shall knowingly and without 
lawful excuse (the proof whereof shall lie 
on the person accused) have iu his posses- 
sion any washed, restored, or altered 
stamrs, which have been removed from 
any articlo, paper, instrument, or writing, 
then, and in eveiy such case, every person 
so offending, and every person knowingly 
and willfully aiding, abetting, or assisting 
in committing any such offence as afore- 
said, shall, on conviction thereof, forfeit 
the said counterfeit, washed, restored, or 
altered stamps aud the articles upon which 
they are placed, and be punished by fino 
not exceeding $l,ftfJ0, or by imprisonment 
and confinement to hard labor not exceed- 
ing five years, or both, at the d'scretion of 
the court. And the fact that any adhesivo 
stamp so bought, sold, offered for sale, 
or had iu possession as aforesaid, has been 



THE TARIFF OF 1804-Continued. 



IS'J 



washed or restored by removing or alter- 
' ing the canceling- or defacing marks thcre- 
i on, shall be prima-facie proof that such 
t stamp has been once used and removed by 
the possessor thereof from some paper, 
instrument, or writing charged with tuxes 
imposed by law, in violation of the provi- 
sions of this section. 

Sec. 77. - That whenever any person 
makes, prepares, and sells or removes for 
consumption or sale, playing cards, wheth- 
er of domestic manufacture or imported, 
upon which a tax is imposed by law, with- 
out affixing thereto an adhesive stamp 
denoting the tax before mentioned, ho 
shall incur a penalty of $50 for every 
omission to affix such stamp: Provided, 
That playing caids maybe removed from 
the place of manufacture for export to a 
foreign county, without payment of tax, 
or affixing stamps thereto, under such reg- 
ulations and the tiling of such bonds as the 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with 
the approval of the Secretary of tho Treas- 
ury, may prescribe. 

Seo. 78.— That every manufacturer or 
maker of playing cards who, after tho 
same are so made, and the particulars 
hereinbefore required as to stamps have 
been complied with, takes off. removes, or 
detaches, or causes, or permits, or suffers 
to be taken off, or removed, or detached, 
any stamp, or who uses any stamp, or any 
wrapper or cover to which any stamp is 
affixed, to cover any other article or com- 
modity than that originally contained in 
such wrapper or cover, with such stamp 
whon first used, Avith the intent to evade 
the stamp duties, shall, for every such 
article, respectively, in respect of which 
any such offense is committed, be subject 
to a penalty of $50, to be recovered to- 
gether with the costs thereupon accru- 
ing ; and every such article or commodity 
as aforesaid shall also be forfeited. 

Seo. 79. That every maker or manufac- 
turerof playing cards who, to evade the 
tax or duty chargeable thtrcon, or any 
part thereof, sells, exposes for sale, sends 
out, removes, or delivers any playing cards 
before the duty thereon has been fully 
paid, by affixing thereon the proper stamp, 
as provided by law, or who, to evade as 
aforesaid, hides or conceals, or causes to 
be hidden or concealed, or removes or con- 
veys away, or deposits, or causes to be re- 
movod or conveyed away from or deposit- 
ed in any place, art y such article or com- 
modity, shall be subject to a penalty of £50, 
together with the forfeiture of any such 
article or commodity. 
, Seo. 80.— That t no tax on playing cards 
phall bo paid by tho manufacturer 1 hereof. 
Every person who offers or exposes for 
sale playing cards, whether the articles so 
offered or exposed a ro of foreign manu- 
facture and imported or are of domestic 
manufacture, phall be deemed the manu- 
facturer thereof, and subject to all the du- 
ties, liabilities, and penalties imposed by 
law in resrard to tho sale of domestic arti- 
cles without tho use of the proper stamps 
denoting the tax paid thereon, and all such 
articles of foreign manufacture shall, in 



addition to tho import d-itira Imposed on 
the Kime, be subject to tho stamp tax pro- 
scribed in this act. 

Sec. 81.— That whenever any article upon 
which a tax is required to be paid by means 
of a stamp is sold or removed for s de ba- 
ttle manufacturer thereof, without the use 
of the proper stamp, in addition to the pen- 
alties imposed by law for such sale or remo- 
val, it shall be the duty of the Commission- 
er of Internal Revenue, within a period 
of not more than two years after such 
removal or sale, upon such information as 
he can obtain, to estimate the amount of 
the tax which has been omitted to be paid, 
and to make an assessment therefor upon 
the manufacturer or producer of such 
article. He thall certify such assessment 
to the collector, who shall immediately de- 
mand payment of such tax, and upon the 
neglect or refusal of payment by such 
manufacturer or producer, shall proceed 
to < olloct the saute in the manner provided 
for the collection of other assessed taxes. 

Sec. 82. -That on and after the passage 
of this act there shall be levied and collect- 
ed on all distilled spirits in bond at that 
time, or that have been or that may bo 
then or thereafter produced in.lhe United 
States, on which the tax is not paid before 
that day. a tax of $110 on each proof gal- 
lon, or wine gallon when below proof, and 
a proportionate tax at a like ratoonall 
fractional parts of such proof or wine gal- 
lon : Provided, That in computing the tax 
on any package of spirits all fractional 
parts of a gailou, less than one- tenth, shall 
be excluded. 

The Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, shall prescribe and furnish suit- 
able stamps denoting the payment of tho 
internal-revenue tax imposed by this sec- 
tion; and until such stamps are prepared 
and furnished, the stamps now used to do- 
noto the payment of the internal-revenue 
tax on distilled spirits shall be affixed to all 
packages containing distilled spirits on 
which the tax imposed by this section is 
paid; and the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue shall, by assessment or otherwise, 
cause to be collected the tax on any f ( ac- 
tional gailou contained in each of such 
packages as ascertained by the original 
gauge, or re-gauge when made, before or 
at the time of removal of such packages 
from warehouse or other place of storage ; 
and all provisions of existing laws relating 
to stamps denoting tho payment of inter- 
nal-revenue tax on distilled spirits, so fi'r 
a* applicable, are hereby extended to the 
stamps provided for in this section. 

That the tax herein imposed shall be paid 
by the distiller of tho spirits, on or before 
t heir removal from tho distillery or place 
of storage, except in case the icmoval 
therefrom without payment of taxis au- 
thorized by law ; and (upon spirits lawfully 
deposited in any distillery warehouse, or 
other bonded warehouse, established under 
internal-revenue !aws)within eight years 
from the date of tho original entry for de- 
posit In any distillery warehouse, or from 
the date of original gauge of fruit brandy 



190 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.-Continued. 



deposited in special bonded warehouse, ex 
cept in case of withdrawal therefrom with 
out payment of tax as authorized by law. 

Sec. 83. -That warehousing bonds and 
transportation and warehousing bonds, 
conditioned for the payment of the taxes 
on all distilled spirits entered for deposit 
into distillery or special bonded ware- 
houses on and after the passage of this act, 
shall be given to the distiller of said spirits 
as required by existing laws, conditioned, 
however, for payment of taxes at the rate 
imposed by this act and before removal 
from warehouse and within eight years; 
as to fruit brandy, from the date of the 
original gauge, and as to all other spirits 
from the date of the original entry for de- 
posit, and all warehousing bonds or trans- 
portation and warehousing bonds condi- 
tioned for the payment of the taxes on dis- 
tilled spirits entered for deposit into dis- 
tillery or special bonded warehouses prior 
to that date shall continue in full force and 
effect for the time named in said bonds, 
cxoept where new or additional bonds are 
required under existing law. 

The Commissioner of Internal Revenue 
may require the distillers of the spirits to 
give bonds for the additional tax, aud be- 
fore the expiration of the original bonds 
shall prescribe rules and regulations for 
re-entry for deposit and for new bonds as 
provided for spirits originally entered for 
deposit under this act, and conditioned for 
payment of tax at the rate imposed by this 
act and before removal of the spirits from 
warehouse, and within eight years; as to 
fruit brandy, from the date of the original 
gauge, and as to all other spirits from the 
date of original entry for deposit. If the 
distiller of the spirits fails or refuses to 
give the bond for the additional tax, or to 
re-enter and re-bond the spirits, the Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue may pro- 
ceed to collect the tax as now provided by 
law for failure or refusal to give warehous- 
ing bonds on original entry into distillery 
warehouse or special-bonded warehouse, 
and the provisions of section four of the 
aot of May 28th, 1880 (twenty-first Statutes, 
145). so far as applicable, are hereby ex- 
tended to bonds given under the provisions 
of this section : Provided, That the distil- 
ler may, at his option and under such reg- 
ulations as the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue, with the approval of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, shall prescribe, exe- 
outean annual bond for the spirits so de- 
posited in lieu of the bondsherein provided. 

8bc. 84.— That the distiller of any distilled 
spirits deposited in any distillery ware- 
house, or special-bonded warehouse, or in 
anv general-bonded warehouse established 
under the provisions of this act may, prior 
to the expiration of four years from the 
date of original gauge as to fruit brandy, 
or original entry as to all other spirits, file 
with thecollector a noticegivingadescrip- 
tion of the packages containing the spirits, 
and request a re-guage of the same, and 
thereupon the collector shall direct a 
gauger to re-gauge the spirits, and to 
I mark upon each such package the number 
I of gauge or wine gallons and proof gal- - 



Ions therein contained. If upon such re- 
gauging it shall appear that there has been 
a loss of distilled spirits from any cask or 
package, without the fault or negligence of 
the distiller thereof, taxes shall be collect- 
ed only on the quantity of distilled spirits 
contained in such cask or package at the 
time of the withdrawal thereof from the 
distillery warehouse or other bonded ware- 
house : Provided, however. That the allow- 
ance which shall be made for such loss of 
spirits as aforesaia shall not exceed one 
proof gallon for two months or part there- 
of ; one and one-half gallons for three and 
four months ; two gallons for five and six 
months; two and one-half gallons for seven 
and eight months ; three gallons for nine 
and ten months ; three aud one-half gal 
Ions for eleven and twelve months ; four 
gallons for thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen 
months ; four and one-half gallons for six- 
teen, seventeen, and eighteen months ; five 
gallons for nineteen, twenty, and twenty- 
one months; five and one-half gallons for 
twenty-two, twenty-three, and twenty- 
four months; six gallons for twenty five, 
twenty-six, aud twenty-seven months ; six 
and one-half gallons for twenty-eight, 
twenty-nine, and thirty months; seven 
gallons for thirty-one, thirty-two, and 
thirty-three months ; seven and one-half 
gallons for thirty-four, thirty-five and 
thirty-six months ; eight gallons for thirty- 
seven, thirty-eight, thirty tune, and forty 
months; eight and one-half gallons for 
forty-one, forty-two, forty-three, and 
forty-four months ; nine gallons for forty- 
five, forty-six, forty-seven, and forty-eight 
months; and no further allowance shall 
be made: And provided further, That in 
case such spirits shall remain in warehouse 
after the same have been re-gauged, tbo 
packages containing the spirits shall, at 
the time of withdrawal from warehouse 
and at such other times as the Commit 
sioner of Internal Revenue majr direct, be 
again re-gauged or inspected ; and if found 
to contain a larger quantity than shown by 
the first regauge. the tax shall be collected 
and paid « n the quantity contained in each 
such package as shown by the original 
gauge: And provided further. That faxes 
shall be collected on the quantity con- 
tained in each cask or package as shown 
by the original gauge, where the distiller 
does not request a regauge before the ex- 
piration of four years from the date of 
original entry or gauge : Provided also, 
That the foregoing allowance of loss shall 
apply only to casks or packages of a capa- 
city of forty or more wine gallons, and 
that the allowance for loss on casks or 
packages of less capacity than forty gal- 
>ns shall not exceed one-half the amount 
allowed on said forty-gallon cask or pack 
age; but no allowance shall be made on 
casks or packages of less capacity than 
twenty gallons: And provided further, 
That the proof of such distilled spirits shall 
not in any case be computed at the time of 
withdrawal at less than 100 p. c. 

Sec. 86.— That the Commissioner of In- 
ternal Revenue shall be, and is hereby, au- 
thorized* in his discretion and upon the^x- I 



THE TARIFF OF 1894- Continued. 



191 



oeution of such bond us no may proscribe, 
to establish one or more warehouses, not 
exceeding ten In number in any one col- 
lection district, to be known and designat- 
ed as general bonded warehouses, and to 
be used exclusively for the storage of spir 
its distilled from materials other than 
fruit, each of which warehouses shall be in 
the charge of a storekeeper or storekeeper 
and gauger to be appointed, assigned 
transferred, and paid in the same manner 
as such officers lor distillery warehouses 
are now appointed, assigned, transferred, 
and paid. Every such warehouse shall be 
under the control of the collector of inter- 
nal revenue of the district in which such 
warehouse is located, and shall be in the 
joint custody of the storekeeper and pro- 
prietor thereof, and kept securely locked, 
and shall at no time be unlocked or opened 
or remain open except in the presence of 
such storekeeper or other person who may 
be designated to act for him, as provided 
in the case of distillery warehouses: and 
such warehouses shall be u nder sucn fur- 
ther regulations as the Commissioner of In- 
ternal Revenue, with the approval of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, may prescribe. 

Sec. 86.— That any distilled spirits made 
from materials other than fruit, and law- 
fully deposited in a distillery warehouse, 
may, upon application of the distiller 
thereof, be removed from such distillery 
warehouse to any general bonded ware- 
house established under the provisions of 
the preceding section ; and the removal of 
said spirits to said general bonded ware- 
bouse shall be under such regulations, and 
after making such entries and executing 
and filing with the collector of the district 
in which the spirits were manufactured, 
such bonds and bills of lading, and the gi v- 
ing of such other additional security, as 
may be prescribed by the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue and approved by the 
Secretary of the Treasury. 

Sec. 87 — That all spirits intended for de- 
posit in a general bonded warehouse, be- 
fore being removed from the distillery 
warehouse, shall have affixed to each pack- 
age an engraved stamp indicative of such 
intention, to be provided and furnished to 
the several collectors as in the case of other 
stamps, and to be charged to them and ac- 
counted for in the same manner. 

Sec. 88.— That any spirits removed In 
bond as aforesaid may, upon its arrival at 
a general bonded warehouse, be deposited 
therein upon making such entries, filing 
such bonds and other securities, and under 
such regulations as shall be prescribed by 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Treasury. It shall be one of the conditions 
of the warehousing bond covering such 
spirits that the principal named in said 
bond shall pay the tax on the spirits as 
specified in the entry or cause the same to 
e paid within eight years!" rom the date of 
e original entry of the same into the dis- 
tillery warehouse, and before withdrawal, 
except as hereinafter provided. 

Sec. 89.— That any spirits maybe with- 
drawn once and no more from one general 



-bonded warehouse -f or-transportatfon to 
another general bonded warehouse, and 
when intended to be so withdrawn, shall 
have affixed thereto another general bond- 
ed warehouse stamp indicative of such in 
tention; and the withdrawal of such spirits 
and their transfer to and entry into such 
general bonded warehouse shall bo under 
such regulations and upon the filing of such 
notices, entries, bonds, and bills of lading 
as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, may, from time to time, pre* 
scribe; and the bonds covering spirits in 
general bonded warehouses shall be given 
by distillers of the spirits, and shall be re 
newed at such times as the Commissioner 
of Internal Revenue may, by regulations, 
require. 

Sec. 90— That the provisions of existing 
law in regard to the withdrawal of distilled 
spirits from warehouses upon payment of 
tax, or for exportation, or for transfer to 
a manufacturing warehouse, and as to the 
gauging, marking, branding, and stamping 
of the spirits upon such withdrawals, and 
in regard to withdrawals for the use of the 
United Spates or scientific institutions o 
colleges of learning, including the provis- 
ions for allowance for loss by accidental 
or other unavoidable accident, are 
hereby extended and made applicable to 
spirits deposited in general bonded ware- 
houses under this act. < 

Sec. 91.— Whenever distilling shall have 
been suspended at any distillery for a 
period or periods aggregating six months 
during any calendar year, and the quaniity 
of spirits remaining in the distillery ware- 
house does not exceed 5,u00 proof gallons, 
or whenever, in the opinion of the Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, any distil- 
lery warehouse or general bonded ware- 
house is unsafe or unfit for use, or the mer- 
chandise therein is liable to loss or great 
wastage, he may in either such case discon- 
tinue such warehouse and require the mer- 
chandise therein to be transferred to such 
other warehouse as he may designate, and 
within such time as ho may prescribe ; and 
all the provisions of section 3272 of the Re- 
vised Statutes of the United States relat- 
ing to transfers of spirits from warehouses, 
including those imposing penalties, aro 
hereby made applicable to transfers to or 
from general bonded warehouses estab- 
lished under this act. 

Sec. 92.— The tax upon any distilled 
spirits removed from a distillery ware- 
house for deposit in a general bonded 
warehouse, and in respect of which any re- 
quirement of this act is not complied with, 
shall, at any time when knowledge of such 
fact is obtained by the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, be assessed by him upon 
the distiller of the same, and returned to 
the collector, who shall immediately de- 
mand payment of such tax, and upon the 
neglect of payment by the distiller shall 
proceed to collect the same by distraint. 
Hut this provision shall not exclude any 
other remedy or proceeding provided by 
law to enforce the payment or the tax. It 
it shall appear at anytime that there has 



193 



THE TARIFF OF 1894.— Continued. 



been a loss of distilled spirits from any 
cask or package deposited in a general 
bonded warehouse or special bonded ware- 
house, otiier than the loss provided for In 
section 3.'21 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United i-tates, which, in the opinion of the 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, is ex- 
cessive, he may instruct the collector of 
the di strict in which the loss has occurred 
to require the withdrawal from warehouse 
of such cask or package of distilled spirits 
and to collect the tax accrued upon the 
original quantity of distilled spirits en- 
tered into the warehouse in such cask or 
package, less only the allowance for loss 
provided by law. If the said tax is not 
paid on demand the collector shall reporc 
the amountdiie, as shown bythe original 
gauge, upon his next monthly list, ami it 
shall be assessed and collected as other 
taxes are assessed and collected. 

Sec. 93.— That in case any distilled spirits 
removed from a distillery warehouse for 
deposit in a general bonded warehouse shall 
fail to be deposited in such genoral bonded 
warehouse within ten days alter such re- 
moval, or within the time speeiiied in any 
bond given on such removal, or if any dis- 
tilled spiritsdeposited in any general bond- 
ed warehouse shall be taken therefrom, for 
export or otherwise, without full compli- 
ance with the provisions of this act, and 
with the requirements of any regulations 
made thereunder, and with the terms of 
any bond given on such removal, or if any 
distilled spirits which have been deposited 
in a general bonded warehouse shall be 
found elsewhere, not having been removed 
therefrom according to law, any person 
who shall be guilty of such failure, or any 
person who shall in any manner violate 
any provision of the next preceding 11 sec- 
tions of this act, shall be subject, on con- 
viction, to a. fine of not less than $100 nor 
more than $5,000, or to imprisonment for 
not less than three months nor more than 
three years for every such failure or viola- 
tion; and the spirits as to which such fail- 
ure or violation; or unlawful removal shall 
take place bhail be forfeited to the United 
States. 

Sec. 94.— That all assessments made under 
the provisions of seeii u 3309 of the Re- 
vised Statutes of the United States, and 
acts amendatory thereof, shall be at the 
rate of tax imposed by this act on each 
proof gallon. 

Sec. 943^. -Any manufacturer finding it 
necessary to u&e alcohol in the arts, or in 
any medicinal or other like compound, 
may use the same under regulations to be 
prescribed by the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, and on satisfying the collector of In- 
ternal Revenue for the district wherein ho 
resides or carries on business that he has 
complied with such regulations and has 
used such alcohol therein, and exhibiting 
and delivering up the stamps which show 
that a tax has been paid thereon, shall be 
enti'led to receive from the Treasury of 
the United States a rebate or repayment of 
the tax so paid. 

Sec. 95.— That no distiller who has given 
the required bond and who sells only dis- 



tilled spirit* of his own production at the 
place of manufacture, or at the place of 
stoiage in bond, in the original package* 
to which the tax-paid stamps are allixed. 
shall be required to pay the special tax of 
a wholesale liquor dealer on account of 
such sales: Provided, That he shall be re- 
quired to keep the book prescribed by sec- 
tion 3318 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, or so much as shall show the 
date when heseutoutany spirits, the serial 
numbers of the packages containing same, 
the kind and quality of the spirits in wine 
gallons and taxable gallons, the serial num- 
bers of the stamps on tli«» packages, and 
the name and residence of the person to 
whom sent ; and the provisions of section 
5 of an act entitled "An Act to amend the 
laws relating to internal revenue," ap- 
proved March 5, 1879, as to transcripts, shall 
apply to such books. Any fadure, by rea- 
son of refusal or willful neglect, to furnish 
the transcript by hitn shall subject the 
spirits owned or distilled by him to for- 
feiture. 

Sec. 96.— That storekeepers, and store- 
keepers and gaugers, when transferred 
from one distillery to another, either in 
the same district or in different dit-tricts, 
shall receive compensation not exceeding 
$4 per day during the time necessarily oc- 
cupied in traveling from otie distillery to 
the other, together with actual and neces- 
sary traveling expenses. 

Sec. 97.— That the officer holding the 
combined office of storekeeper and gauge r, 
under tue provisions of the legislative, ex- 
ecutive, and judicial appropriation act. 
approved August loth, 1876 (Nineteenth 
Statutes, page 153), may be assigned by the 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue to per- 
forin the separate duties of a storekeeper 
at any distillery, or at any general or spe- 
cial bonded warehouse, or to perform any 
of the duties of agauger under the inter- 
nal-) even ue laws. And the said officer, 
before entering upon the discharge of such 
separate duties, shall give a bond to be ap- 
proved by the Commissioner of Internal 
Kevenueforthe faithful discharge of his 
duties in such form and for such amount 
as the Commissioner may prescribe. 

Sec. 98.— That internal-revenue gaugers 
may be assigned to duty at distilleries, rec- 
tif ing houses, or wherever gauging is re- 
quired to be done, and transferred from 
one place of duty to another, by the Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, in like man- 
ner as storekeepers and stoiekeepers and 
gaugers are now assigned and transferred. 

Sec. 99.— That section 3320 of the Revist d 
Statutes of the United States, as amended, 
bo further amended by striking out all 
after said number and substituting the fol- 
lowing: 

" Whenever any cask or package, con- 
taining five wine gallons or more, is filled 
for shipment, sale, or delivery on the 
premises of any rectifier who has paid the 
special tax required by law, it shall bo in- 
spected and gauged by a United States 

g auger whose duty it shall be to mark and 
rand the same and place thereon an en- 
graved stamp, which shall state the dato 



THE TARIFF OF ]«)4. -Continued. 



193 



when affixed and The number of proof gal- 
lons, and shall be in such form as shall bo 
prescribed by the Commissioner of Inter- 
nal Kevenue with the approval of the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury: Provided, That 
when such cask or package is filled on the 
premises of a rectifier rectifying less than 
500 barrels a year, counting forty gallons 
of proof spirits to the barrel, it may be 
gauged, marked, branded, and stamped by 
a United States gauger, or it may be 
gauged, marked, branded, and stamped by 
the rectifier, as the Commissioner of Inter- 
nal Kevenue, with the appi-oval of the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, may by regulations 
prescribe. 

Sec. 100.— That whenever any person in- 
tending to commence or to continue the 
business of a distiller shall execute a bond 
under the provisions of section 3260 of the 
Revised Statutes of United States, and 
tile the same with the collector of internal 
revenue for the district in which he pro- 
poses to distill, the collector may refuse to 
approve said bond if the person offering 
the same shall have been previously con 
victed, in a court of competent jurisdic- 
tion, of any fraudulent non-compliance 
with any of the provisions of law relating 
to the duties and business of distillers, or 
if the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, shall have compromised such an 
offense with the person upon the payment 
of penalties or otherwise, and, in case of 
such refusal, the person so proposing to 
distill may appeal to the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, whose decision in the 
matter shall be final. 

Sec. 101.— That section 43 of the act ap- 
proved October 1st, 1890, entitled "An act 
to reduce the revenue and equalize duties 
on imports, and for other purposes," be 
amended so as to read as follows : 

" That the wine spirits mentioned in sec- 
tion.42 of this act is the product resulting 
from the distillation of fermented grape 
juice and shall be held to include the prod- 
uct commonly known as grape brandy; 
and the pure sweet wine which may be for- 
tified free of tax, as provided in said sec- 
tion, is fermented grape juice only, and 
shall contain no other substance of any 
kind whatever introduced before, at the 
time of, or after fermentation and such 
sweet wine shall contain not less than 4 
p. c. of saccharine matter,which saccharine 
strength may be determined by testing 
with Balling's saccharotneter or must 
scale, such sweet wine, after the evapora- 
tion of the spirit contained therein, and 
restoring the sample tested to original vol- 
ume by addition of water : Provided, That 
the addition of pure boiled or condensed 
grape must, or pure chrystallized cane or 
beet sugar to the pure grape juice afore- 
said, or the fermented product of such 
grape juice prior to the fortification pro- 
vided for by this act for the sole purpose 
of perfecting sweet wines according to 
commercial standard, shall not be exclud- 
ed by the definition of pure sweet wine 
aforesaid : Provided further. That the 
cane or beet sugar so used shall not be in 



excess of 10 p. e. of the weight of wines to 
be fortified under this act." 

Sec. 102.— Every person whose business 
it is to manufacture tobacco or snuff for 
himself, or who employs others to manu- 
facture tobacco or snuff, whether such 
manufacture be by cutting, pressing, 
grinding, crushing, or rubbing of any raw 
or leaf tobacco, or otherwise preparing 
raw or leaf tobacco, or manufactured or 
partially manufactured tobacco or snuff, 
or the putting up for use or consumption 
of scraps, waste, clippings, stems, or de- 
posits of tobacco resulting from any proc- 
ess of handling tobacco, or by the working 
or preparation of leaf-tobacco, tobacco- 
stems, scraps, clippings, or waste, by sift- 
ing, twisting, screening, or any other proc- 
ess, shall be regarded as a manufacturer of 
tobacco. 

Every person shall also be regarded as a 
manufacturer of tobacco whose business 
it is to sell leaf tobacco in quantities less 
than a hogshead, case or bale ; or wno sells 
directly to consumers, or to persons other 
than duly registered dealers in leaf tobac- 
co, or duly registered manufacturers of 
tobacco, snuff, or cigars, or to persons who 
purchase in packages for export ; and all 
tobacco so sold by such persons shall be 
regarded as manufactured tobacco, and 
such manufactured tobacco shall be put 
up and prepared by such manufacturer in 
such packages only as the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue with the approval of the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe : 
Provided, That farmers and growers of to- 
bacco who sell leaf tobacco of their own 
growth and raising shall not be regarded 
as manufacturers of tobacco ; and so much 
of section 3244 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, and acts amendatory there- 
of, as are in conflict with this act are here- 
by repealed : Provided further, That sec- 
tion 27, chapter 1214, page 863, volume 1 of 
Supplement to the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, be amended by striking out 
all after the word " repealed," in line five 
of said section, as follows : " Provided, 
however. That it shall be the duty of every 
farmer or planter producing and selling 
leaf tobacco, on demand of any internal- 
revenue officer or other authorized agent 
of the Treasury Department, to furnish 
said officer or agent a true and complete 
statement, verified by oath, of all of his 
sales of leaf tobacco, the number of hogs- 
heads, cases, or pounds, with the name and 
residence, in each instance, of the person 
to whom sold and the place to which it is 
shipped ; and every farmer or planter who 
willfully refuses to furnish such informa- 
tion, or who knowingly makes false state- 
ments as to any of the facts aforesaid, 
shall be guilty or a misdemeanor and shall 
be liable to a penalty not exceeding $500." 
That section 3361 of the Revised Statutes is 
hereby repealed. 

Sec. 88.— That the Act of June 20th, 1876, 
(Nineteenth United States Statutes, p. 60), 
be amended by inserting after the words 
"imported into the United States by such 
firm or partnership " the following: "Or 
for any other purpose connected with the 



194 



THE TARIFF OF 1894 —Continued. 



general transaction of business at any cus- 
tom-house." 

Sec. 89.— That section 3 of an act ap- 
proved October 1, 1890, entitled " An Act 
to reduce the revenue and equalize duties 
on imports, and for other purposes," is 
hereby repealed ; but nothing herein . con- 
tained shall be held to abrogate, or in any 
way affect such reciprocal commercial ar- 
rangements as have been heretofore made 
and now exist between the United States 
and foreign countries, except where such 
arrangements are inconsistent with the 
provisions of this act. 

Sec. 105.— All acts and parts of acts in- 
consistent with the provisions of this act 
are hereby repealed, but the repeal of ex- 
isting laws or modifications thereof em- 
braced in this act, shall not affect any act 
done, or any right accruing or accrued, or 
any suit or proceeding had or commenced 
in any civil cause before the said repeal or 
modifications; but all rights and liabilities 
under said laws shall continue and may 
be enforced in the same manner as if said 
repeal or modifications had not been made. 
Any offenses committed, and all penalties 
or forfeitures or liabilities incurred prior 
to the passage of this act under any statute 
embraced in or changed, modified or re- 
pealed by this act may be prosecuted or 
punished in the same manner and with 
the same effect as if this act had not been 
passed. All acts of limitation, whether ap- 
plicable to civil causes and proceedings or 
to the prosecution of offenses or for the 
recovery of penalties or forfeitures em- 
braced in or modified, changed, or repealed 
by this act shall not be affected thereby; 
and all suits, proceedings, or prosecutions, 
whether civil or criminal, for causes aris- 
ing or acts done or committed prior to the 
passage of this act, may be commenced 
and prosecuted within the same time and 
with the same effect as if this act had not 
been passed : And provided further, That 
nothing in this act shall be construed to 
repeal the provisions of section 3,058 of the 
Revised Statutes as amended by the act 
approved February 23, 1887, in respect to 
the abandonment of merchandise to under- 
writers or the salvors of property, and 
the ascertainment of duties thereon. 

Sec. 73.— That every combination, con- 
spiracy, trust, agreement, or contract 
is hereby declared to be contrary to 
public policy, illegal, and void, when 
the same is made by or between 
two or more persons or corporations 
either of whom is engaged in importing 
any article from any foreign country into 
the United States, and when such com- 
bination, conspiracy, trust, agreement, or 
contract is intended to operate in restraint 
of lawful trade, or free competition in 
lawful trade or commerce, or to increase 
the market price in any part of the United 
States of any article or articles imported 
or intended to be imported into the United 
States, or of any manufacture into which 
such imported article enters or is intended 
to enter. Every person who is or shall 



hereafter be engaged in the importation 
of goods or any commodity from any for- 
eign country in violation of this section of 
this act, or who shall combine or conspire 
with another to violate the same, is guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction 
thereof in any court of the United States, 
such person shall be fined in a sum not 
less than $100 and not exceeding $5,000, and 
shall be further punished by imprison- 
ment, in the discretion of the court, for a 
term not less than three months nor ex- 
ceeding twelve months. 

Sec. 74.— That the several circuit courts 
of the United States are hereby invested 
with jurisdiction to prevent and restrain 
violations of section 73 of this act; and it 
shall be the duty of the several district at- 
torneys of the United States, in their 
respective districts, under the direction of 
the Attorney-General, to institute pro- 
ceedings in equity to prevent and restrain 
such violations. Such proceedings may be 
by way of petitions setting forth the case 
and praying that such violations shall be 
enjoined or otherwise prohibited. When 
the parties complained of shall have been 
duly notified of such petition the court 
shall proceed, as soon as may be, to the 
hearing and determination of the case ; 
and pending such petition and before final 
decree, the court may at any time make 
such temporary restraining order or pro- 
hibition as shall be deemed just in the 
premises. 

Sec. 75.— That whenever it shall appear 
to the court before which any proceeding 
under the 74th section of this act may be 
pending, that the ends of justice require 
that other parties should be brought be- 
fore the court, the court may cause them 
to be summoned, whether they reside in 
the district in which the court is held or 
not; and subpoenas to that end may be 
served in any district by the marshal 
thereof. 

Sec. 76.— That any property owned under 
any contract or by any combination, or 
pursuant to any conspiracy (and being the 
subject thereof) mentioned in section 73 of 
this act, and being in the course of transpor- 
tation from one State to another, or to or 
from a Territory, or the District of Colum- 
bia, shall be forfeited to the United States, 
and may be seized and condemned by like 
proceedings as those provided by law for 
the forfeiture, seizure, and condemnation 
of property imported into the United 
States contrary to law. 

Sec. 77.— That any person who shall be 
injured in his business or property by any 
other person or corporation by reason of 
anything forbidden or declared to be un- 
lawful by this act may sue therefor in any 
circuit court of the United States in the 
district in which the defendant resides or is 
found, without respect to the amount in 
controversy, and shall recover three-fold 
the damages by him sustained, and the 
costs of suit, including a reasonable at- 
torney's fee. 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS. 



195 



Public Acts and Joint Resolutions. 

LAWS OF A PUBLIC NATURE ENACTED AT THE FIRST AND SECOND 
SESSIONS FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS, ARRANGED BY SUBJECTS, 
AND SHOWING NUMBER AND TITLE OF LAW. 



Appropriations. 
177. An act making appropriations for 
the Department of Agriculture for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1895. ($322,- 
02J.06.) 

169. An act making appropriations for 
the support of the Army for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1895, and for other pur- 
poses. ($23,592,884.68.) 

129. An act making appropriations for the 
diplomatic and consular service of the 
United States for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1895. ($1,563,918.76.) 

171. An act making appropriations to 
provide for the expenses of the govern- 
ment of the District of Columbia for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1895, and tor 
other purposes. ($5,544,593.57.) 

139. An act making appropriations for* 
fortifications and other works of defense, 
for the armament thereof, for the pro- 
curement of heavy ordnance for trial and 
service, and for other purposes. ($2,427,- 
004.00.) 

197. An act making appropriations for 
current and contingent expenses of the 
Tndian Department and fulfilling treat}' 
stipulations with various Indian tribes for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1895, and for 
other purposes. ($9,329,648.49.) 

135. An act making appropriations for 
the legislative, executive, and judicial ex- 
penses of the Government for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1895, and for other 
purposes. ($21,308,295.79.) 

130. An act making appropriations for 
the Military Acauemy for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1895. ($406,523.08.) 

128. An act making appropriations for 
the naval service for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1895, and for other purposes. 
($25,327,126.72.) 

114. An act making appropriations for 
the payment of invalid and other pensions 
of the United States for the fiscal year 
ending June 30,1895, and for other pur- 
poses. ($151,581,570.) 

111. An act making appropriations for 
the service of the Post-Office Department 
for the fipcal year ending June 30, 1895. 
($87,236,599.55.) 

198. An act making appropriations for 
the construction, repair, and preservation 
of certain public works on rivers and har- 
bors, and for other purposes. ($11,473,180.) 

200. An act making appropriations for 
sundry civil expenses of the Government 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1895, and 
for other purposes. ($34,209,776.05.) 

202. An act making appropriations to 
supply deficiencies in the appropriations 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, and 
for prior years, and for other purposes. 
($6,302,903.91.) . 



Appropriations.— Continued. 
*2. An act to provide for certain urgent 
deficiencies in the appropriations for the 
service of the. Government for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1894, and for other 
purposes. (Recoinage of silver, etc., 
$306,000.) 

2. An act to provide for further urgent 
deficiencies in the appropriations for the 
service of the Government for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1891, and for other 
purposes. (Assistant custodians, etc., 
$370,588.33.) 

3. An act making appropriations to sup- 
ply further urgent deficiencies in the ap- 
propriations for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1894, and for prior years, and for other 
purposes. (Customs, census, etc., $1,968,- 
470.86.) 

52. An act to provide for further urgent 
deficiencies in the appropriations for the 
service of the Government for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1894, and for other 
purposes. (United States Courts, etc., 
$768,278.) 

35. An act making appropriations to sup- 
ply further urgent deficiencies in the ap- 
propriations for the fiscal year ending 
J une 30, 1894, and for prior years, and for 
other purposes. (Engraving and printing, 
courts, etc., $1,854,304.66.) 

90. An act making appropriations to sup- 
ply a deficiency in the appropriation for 
public printing and binding for the fiscal 
year 1894, and for other purposes. (Print- 
ing and customs, $350,000.) 

Accounts (Public). 

73. An act to amend section 3816 of the 
Revised Statutes relating to advances 
made to the Public Printer. 

44. An act to regulate the making of 
property returns by officers of the Gov- 
ernment. 

43. An act to repeal section 311 of the 
Revised Statutes of the United States re- 
lating to accounts of the Treasury of the 
United States. 

21. An act to amend section 3709 of the 
Revised Statutes relating to contracts for 
supplies in the Departments at Washing- 
ton. 

20. An act to improve the methods of ac- 
counting in the Post Office Department, 
and for other purposes. 

Bridge Bills. 

215. An act to authorize the St. Louis, 
Avoyelles and Southwestern Railway Com- 
pany to bridge Bayou Des Glaises and At- 
chafalaya River in the State of Louisiana. 

207. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the Contentnea Creek at 

* First session. 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS.— Continued. 



196 



Bridge Bills.— Continued. 
Grifton, Lenoir County, N. C, and to es- 
tablish it as a post road. 

204. An act extending- the time for the 
completion of a railroad bridge over the 
Columbia River at or near Vancouver, in 
the State of Washington. 

193. An act to authorize a bridge across 
the Perdido River between the States of 
Florida and Alabama. 

191. An act to authorize the construction 
of a wagon and foot bridge across the 
Chattahoochee River at or near the town 
of Columbia, Ala. 

170. An act to amend an act approved 
January 26, 1893, to authorize the construc- 
tion of bridges across the Hiwassee, the 
Tennessee, and Clinch Rivers, in the State 

163. An act to amend an act to authorize 
the construction of a steel bridge over tbe 
St. Louis River, between the States of 
Minnesota and Wisconsin. 

157. An act authorizing the Purcell 
Bridge and Transfer Company to con- 
struct and maintain a bridge over the 
South Canadian River at or within one 
mile of the town of Lexington, county of 
Cleveland, Territory of Oklahoma. 

149. An act to amend an act entitled "An 
act authorizing the construction of a high 
wagon bridge across the Missouri River at 
or near Sioux City, Iowa," approved March 
2. 1889, as amended by acts of April 30, 1890, 
February 7, 1893, and March 24, 1894. 

125. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the Missouri River at or 
near the city of Lexington, Mo. 

124. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the Mississippi River 
from a point within the limits of the city 
of Dubuque, in the State of Iowa, known 
as Eagle Point, to the opposite bank of 
said river, in the county of Grant and 
State of Wisconsin. 

119. An act authorizing- the construction 
of a bridge over the Monongahela River at 
the foot of Main street, in the borough of 
Bellevernon, in the State of Pennsylvania. 

110. An act to authorize the construction 
of a wagon and foot bridge across the 
South, or Main, Canadian River at or near 
the town of Noble, in Oklahoma Territory. 

104. An act to amend an act entitled "An 
act to authorize the Oregon and Washing- 
ton Bridge Company to construct and 
maintain a bridge across the Columbia 
River, between the State of Oregon and 
the State of Washington, and to establish 
it as a post-road." 

97. An act to authorize the city of Hast- 
ings, Minn., to construct and maintain a 
wagon bridge over the Mississippi River. 

89. An act to amend an act to authorize 
construction of a bridge at Burlington, 
Iowa, approved August 6, 1888, and amend- 
ed by act approved February 21, 1890. 

86. An act to donate to the county of 
Laramie, Wyo., certain bridges on the 
abandoned Fort Laramie military reserva- 
tion, and for other purposes. 

87. An act to authorize the Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey Railroad Companies, or 
either of them, to construct and maintain 



Bridge Bills.— Continued. 

a bridge over the Delaware River between 
the States of New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania. 

82. An act authorizing the construction 
of a bridge over the Monongahela River, at 
the foot of Dickson street, in the borough 
of Homestead, in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

83. An act to authorize the New York 
and New Jersey Bridge Companies to con- 
struct and maintain a bridge across the 
Hudson River between New York City 
and the State of New Jersey. 

84. An act to amend section 8 of " An act 
to authorize the construction of a bridge 
across the Calumet River," approved 
March 1, 1893. 

68. An act authorizing the Texarkana and 
Shreveport Railroad Company to bridge 
Sulphur River, in the State of Arkansas. 

69. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the Missouri River at 
some point within one mile below and one 
mile above the present limits of the city 
of Jefferson, Mo. 

67. An act to amend the act of June 22, 
1892, entitled "An act to authorize the con- 
struction of a bridge across the Missouri 
River at the city of Yankton, S. Dak." 

65. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the Mississippi River at 
Red Wing, Minn. 

60. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge over the Monongahela River in 
the city of Pittsburg. 

59. An act to authorize the reconstruc- 
tion of a bridge across the Niobrara River, 
near the village of Niobrara, Neb., and 
making an appropriation therefor. 

51. An act to authorize the West Brad- 
dock Bridge Company to construct a 
bridge over the Monongahela River from 
the borough of Rankin to Mifflin Town- 
ship. 

57. An act to authorize the St. Louis River 
Bridge Company and the Duluth Transfer 
Railway Company to construct, maintain, 
and operate a bridge over the St. Louis 
River from a point at or near Grassy 
Point, in the Village of West Duluth, 
Minn., to the most available point oppo- 
site, in the State of Wisconsin. 

55. An act to authorize the construction 
of a steel bridge over the St. Louis River 
between the States of Wisconsin and Min- 
nesota. 

53. An act authorizing the Texarkana 
and Fort Smith Railway Company to 
bridge Little River, in the State of Ar- 
kansas. 

50. An act to extend the time authorizing 
the St. Louis and Birmingham Railroad to 
build a bridge across Tennessee River at 
Clifton, Tenn. 

49. An act authorizing the Texarkana 
and Fort Smith Railway Company to 
bridge the Sulphur River in the State of 
Arkansas or in the State of Texas. 

47. An act authorizing the Texarkana 
and Fort Smith Railway Company to 
bridg-e Caddo Lake at or near Moorings- 
port, La., and Cross Bayou, near Shreve- 
port, La. 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS.-Continued. 



L97 



I iiu doe Bills.— Continued. 

330. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the Missouri River at De 
Witt, Carroll County, Mo., and to establish 
it as a post road. 

46. An act authorizing- the Texarkana 
and Fort Smith Railway Company to 
bridge the Calcasieu and Sabine Rivers, in 
the States of Louisiana and Texas. 

45. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge over the Monongahela River at 
Glenwood, Pa. 

42. An act for a charter for the Iowa and 
Nebraska Pontoon Bridge Company. 

41. An act to amend an act entitled " An 
act to authorize the construction of a 
bridge across the Missouri River at the 
most accessible point between the city of 
Kansas and the town of Sibley, in the 
county of Jackson, and State of Missouri," 
approved March 3, 1887. 

40. An act to amend an act entitled "An 
act authorizing the construction of a high 
wagon bridge at or near Sioux City, Towa," 
approved March 2, 1889, as amended by acts 
of April 13, 1890, and February 7, 1893. 

39. An act to amend "An act authorizing 
the construction of a bridge across the East 
River, between the city of New York and 
Long Island," approved March 3, 1887. 
I 31. An act to authorize the construction 
! of a bridge over the Arkansas River at or 
i near Van Buren, Ark. 

23. An act authorizing the Gulf, Beau- 
mont and Kansas City Railway Company 
to bridge the Neches and Sabine Rivers in 
the States of Texas and Louisiana. 

17. An act to amend an act approved 
September 4, 1890, authorizing the New 
Orleans, Natchez and Fort Scott Railroad 
Company to construct two bridges across 
Boeuf River, in Louisiana. 

18. An act to authorize the Chattanooga 
Western Railway Company to construct 
a bridge across the Tennessee River near 
Chattanooga. 

223. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the St. Croix River, be- 
tween Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

228. An act to authorize the Biloxi and 
Back Bay Bridge Company to construct 
and maintain a bridge over that portion of 
the bay of Biloxi, in the State of Mississip- 
pi, known as Back Bay. 

229. An act to authorize the construction 
of a bridge across the Osage River, in the 
State of Missouri. 

Commerce and Navigation. 

185. An act to make the city of Oakland, 
county of Alameda, State of California, a 
Bubport of entry. 

151. An act adding the towns of Man- 
chester and Vernon, in the State of Con- 
necticut, to the customs district of Hart- 
ford, Conn., and making the city of Rock- 
ville, Conn., a port of delivery. 

61. An act to extend the limits of the 
port of New York. 

32. An act to establish a port of delivery 
at IJonners Ferry, Idaho. 

205. An act to extend the privileges of 
the transportation of dutiable merchandise 



Commerce and Navigation.— Continued, 
without appraisement to the city of Ocala, 
in the State of Florida. 

District of Columbia. 

143. An act to authorize the Metropolitan 
Railroad Company to change its motive 
power for the propulsion of the cars of said 
company. 

212. An act to amend an act entitled "An 
act to incorporate the Washington and 
Great Falls Electric Railway." 

213. An act to authorize the Washington, 
Alexandria and Mount Vernon Electric 
Railway Company to extend its line of 
road into and within the District of Colum- 
bia, and for other purposes. 

217. An act to prevent the recording of 
subdivisions of land in the District of 
Columbia in the office of the recorder of 
deeds. 

216. An act to open, widen, and extend 
alleys in the District of Columbia. 

203. An act to authorize the Commis- 
sioners of the District of Columbia to ap- 
point a deputy coroner, and for other pur- 
poses. 

194. An act to provide an immediate re- 
vision and equalization of real estate values 
in the District of Columbia ; also to pro- 
vide an assessment of real estate in said 
District in the year 1896 and every third 
year thereafter, and for other purposes. 

187. An act to provide for the payment of 
the 8 per cent, greenback certificates of the 
District of Columbia and for other pur- 
poses. 

183. An act to provide for the closing of 
a part of an alley in square 185 in the city 
of Washington, D. C. 

182. An act to regulate water main assess- 
ments in the District of Columbia. 

167. An act to pay for alley condemned in 
square numbered 493, in the city of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

147. An act to prohibit the interment of 
bodies in Graceland Cemetery in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

96. An act to incorporate the Supreme 
Lodge of the Knights of Pythias. 

91. An act to provide for the closing of 
part of an alley in square 622 in the city of 
Washington, D. C, and for the relief of 
the president and directors of Gonzaga 
College. 

72. An act to construe the act of Con- 
gress passed January 6, 1893, to incorporate 
the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Found- 
ation of the District of Columbia. 

66. An act to provide for the sale of new 
tickets of the street railway companies of 
the District of Columbia. 

63. An act to amend an act entitled " An 
act regulating the sale of intoxicating li- 
quors in the District of Columbia." 

38. An act to make service connections 
with water mains and sewers in the District 
of Columbia, and for other purposes. 

34. An act to amend an act entitled "An 
act to establish the Smithsonian Institution 
for thei ncrease and diffusion of knowledge 
among men," being Title LXXIII of the 
Revised Statutes. 

33. An act to continue in force the pro- 



198 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS —Continued. 



District of Columbia.— Continued, 
visions of an act approved March 2, 1885, 
and entitled " An act to protect the tish in 
the Potomac River in the District of Co- 
lumbia, and to provide a spawning 1 ground 
for shad and herring in the said Potomac 
River." 

7. An act to close alleys in-square num- 
bered 751, in the city of Washington, D. C. 

4. An act to extend North Capitol street 
to Soldiers' Home. 

*3. An act to provide for clerical assist- 
ance in the clerical department of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

Expositions. 
55. An act to exempt the articles of for- 
eign exhibitions at the interstate fair at 
Tacoma, Wash., from the payment of 
duties. 

*15. An act in aid of the World's Fair 
Prize Winners' Exposition to be held at 
New York City. 

*1. An act in aid of the California Mid- 
winter International Exposition. 

Federal Elections. 

24. An act to repeal all statutes relating 
to supervisors of elections and special dep- 
uty marshals, and for other purposes. 
Foreign Affairs. 

153. An act for the disposal of the accre- 
tions of the Virginius indemnity fund. 

121. An act to authorize the Secretary of 
State to accept for the United States of 
America a painting by G. F. Watts, royal 
academician, entitled " Love and Life." 

109. An act making an appropriation for 
rewriting the Consular Regulations. 

76. An act supplementary to an act ap- 
proved April 6, 1894, for the execution of 
the award rendered at Paris, August 15, 
1893, by the Tribunal of Arbitration con- 
stituted under the treaty between the 
United States and Great Britain, con- 
cluded at Washington, February 29, 1892, 
in relation to the preservation of the fur 
seal. 

54. An act to amend section 1 of an act 
approved April 6, 1894, entitled "An act to 
give effect to the award rendered by the 
Tribunal of Arbitration at Paris, under the 
treaty between the United States and Great 
Britain, concluded at Washington, Febru- 
ary 29; 1892, for the purpose of submitting 
to arbitration certain questions concerning 
the preservation of the fur seals." 

48. An act to give effect to the award ren- 
dered by the Tribunal of Arbitration at 
Paris, under the treaty between the United 
States and Great Britain, concluded at 
Washington, February 29, 1892, for the pur- 
pose of submitting to arbitration certain 
questions concerning the preservation of 
the fur seals. 

14. An act to amend an act entitled " An 
act to prohibit the coming of Chinese per- 
sons into the United States, approved May 
5, 1892. 

Indians. 

184. An act extending the time of pay- 
ment to purchasers of lands of the Omaha 
*First session. 



Indians.— Continued, 
tribe of Indians in Nebraska, and for otheil 

purposes. 

78. An act denning and permanently flx-| 
ing the northern boundary line of th<| 
Warm Springs Indian Reservation, in tin 
State of Oregon. 

74. An act to amend an act entitled " At 
act to provide for the sale of the remaindei 
of the reservation of the Confederated 
Otoe and Missouria Indians in the States ol 
Nebraska and Kansas, and for other pur 
poses," approved March 3, 1881. 

Judiciary. 

179. An act to change the lines between 
the eastern and western judicial district! 
of North Carolina and fixing time for hold- 
ing courts in said eastern district. 

148. An act to fix the times and places foi 
holding the Federal courts in the State and 
district of Nebraska. 

134. An act to amend sections 4. 6, and 11 
of the act of February 9, 1893, entitled "An 
act to establish a court of appeals for tht 
District of Columbia, and for other pur- 
poses." 

120. An act to change the boundaries ol 
the judicial districts of the State of Florida. 

118. An act providing an additional cir- 
cuit judge in the eighth judicial circuit. 

117. An act to fix a term of the Federal 
district and circuit courts of the southern 
judicial district of Mississippi, to be held at 
Meridian, Miss., to include the counties 
named. 

106. An act regulating the procedure in 
criminal causes in the district of Min- 
nesota. 

100. An act to provide that a term of the 
circuit and district court of the United 
States for the district of Vermont may be 
held at Montpelier. 

56. An act to provide for the division of 
the eastern district of Michigan into the 
northern and southern divisions, and for 
holding the .circuit and district courts 
of the United States therein, and for other 
purposes. 

5. An act to provide for two additional 
associate justices of the supreme court of 
the Territory of Oklahoma, and for other 

purposes. 

*16. An act to regulate the fees of the 
clerk of the United States court for the 
Indian Territory. 

*9. An act to amend an act entitled " An 
act to provide the times and places for 
holding terms of United States courts in 
the States of Idaho and Wyoming," ap- 
proved July 5, 1892. 

10. An act to provide for the time and 
place of holding the terms of the United 
States circuit and district courts in the 
State of South Dakota. 

168. An act to amend sections 5365 and 
5366 of the Revised Statutes, relating to 
barratry on the high seas. 

219. An act to amend an act entitled " An 
act to create a new division of the northern 
judicial district of Georgia," approved 
March 3, 1891. 

* First session. 



L 

ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRt) CONGRESS.-Continued. 199 



Life-Saving Service. 

208. An act to authorize the construction 
of a life-saving station at or near Kooky 
Point or East Marion, Long- Island, N. Y. 

1(54. An act extending- the benefits of the 
■Brine hospitals to the keepers and crews 
of life-saving stations. 

156. An act to amend section 5 of the act 
approved June is, 1878, entitled "An act to 
organize the Life-Saving Service." 

36. An act to transfer the Morris Island 
life-saving station, near Charleston, S. C, 
to Sullivans Island. 

Lights and Fog Signals. 
161. An act authorizing the construction 
of a light-ship, with fog signal, to be es- 
tablished to the eastward of Boston Light, 
Massachusetts, and for the establishment 
of range lights in Boston Harbor, Massa- 
chusetts. 

160. An act establishing a fog signal at 
Kewaunee, Wis. 

I 12. An act for the establishment of a 
light and fog signal station near Butler 
Flats, New Bedford, Mass. 

Labor. 

188. An act for the protection of persons 
furnishing materials and labor for the con- 
struction of public works. 

95. An act making labor day a legal holi- 
day. 

Merchant Marine and Fisheries. 

192. An act relating to lights on fishing 
vessels. 

186. An act to provide an American reg- 
ister for the steamer S. Oteri. 

144. An act to provide an American reg- 
ister for the steamer Oceano, of New York, 
N. Y. 

142. An act to provide a register for the 
schooner barge Astoria. 

141. An act to provide a register for the 
steamer Goklsworrhy. 

77. An act to facilitate the entry of steam- 
ships. 

71. An act to amend an act approved Au- 
gust 19, 1890, entitled "An act to adopt, 
regulations for preventing collisions at 
sea." 

37. An act to provide an American reg- 
ister for the steamer El Callao. 

825. An act for the registry or enrollment 
Of the bark Skudesnaes. 

Mines and Mining. 

*12. An act to amend section numbered 
2324 of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States, relating to mining claims. 

115. An act to amend section numbered 
2324 of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States, relating to mining claims. 

Military Affairs. 

13. An act to increase the number of 
SOfficers of the Army to be detailed to col- 
leges. 

211. An act to amend section 4833 Revised 
8tatutes, and for other purposes. 

181. An act for the construction of a 
military road from the city of El Paso to 
Fort Bliss, Tex. 
. -"First session. 



Military Affairs.— Continued. 

140. An act to regulate enlistments in the 
Army of the United States. . 

138. An act donating condemned cannon 
to the St. Lawrence State Hospital at Og- 
densburg, N. Y. 

131. An act to amend section 4837 of the 
Revised Statutes of the United States as to 
soldiers 1 homes. 

107. An act authorizing the Secretary of 
War to donate four obsolete gun carriages 
to the city of Marshalltown, Iowa. 

108. An act to provide for the restoration 
to the State of Michigan two flags carried 
by the 22d Michigan Infantry Volunteers 
and now in the War Department. 

National-Bank Notes. 
189. An act to subject to State taxation 
national-bank notes and United States 
Treasury notes. 

Navy. 

174. An act disposing of four condemned 
cannon of the Navy. 

172. An act for the relief of certain en- 
listed men of the Marine Corps. 

146. An act to promote the efficiency of 
the naval militia. 

137. An act relating to the pay and retire- 
ment of mates in the United States Navy. 

99. An act to amend section 1379, chapter 
1, Title XV, Revised Statutes of the United 
States, in relation to appointments of as- 
sistant paymasters in the Navy. 

30. An act providing for the rescue of the 
armament and wreck of the United States 
war ship Kearsarge. 

Postmasters. 

214. An act empowering fourth-class post- 
masters to adminster oaths to pensioners. 

16. An act to amend section 407 of the Re- 
vised Statutes so as to require original re- 
ceipts for deposits of postmasters to be 
sent to the Auditor of the Treasury for the 
Post-Office Department. 

6. An act authorizing the Fourth Assist 
ant Postmaster-General to approve post- 
masters' bonds. 

Public Lands. 

209. An act to provide for the opening of 
certain abandoned military reservations, 
and for other purposes. 

201. An act to amend sections 2401 and 
2403 of the Revised Statutes. 

195. An act to further amend section 239° 
of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States. 

180. An act providing for the resurvey of 
Grant and Hooker Counties in the State of 
Nebraska. 

178. An act to authorize sale of lot 8, 
block 93, city of Hot Springs, by school di- 
rectors thereof, and use of proceeds for 
school purposes. 

176. An act granting a certain military 
reservation to Oklahoma City, Okla., to aid 
the public free schools thereof, and for 
other purposes. 

173. An act authorizing the Secretary of 
the Interior to grant leases for sites on the 
Hot Springs Reservation, Arkansas, for 
cold water reservoirs. 



300 ACTS OP THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS.-Continued. 



Public Lands.— Continued. 

162. An act to provide for the validation 
of affidavits made before United States 
Commissioners in all land entries. 

159. An act for the relief of persons who 
have filed declarations of intention to en- 
ter desert lands. 

152. An act concerning leases in the Yel- 
lowstone National Park. 

150. An act authorizing- the State of Mon- 
tana to make selections from certain public 
lands. 

136. An act granting certain property to 
the city of Newport, Ky. 

133. An act to release a certain limitation 
existing in an act of Congress touching the 
Episcopal Church at St. Augustine, Fla. 

132. An act granting the use of certain 
land to the town of Castine, Me., for a pub- 
lic park. 

127. An act extending the time for final 
proof and payment on lands claimed under 
the public land laws of the United States. 

126. An act prescribing limitations of 
time for completion of title to certain 
lands disposed of under the act of Con- 
gress approved September 27, 1850, and the 
acts amendatory and supplemental there- 
to, and commonly known as the " Dona- 
tion act, 1 ' and for the protection of pur- 
chasers and occupants on said lands. 

122. An act granting to the University of 
Utah a site off the public domain. 

102. An act granting to the State of North 
Dakota certain lands heretofore set apart 
as a wood reservation for Fort Totten mil- 
itary reservation, for the use of the militia 
of North Dakota, and for other purposes. 

93. An act granting the use of certain 
lands in the Hot Springs Reservation, in 
the State of Arkansas, to the Barry Hos- 
pital. 

92. An act to supply a deficiency in the 
grant of public lands to the State of Mis- 
sissippi, for the use of the State University. 

88. An act granting to the village of 
Dearborn certain land for village purposes. 

81. An act to grant certain lands to the 
township board of Inwood Township, 
Michigan, for cemetery purposes. 

75. An act supplementary to the act of 
Congress approved January 28, 1879, enti- 
tled "An act defining the manner in which 
certain land scrip may be assigned and lo- 
cated or applied by actual settlers," and 
providing for the issue of patents in the 
name of the locator or his legal represen- 
tatives. 

64. An act to authorize the Commissioner 
of the General Land Office to issue a pa- 
tent to Mace Clement's survey, numbered 
386, in theVirginia military district of Ohio. 

62. An act to protect the birds and ani- 
mals in Yellowstone National Park, and to 
punish crimes in said park, and for other 
purposes. 

58. An act to ratify the reservation of 
certain lands made for the benefit of Okla- 
homa Territory, and for other purposes. 

26. An act for the relief of certain set- 
tlers upon the Iowa Reservation, Oklaho- 
ma Territory. 

25J. An act to authorize the Secretary of 
the Interior to reserve from sale certain 



Public Lands.— Continued, 
land in the abandoned Fort Cumming 
military reservation, and for otner pur 

poses. 

19. An act granting certain lands to th< 
Territory of Arizona. 

10. An act relating to the disqualificatioi 
of registers and receivers of the Unite 
States land offices, and making provisioi 
in case of such disqualification. 

I. An act to amend an act entitled "At' 
act to forfeit certain lands heretofon 
granted for the purpose of aiding in th; 
construction of railroads, and for othei 
purposes," approved September 29, 1890 
and the several acts amendatory thereof 

*7. An act to amend section 6 of the act 
approved March 3, 1891, entitled 'An aci 
to repeal timber-culture laws, and foi 
other purposes." 

*5. An act granting settlers on certain 
lands in Oklahoma Territory the right tc 
commute their homestead entries, and foi 
other purposes. 

224. An act authorizing the issue of a pa- 
tent to the Presbyterian Board of Home 
Missions for certain lands on the Omaha 
Indian Reservation for school purposes. 

Revenue Marine. 

11. An act providing for the construc- 
tion of a steam revenue cutter for service 
on the Great Lakes. 

199. An act to amend section 2 of the act 
approved February 15, 1893, entitled "An 
act granting additional quarantine powers 
and imposing additional duties upon the 
Marine-Hospital Service." 

196. An act making an appropriation and 
providing for the construction of a United 
States revenue cutter for service in the 
harbor of San Francisco, State of Califor- 
nia. 

*6. An act providing for the construction 
of a steam revenue cutter for the New 
England coast. 

Rivers and Harbors. 

85. An act to authorize the Missouri Riv- 
er Power Company of Montana to con- 
struct a dam across the Missouri River. 

210. An act to repeal House resolution 
numbered 104, first session Fifty-first Con- 
gress, granting to Secretary of War a per- 
mit to license to use a pier at mouth of 
Chicago River. 

28. An act granting to the Des Moinesi 
Rapids Power Company the right to erect,j 
construct, operate, and maintain a wing 
dam, canal, and power station in the Mis- 
sissippi River in Hancock County, 111. 

II. An act to amend an act of Congress; 
approved May 12, 1890, granting to the 
Aransas Pass Harbor Company the right to. 
improve Aransas Pass. 

14. An act to authorize the construction 
and maintenance of a dam or dams across* 
the Knnsas River, within Shawnee County,? 
in the State of Kansas. 

Rights of Way. 
206. An act granting to the Northern 
Mississippi Railway Company right of way 
* First session. 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS -Continued. 



201 



Rights of Way.— Continued, 
though certain Indian reservations in 
linesota. 

">. An act to require railroad companies 
( (rating railroads in the Territories over 
(light of way granted by the Government 
t -stiiblish stations and depots at all town 
f ?s on the lines of said roads established 
: the Interior Department. 
i36. An act to grant to the Arkansas, 
I icas and Mexican Central Railway Com- 
jiy a right of way through the Indian 
5rritory, and for other purposes. 
'23. An act granting to the Columbia Ir- 
i ation Company a right of way through 
i Yakima Indian Reservation, in Wash- 
jfton. 

13. An act granting to the St. Paul, Min- 
lipolis and Manitoba Railway Company 
ji right of way through the White Earth, 
ech Lake, Chippewa, and Fond du Lac 
|3ian Reservations, in the State of Min- 
30 ta. 

01. An act granting to the Brainerd and 
•rthern Minnesota Railway Company a 
•ht of way through the Leech Lake In- 
tn Reservation, in the State of Minne- 

». 

18. An act granting certain rights over 
me Point military reservation, in the 
ite of California. 

14. An act granting to the Eastern Ne- 
aska and Gulf Railway Company right 

way through the Omaha and Winne- 
go Indian Reservations, in the State of 
;braska. 

iO. An act granting the right of way to 
e Albany and Astoria Railroad Company 
rough the Grand Ronde Indian Reserva- 
>n, in the State of Oregon. 
'9. An act to extend and amend an act 
titled "An act to authorize the Kansas 
d Arkansas Valley Railway to construct 
d operate additional lines of railway 
rough the Indian Territory, and for oth- 
purposes," approved February 24, A. D. 
>1. 

59. An act to extend the time for build- 
s' a street railway on the military reser- 
tion, Fort Riley, Kans. 
8. An act extending the time allowed the 
natilla Irrigation Company for the con- 
•uction of its ditch across the Umatilla 
dian Reservation, in the State of Oregon. 
.3. An act to extend the time for the 
nstruction of the railway of the Choctaw 
al and Railway Company. 
I. An act to grant the right of way to the 
insas. Oklahoma Central and Southwest- 
i Railway Company through the Indian 
rritory and Oklahoma Territory, and for 
tier purposes. 

I. An act granting the right of way for 
9 construction of a railroad and other 
provements over and on the West 
mntain of the Hot Springs Reservation, 
)t Springs, Ark. 

18. An act to authorize purchasers of 
3 property and franchises of the Choctaw 
al and Railway Company to organize a 
rporation and to confer upon the same 
the powers, privileges, and franchises 
sted in that company. 
21. An act to amend an act entitled "An 



Rights of Way.— Continued, 
act to amend an act entitled 'An act grant- 
ing the right of a way to the Hutchison 
and Southern Railroad Company through 
the Indian Territory.' " 

220. An act granting to the Duluth and 
Winnipeg Railroad Company a right of 
way through the Chippewa and White 
Earth Indian Reservations, in the State of 
Minnesota. 

Silver. 

*8. An act to repeal a part of an act ap- 
proved July 14, 1890, entitled "An act di- 
recting the purchase of silver bullion 
and the issue of Treasury notes thereon, 
and for other purposes." 

Tariff and Internal Revenue. 

227. An act to reduce taxation, to pro- 
vide revenue for the Government, and for 
other purposes. Introduced December 19, 
1893; debated January 9-31, 1894; passed 
House February 1, 1*894 ; passed Senate July 
3, with 634 amendments ; sent to confer- 
ence July 7,1894; August 13,1894, House 
receded from disagreement to Senate 
amendments; enrolled August 15, 1894; 
presented to President August 15, 1894 ; 
became a law by expiration of time al- 
lowed by Constitution August 27, 1894, 
midnight. 

226. An act to provide for the collection 
of internal revenue, and for other pur- 
poses. 

Utah State. 
112. An act to enable the people of Utah 
to form a constitution and State govern- 
ment, and to be admitted into the Union 
on an equal footing with the original 
States. 

MlSCELL A NEOUS. 

222. An act to provide for the improve- 
ment of the building and grounds of the 
United States court and post-office at Lit- 
tle Rock, Ark. 

*4. An act to extend the time for com- 
pleting the work of the Eleventh Census, 
and for other purposes. 

190. An act relative to recognizances, 
stipulations, bonds, and undertakings, and 
to allow certain corporations to be accept- 
ed as surety thereon. 

165. An act to authorize a compromise 
and settlement with the State of Arkansas. 

154. An act to amend section 15 of an act 
approving, with amendments, the funding 
act of Arizona, approved June 25, 1890. 

145. An act granting jurisdiction and au- 
thority to the Court of Claims in the case 
of the towboat Future City, her barges, 
cargoes, etc. 

116. An act authorizing the county of 
Coconino, Territory of Arizona, to issue 
bonds for the construction of a county 
building at the county seat thereof. 

105. An act to define and establish the 
units of electrical measure. 

103. An act authorizing the Minneapolis 
Gas Light Company, of Minneapolis, Minn., 
to lay submerged gas pipes across the Mis- 
sissippi River at Minneapolis. 

27. An act fixing the limit of indebted- 

* First session. 



202 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS— Continued. 



M rscET.LANEOUs.— Continued, 
ness which may be incurred by Salt Lake 
City. 

70. An act authorizing the Secretary of 
the Treasury to exchange, in behalf of the 
United States, deeds of land with the Pem- 
aquid Land Company of Maine, in settle- 
ment of a disputed boundary of the Pem- 
aquid Point (Maine) light station. 



Miscellaneous.— Continued. 

15. An act to amend section 4430, Title 
LII, of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States, relative to inspection of iron or 
steel boiler plates. 

158. An act providing- for the sale of the 
old custom-house and lot connected there- 
with, in the city of Louisville, Ky. 



JOINT RESOLUTIONS OF A PUBLIC NATURE THAT BECAME LAWS AT 
THE FIRST AND SECOND SESSIONS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD 
CONGRESS, ARRANGED BY SUBJECTS, AND SHOWING 
NUMBER AND TITLE OF LAW. 



Appropriations. 
17. Joint resolution providing for the 
payment of salaries and expenses of addi- 
tional deputy collectors of internal rev- 
enue to carry out the provisions of the 
Chinese exclusion act of May 5, 1892, as 
amended by the act of November 3, 1893. 

1. Joint resolution providing for the pay- 
ment of salaries and expenses of additional 
deputy collectors of internal revenue to 
carry out the provisions of the Chinese ex- 
clusion act of May 5, 1892, as amended by 
the act of November 3, 1893. 

39. Joint resolution to continue the pro- 
visions of existing laws providing tempo- 
rarily for the expenditures of the Govern- 
ment. 

34. Joint resolution to continue the pro- 
visions of a joint resolution approved June 
29, 1894, entitled a " Joint resolution to pro- 
vide temporarily for the expenditures of 
the Government." 

29. Joint resolution to provide tempora- 
rily for the expenditures of the Govern- 
ment. 

District of Columbia. 

41. Joint resolution providing for clerical 
assistance in the health department of the 
District of Columbia. 

40. Joint resolution to extend the charter 
of the Mai*yland and Washington Railway 
Company. 

*5. Joint resolution to make the 18th day 
of September, 1893, a holiday within the 
District of Columbia. 

Expositions. 

2. Joint resolution conferring diplomas 
upon designers, inventors, and expert 
artisans. 

*13. Joint resolution to amend the act 
approved April 25, 1890, relating to the ad- 
mission of articlesintended for the "World's 
Columbian Exposition. 

15. Joint resolution transferring the ex- 
hibit of the Navy Department known as 
the model battle ship Illinois, to the State 
of Illinois, as a naval armory for the use of 
the naval militia of the State of Illinois, on 
the termination of the World's Columbian 
Exposition. 

Foreign Affairs. 
33. Joint resol ution authorizing the Pres- 
ident to appoint delegates to attend the 
* First session. 



Foreign Affairs.— Continued, 
meetings of the International Geodetic 
Association. 

16. Joint resolution to provide for the 
printing of a history and digest of the in-' 
ternational arbitrations to which thel 
United States was a party, and for other 
purposes. 

10. Joint resolution providing- for the ap- 
pointment of a commission to the Antwerp 
International Exposition. 

11. Joint resolution that the acknowledg- 
ments of the Government and people of 
the United States be tendered' to various 
foreign governments of the world in com^ 
memoration of the discovery of America 
by Christopher Columbus. 

Indians. 

15. Joint resolution authorizing the Sec- 
retary of the Interior to cause the settle- 
ment of the accounts of Special Agents 
Moore and Woodson, under the treaty of 
1854, with the Delaware Indians, etc. 

14. Joint resolution authorizing and di- 
recting the Secretary of the Treasury to 
receive at the sub-treasury in the city of- 
New York from K. T. Wilson & Co., or as- 
signs, the money amounting to $6,740,000, 
to be paid to the Cherokee Nation, and to 
place the same to the credit of the Chero- 
kee Nation. 

4. Joint resolution for the protection of 
those parties who have heretofore been 
allowed to make entries for lands within 
the former Mille Lacs Indian Reservation 
in Minnesota. 

Judiciary. 

8. Joint resolution authorizing the chief 
justice and associate justices of the court 
of appeals and of the supreme court of the 
District of Columbia to use and take books 
from the library of Congress. 

Labor. 

38. Joint resolution providing for an in- 
vestigation relating to the effects of ma- 
chinery on labor. 

35. Joint resolution providing for an in- 
vestigation relative to the work and wages 
of women and children. 

Military Affairs. 

44. Joint resolution instructing the Sec- 
retary of War to return to the State of 
Massachusetts the flags of certain regi- 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-TIIIllD CONGRESS^— Continued. 



208 



Military Affairs.— Continued, 
aents of Massachusetts Volunteer Tn- 
antry. 

31. Joint resolution to appoint three 
©embers of the Board of Managers of the 
National Homo for Disabled Volunteer 
Soldiers. 

27. Joint resolution authorizing the pur- 
chase or condemnation of land in the 
vicinity of Gettysburg-, Pa. 

24. Joint resolution instructing- the Sec- 
retary of War to return to the State of 
Iowa the flag of Twenty-second Regiment 
of Iowa Volunteer Infantry. 

23. Joint resolution authorizing the wear- 
ing of the distinctive badge adopted by the 
Regular Army and Navy Union upon all 
occasions of ceremony. 

*8. Joint resolution empowering the Na- 
tional Board of Commissioners of the 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 
Park to authorize the State boards, or 
organizations building monuments in the 
park, to use the materials in said park, 
agreeably to such regulations as it may 
adopt. 

* 14. Joint resolution donating an aban- 
doned cannon to the committee in charge 
of the National Encampment of the Grand 
\rmy of the Republic at Pittsburg, Pa., in 
1894. 

Navy. 

36. Joint resolutions to establish an ob- 
servatory circle as a provision for guard- 
ing the delicate astronomical instruments 
at the United States Naval Observatory 
aerainst smoke or currents of heated air in 
their neighborhood, and undue vibrations 
from traffic upon the extension of public 
thoroughfares in the vicinity, and for 
other purposes. 

33. Joint resolutions authorizing the Sec- 
retary of the Navy to continue the em- 
ployment of certain mechanics and la- 
borers. 

Printing. 

18. Joint resolution to print Agricultural 
Report for 1893. 

11. Joint resolution to provide for the 
printing of the report of the Joint Com- 
mitter of Congress and Proceedings at the 
Ontennial Celebration of the Laying of 
the Corner Stone of the Capitol. 

Public Buildings and Grounds. 

42. Joint resolution authorizing the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury to provide rooms 
for the accommodation of the United 
States circuit court and district courts and 
their officers at Meridian, Miss. 

43. Joint resolution authorizing the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury to transfer a certain 
piece of land in the State of Michigan to 
the city of Saginaw. 

28. Joint resolution granting full permis- 
sion to the State of Maryland and to sev- 
eral State courts within the city of Balti- 
more to occupy the old United States 
court house in the city of Baltimore for 
the period of five years. 

13. Joint resolution authorizing the 
transfer of furniture and carpets to the 

* First session. 



Public Buildings and Grounds.— Con'd. 
rooms now occupied by the United States 
courts at Chicago. 

'.». Joint resolution providing for the 
erection of fire-escapes and bridges at the 
Government Printing- Office, and fire-es- 
capes at the Maltby Building. 

5. Joint resolution to authorize the Sec- 
retary of War to grant permits for the use 
of the Monument grounds and reserva- 
tions or public spaces in the city of Wash- 
ington, and for other purposes. 

* 7. Joint resolution providing for the 
erection of a suitable building for the 
storage of documents for the use of the 
Senate. 

Revenue Marine. 

22. Joint resolution providing for partial 
payments for work, etc., for vessels con- 
structed under the direction of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury. 

Rivers and Harbors. 

30. Joint resolution directing the Secre- 
tary of War to appoint a commission of 
engineers to examine and report upon the 
cost of deepening the harbors of Superior 
andDuluthand their entrances to a uni- 
form depth of 20 feet. 

21. Joint resolution directing the Secre- 
tary of War to cause an examination to be 
made to determine if there is probability 
and danger of the Mississippi River cutting 
through the space dividing such river from 
the St. Francis River in the vicinity of 
Walnut Bend, Ark. 

Senate and House. 

3. Joint resolution to pay the officers 
and employes of the Senate and House of 
Kepresentatives their respective salaries 
for the month of December, 1893, on the 
21 <t day of said month. 

26. Joint resolution to pay the officers 
and employes of the Senate and House of 
Representatives their respective salaries 
for the month of May, 1891, on the 29th 
day of said month. 

26. Joint resolution making an appropri- 
ation to defray expenses of inquiries and 
investigations ordered by the Senate. 

45. Joint resolution to pay the officers 
and employes of the Senate and House of 
Kepresentatives their respective salaries 
for the month of August, 1894, on the 23d 
day of said month. 

1. Joint resolution making available ap- 
propriations for the payment of session 
employes of the House and Senate during 
the first session of the Fifty-third Con- 
gress. 

Senate and House.— Continued. 
3. Joint resolution making immediately 
available the appropriation for mileage of 
Senators and Members of the House of 
Representatives. 

Tariff. 

7. Joint resolution authorizing the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury to permit the own- 
ers of cattle and horses transporting same 
into Mexico to reimport same into 
the United States at any time within 

* First session. 



204 



ACTS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS —Continued. 



Tariff.— Continued, 
twelve months from date of the passage 
of this resolution, and for other purposes. 

Miscellaneous. 

*2. Joint resolution providing for the 
appropriate commemoration of the 100th 
anniversary of the laying of the corner 
stone of the Capitol of the United States, 
September 18, 1793. 

* 6. Joint resolution to permit the use of 
certain ensigns, flags, and signal numbers 
to decorate the Capitol and its approaches, 
September 18, 1893. 

*4. Joint resolution to make the provis- 
ions of the act of May 14, 1890, which pro- 
vides for town-site entries of lands in a 
portion of what is known as Oklahoma, 
applicable to the territory known as the 
Cherokee Outlet, and to make the provis- 
ions of said act applicable to town sites in 
the Cherokee Outlet. 

*9. Joint resolution authorizing the 
State of Wisconsin to place in Statuary 
Hall at the Capitol the statute of Pere 
Marquette. 

* 10. Joint resolution fixing the qualifica- 
tions to vote and to hold office in the 

* First session. 



Miscellaneous.— Continued. 
Cherokee Outlet. Oklahoma Territory, at 
the first municipal elections. 

* 13. Joint resolution for the reporting, 
marking, and removal of derelicts. 

20. Joint resolution providing additional 
clerical force for the Librarian of Con- 
gress. 

37. Joint resolution authorizing proper 
officers of the Treasury Department to ex- 
amine and certify claims in favor of cer- 
tain counties in Arizona. 

19. Joint resolution providing for the 
placing of a tablet upon the Capitol to 
commemorate the laying of the corner 
stone of the building, September 18, 1793. 

12. Joint resolution to fill a vacancy in 
the Board of Regents in the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

6. Joint resolution relieving the era 
ployes of the Record and Pension Office 
who were injured in the Ford's Theatre 
disaster from the operation of the law re- 
stricting the amount of sick leave with 
pay that may be granted by heads of De- 
partments. 

46. Joint resolution to change the initials 
of a name in the Indian appropriation 
bill. 

* First session. 



BUSINESS OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS. 



First session (begun Aug. 7,1893; ad- 
journed Nov. 3, 1893): 

No. of days 

Second session (begun Dec. 4, 1893; ad- 
journed Aug. 28, 1894): 

No. of days 



Total number of days 357 



No. of bills introduced in House 

No. of bills introduced in Senate 

No. of joint resolutions introduced in 

House 

No. of joint resolutions introduced in 

Senate 

No. of House bills passed by House. . . 
No. of House bills passed by Senate. . . 
No. of Senate bills passed by Senate.. 
No. of Senate bills passed by House. . . 
No. of House joint resolutions passed 

by House 

No. of House joint resolutions passed 

by Senate 

No. of Senate joint resolutions passed 

by Senate 



8,053 
2,326 

229 

106 

340 
194 
289 
73 



No. of Senate joint resolutions passed 

by House 24 

No. of House bills that became laws. . 271 
No. of House joint resolutions that be- 
came laws — 4| 

No. of Senate bills that became laws. . 100 
No. of Senate joint resolutions that 
became laws 27 



Total public laws 246 

Total private laws 125 

Total public resolutions... , 61 

Total private resolutions 8 

Grand total laws 440 

No. of reports made in House 1,477 



No. of reports made in Senate. 

No. of vetoes 

No. of "pocket" vetoes 

No. of bills passed both Houses and 
pending in conference or otherwise. 



710 
5 
6 



Alabama 9 

Arkansas 6 

California 7 

Colorado 2 

Connecticut 4 

Delaware • 1 

Florida 2 

Georgia 11 

Idaho 1 

Illinois 22 



NUMBER OF CONGRESSMEN FROM EACH STATE. 

11 



Indiana 13 Missou 



Iowa 

Kansas 8 

Kentucky 11 

Louisiana 6 

Maine 4 

Maryland 6 

Massachusetts 13 

Michigan 12 

Minnesota 7 

Mississippi 7 



Montana 1 

Nebraska 6 

Nevada 1 

New Hampshire.... 2 

New Jersey 8 

New York 34 

North Cai-olina.... 9 

North Dakota 1 

Ohio 21 

Oregon 2 



15 1 Pennsylvania 



30 



Rhode Island 2 

South Carolina 7 

South Dakota 2 

Tennessee 10 

Texas 13 

Vermont 2 

Virginia 10 

Washington 2 

West Virginia 4 

Wisconsin 10 

Wyoming 1 

Total 356 



THE IMIMLIC DEBT OP THE UNITED STATES. 



205 



The Public Debt of the United States. 

OUTSTANDING PRINCIPAL OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ON JANUARY 1 OF 
EACH YEAR FROM 1791 TO 1842, INCLUSIVE; ON JULY 1 OF EACH 
YEAR FROM 1843 TO 1886, INCLUSIVE; ON DECEMBER 1 OF EACH 
YEAR FROM 1887 TO 1893, INCLUSIVE; AND ON JULY 1, 1894. 



1791 Jan. 


1 


$75,463,476.52 


182(5 


Jan. 1. 


... . 


$81,054,059.99 


1861 July 1.... 

1862 »* 


$90,580,873.72 


1793 






77,217,924.66 


1827 






73,987,357.20 


524,176,412.13 


1793 


M 




80,352,634.04 


1828 


ii 




67,475,043.87 


1863 " 


1,119.772,138.63 


1794 


11 




78,427,404.77 


1829 


*» 


.. . . 


58,421,413.67 


1864 


1,815,784,370.57 


1795 


II 


.... 


80,747,587.39 


1830 


M 


. . . . 


48,565,406.50 


1865 44 


2,680,647,869.74 


1796 


it 




83,762,172.07 


1831 






39,123,191.68 


1866 14 


2,773,236,173.69 


1797 


II 


.... 


82,064,479.33 


1832 


ti 




24,322,235.18 


1867 


2,678,126,103.87 


1798 


ti 


.... 


79,228,529.12 


1833 


•» 


.... 


7,001,698.83 


1868 " 


2,611,687,851.19 


1799 


U 


.... 


78,408,669.77 


1834 


ii 




4,760,082.08 


1869 " 


2,588,452,313.94 


1800 


11 


.... 


82,976,294.35 


1835 


" 


. . . . 


37,513.05 


1870 44 


3,480,673,427.81 


1801 


II 


.... 


83,038,050.80 


1836 


** 




336,957.83 


1871 " 


2,353,211,332.32 


1803 


II 


.... 


86,712,632.25 


1837 


»• 




3,308,124.07, 


1872 " 


2,253,251,328.78 


1803 


it 


.... 


77,054,686.30 


1838 


** 




10,434,221.14 


1873 " 


2,234,482,993.20 


1804 


ii 


. .. . 


86,427,120.88 


1839 






3,573,343.82 


1874 " 


2,251,690,468.43 


1805 


it 


.... 


82,312,150.50 


1840 


** 


i . . . 


5,250,875.54 


1875 " 


2,232,284,531.95 


1806 


ii 


.... 


75,723,270.66 
69,218,398.64 


1841 


ii 


... 


13,594,480.73 


1876 44 


2,180,395,067.15 


1807 


li 


.... 


1842 


** 




20,601,226.28 


1877 44 


2,205,301,392.10 


1808 


ii 


.... 


65,196,317.97 


1843 


July 1. 




32,742,922.00 


1878 44 


2,256,205,892.53 


1809 


ii 


.... 


57,023,192.09 


1844 




23,461,652.50 


1879 " 


2,349,567,232.04 


1810 


ii 


.... 


53,173,217.52 


1845 






15,925,303.01 


1880 44 


2,128,791,054.63 


1811 


Ii 


.... 


48,005,587.76 


1846 


•* 


• . . . 


15,550,202.97 


1881 44 


2,077,389,253.58 


1813 


" 


.... 


45,209,737.90 


1847 






38,826,534.77 


1882 44 


1,926,688,678.03 


1813 







55,962,837.57 


1848 


*• 





47,044,862.23 


1883 44 


1,892,547,412.07 


1814 






81,487,846.34 


1849 






63,061,858.69 


1884 44 .... 


1,838,904,607.57 


1815 






99,833,660.15 


1850 


ii 




63,452,773.55 


1885 " 


1,872,340,557.14 


1816 






137,334,933.74 


1851 


ii 




68,304,796.02 


1886 44 


1,783,438,697.78 


1817 






133,491,965.16 


1852 






66,199,341.71 


1887 Dec. 1.... 


1,664,461,536.38 


1818 


ii 




103,466,633.83 


1853 


ii 




59,803,117.70 


1888 44 


1,680,917,706.23 


1819 






95,539,648.38 


1854 






43,342,222.42 


1889 44 


1,617,372,419.53 


1830 


ii 




91,015,566.15 


1855 


ii 




35,586,858.56 
31,972,537.90 


1890 44 


1,549,296,126.48 


1831 


ii 




89,987,427.66 


1856 


ii 




1891 44 


1,546,961,695.61 


1823 


.1 




93,546,676.98 


1857 


ii 




28,699,831.85 
44,911,881.03 


1892 44 


1,563,612,455.63 


1833 






90,875.877.38 


1858 






1893 44 


1,560,797,618.13 


1824 






90,3*59,777.77 


1859 






58,496,8 J7.88 


1894 July 1.... 


1,632,253,6^6.68 


1825 






83,788,432.71 


1860 






64,842,287.88 



ANALYSIS OF THE PRINCIPAL OF THE PUBLIC DEBT, ETC., 1870-94. 



July 1. 



1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876- 
1877. 
1878- 
1879- 
1880. 
1881- 
1882 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 



1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 



Debtonwhich 
Interest has 
Ceased. 



Debt Bearing 
No Interest. 



$3,708,641.00 
1,948,903.36 
7,936,797.36 

51,939,710.26 
3,216,590.26 

11,425,820.26 
3,902,420.26 

16,648,860.26 
5,594,560.26 

37,015,630.26 
7,621.455.26 
6,733,865.36 

16,360,805.36 
7,831,415.36 

16,656,305.36 
4,100,995.36 
9,704,445.36 
6,115,165.36 
2,496,095.26 
1,911,485.26 
1,815,805.26 
1,614,705.26 
2,785,875.26 
2.094,060.26 
3,851,240.26 



$ 430,508,064.42 
416,565,680.06 
430,530,431.52 
472,069,332.94 
509,543,128.17 
498,182,411 
465,807,196.89 
476,764,031.84 
455,875,682.27 
410,835,741.78 
388,800,815 37 
422,721,954.32 
438,241,788.77 
538,111,162.81 
584,308,868.31 
663,712,937.88 
619,344,468.53 
629,795,077.37 
739,840,389.33 
787,387,446.97 
825,011,389.47 
9!33,853,766.35 

1,000,648,939.37 
958 854,535.87 
995,360,506.43 



Outstanding 
Principal. 



$2,480,673,427.81 
2,353,211,332.32 
2,253,251,328.78 
2,234,482,993.20 
2,251,690,468.43 
2,232,284,531.95 
2,180,395,067.15 
2,205,301,392.10 
2,256,205,892.53 
2,345,495,073.04 
3,120,415,370.63 
2,069,013,569.58 
1,918,312,994.03 
1,884.171,728.07 
1,830,528,923.5 
1,863,964,873.14 
1,775,063,013.78 
1,657,602,592.63 
1,692,858,984.58 
1,619,052,922.23 
1,552,140,204.73 
1,545,996,591.61 
1,588,464,144.63 
1,545,985,686.13 
1,632,253,636.68 



Cash in the 
Treasury. 



$149,502,471.60 
106,217,263.65 
108,470,798.43 
129,020,932.45 
147.541,314.74 
142,243,361.82 
119,469,726.70 
186,025,960.73 
256,823,612.08 
249,080,167.01 
201,088,622.88 
249,363,415.35 
243,289,519.78 
345,389,902.92 
391,985,928.18 
488,612,429.23 
492,917,173.34 
482,433,917.21 
629,854,089.85 
643,113,172.01 
661,a55,834.20 
694,083,839.83 
746,937,681.03 
707,016,210.00 
774,538,965.191 



Principal of Debt 
Less Cash in 
Treasury. 



Pop'ation 
of the 
U. S. 



$2,331,169,956.21 38,558,371 
2,246,994,068.67 39,555,000 
2,149,780,530.35 40,595,000 
2,105,462,060.75'41,676,000 
2,104,149,153.69 42,795,000 
2,090.041,170.13 43,949,000 
2,060,925.340.45 45,135,000 
2,019,275,431.37 46,351,000 
1,999,382,280.45 47,595,000 
1,996,414,905.03 48,863,000 
1,919,326,747.75 50,155.783 
1,819,650,154.23 51,462,000 
1,675,023,474.25 52,799,000 
1,538,781.825.15 54,163 000 
1,438,542,995.39 55,554,000 
1,375,352,443.91 57,093,000 
1,282,145,840.44 58,420,000 
1,175,168,675.42 61,031,000 
1,063,004.894.73'62,768,000 
975,939,750.22 64,554,000 
890,784,370.53 62,622,250 
851,912,751.78 63,975,000 
841,526,463.60 65,403,000 
838,969,476.00 66,826,000 
857,7 14,671 .49 '68,397.000 



The column of debt bearing no interest includes certificates held in Treasurer's cash. 



206 BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS. 


Building and Loan Associations of the United States. 

(From the Ninth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor.) 


States and Territories. 


Associ- 
ations. 




Share- 
holders. 


Shares in 
Foi'ce. 


Dues paid in 
on instal- 
ment shares 
in force. 


Profits. 


Local. 














23 


3,882 


130.559 


$1,127,496 


$588,141 




4 


391 


4,179 


92,067 


42,041 




32 


6,016 


279,067 


2,075,183 


591,987 




125 


24,488 


309,928 


10,450,342 


3,617,040 




42 


a8,619 


91,831 


3.905,220 


1,784,632 




15 


3,222 


18,266 


401,539 


32,059 




21 


7)2,969 


18,957 


1,206,958 


366,608 




26 


17,025 


122,054 


4,966,281 


732,621 




21 


3,393 


29,130 


1,010 207 


515,193 




31 


4,818 


36.845 


2,250,560 


422,093 




4 


345 


3,772 


84,812 


20,814 




631 


Cl74,380 


a2,195,051 


47,574,467 


14,789,855 




429 


c93,132 


a467,572 


15,886,469 


3,224,375 




81 


a22.125 


145,141 


4,408,822 


9a5,147 




71 


a.7,265 


7)50.915 


1,732,747 


589,273 




131 


7)33.815 


al67,836 


9,979,040 


1,069,046 




26 


7,166 


53,770 


3,004.289 


316,814 




29 


7,366 


7)33,472 


1,228,710 


72,330 




237 


£52,410 


d291,796 


J0,500,659 


369,540 




115 


53,953 


r 366,100 


11.658,513 


1,804,988 




72 


7)19,837 


7)176,583 


3,959,694 


1,025,864 




82 


12,751 


205,368 


3,584,265 


1,363,105 




30 


7)5,299 


50,030 


1,790,743 


804,590 




349 


7)50,083 


7)386,090 


17,605,491 


6,978,724 




7 


891 


10,326 


315,635 


150,202 




66 


a7,675 


44,643 


1,985,695 


808,241 




1 


211 


1,484 


46,580 


22,853 




16 


4,193 


20,559 


475,890 


58,768 




286 


7)85,698 


561,655 


23,744,154 


5,901,245 




5 


707 


5,769 


215,192 


77,465 




390 


7)110,390 


a979,282 


22,724,290 


3,542,389 




24 


4,611 


31,465 


714,217 


109,804 




5 


571 


13,413 


169,870 


67,497 




718 


a233,348 


1,006,790 


49,529,356 


2,163,945 




1 


142 


901 


17,415 


6 




14 


2,093 


16,766 


725,310 


426,850 




1,076 


/ 233,655 


1,561,441 


60,724,640 


14,581 036 




0 


2 223 


17 331 




107 3l4 




48 


4]3&4 


34^897 


1,799,696 


716,386 




14 


1,361 


9,973 


354,677 


144,892 




61 


7)12,437 


112,910 


3,987,723 


1,239,821 




39 


4,931 


34,186 


J, 483,098 


379,183 




5 


1,413 


18,250 


504,927 


122,926 




76 


13,154 


111,480 


3,687,043 


440,006 




14 


802 


6,471 


187,478 


90,486 




54 


9,390 


63,501 


2,466,758 


577,283 




39 


9,864 


7)75,746 


2,012,997 


529,304 




6 


472 


7,480 


287,748 


88,193 




5,598 


yl,359,366 


7110,381,031 


$339,244,259 


$74,402,969 


a Two associations not reporting-. 
b One association not reporting-. 
a Three associations not reporting. 
d Five associations not reporting. 

e Included in dues paid in on instalment shares in force. 
/ Thirteen associations not reporting. 
a Thirty-eight associations not reporting. 
h Eighteen associations not reporting. 



POSTAL SAVINGS BANKS IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



207 



Building and Loan Associations of the United States. 

(From the Ninth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor.) 



States and Territories. 



National. 

Alabama 

California 

Colorado 

District of Columbia, 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total 



Associ- 
ations. 


Share- 
holders. 


Shares in 
Force. 


Dues paid in 
on instal- 
ment shares 
in force. 


Profits. 


4 


5,049 


88,898 


d> O At no A 


$179,71.5 


8 


7,044 


81,294 


y^5,83o 


217,291 


4 


6,651 


81,741 


721,109 


91,112 


3 


4,574 


22,955 


1,47, boU 


14,504 


2 


475 


3,104 


30,809 


11,195 


12 


26,476 


187,245 


a,dao,i lb 


yol,7Uo 


38 


54,063 


477,132 


( * QO MIA 


813,219 


16 


19,169 


105,691 


1 *>01 OA ' i 

i,/6»i,y4o 


<jyb,^yo 


8 


15,132 
890 


a52,126 


615,627 


99,165 


1 


1,590 


17,464 


6.368 


17 


22,100 


141,547 


1 1 AO QQQ 

i,i4o,doy 


159,951 


2 


8,030 


57,521 


546,469 


104,745 


3 


10,988 


51,362 


286,841 


40,696 


3 


19,488 


107,284 


l,557,bbo 


234,380 


15 


Oo4,o7 i 


388,212 


0,o7y,bbU 


yb^,y78 


2 


261 


1,334 


28,244 


2,567 


17 


<x33,673 


a79,298 


0 OACi A 1 Q 


aco,b5U 


1 


990 


12,156 


59,899 


12,118 


4 


1,385 


6,924 


82,264 


3,854 


1 


4,000 


34,847 


233,710 


yb,bbo 


2 


1,343 


15,508 


45,863 


381 


28 


41,197 


b315,464 


<i,ooo,48U 


OPf{\ CYC 

<i70,575 


1 


1,055 


7,170 


92,787 


1 


65 


510 


2,584 


251 


3 


4,867 


29,394 




11,869 


3 


904 


8,800 


80,277 


2,384 


3 


5,330 


42,346 


215,510 


15,769 


3 


7,130 


49,124 


356,699 


121,741 


17 


30,990 


249,098 


2,115,635 


596,422 


2 


1,508 


19,014 


175 771 


36 394 


1 


2,259 


24^804 


21L578 


5U36 


7 


a7,950 


91,461 


1,111,139 


165,983 


3 


1,748 


22,259 


324,053 


22,774 


2 


952 


5,086 


21,093 


5,610 


3 


3,746 


12,542 


215,720 


52,689 


240 


c386,359 


c2,874,84; 


$30,759,219 


$6,261,147 



a One association not reporting, 
b Two associations not reporting, 
c Four associations not reporting. 



Postal Savings Banks in Great Britain. 

From the figures given in the annual report of the British Postmaster General, it 
appears that interest to the amount of £1,860,104 was credited to postal savings bank 
depositors in 1893, being £113,841 in excess of 1892. The total amount, including interest, 
due to depositors on December 31, 1893, was £80,597.641, representing an increase of £4,744,- 
562 during the year. Besides this the amount of government stock held by depositors was 
augmented Dy £765,474, raising the total amount on December 31 to £6,364,494, distributed 
among 69,131 stock accounts. The average amount of each deposit was £2 10s. Id., and 
the average amount of each withdrawal £6 0s. 3d. 

There are now over 11,000 post-offices in the United Kingdom at which savings bank 
business is transacted, and about 6,000 schools at which efforts are made to train the 
young in the various ways of saving money through the machinery of the post-office. 
Another point of interest brought out in the report is that the number of so-called 
penny banks shows a decided increase, 425 being authorized during the year to deposit 
their funds in the savings bank, making a total of 5,200. It appears further that 768 
friendly societies and 2,557 trade, provident and charitable societies opened accounts in 
the savings bank in 1893, as compared with 670 and 2,195 in 1892. 



SCHOOL SAVINGS BANKS. 



Statistics of School Savings Banks in the United States 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 16, 1894. 

Compiled by J. H. THIRY, of Long Island City, N. Y. 



Cities and schools 
which have adopted 
the system. 



Long Island City 

Rutland 

Islip, Long Island... 

Amsterdam, St. Mary 

Inst.andPub.Schools 

Jamestown 

t> a„ 4 S School 3 I 
Rondout| B . chof3 J 

Olean 

Cazenovia 

Brooklyn, School 31. 

Pottstown 

Norristown 

Shannonville 

Cheltenham 

Chester 

West Chester 

Williamsport 

Conshohocken 

Philmont 

Schuyler 

Brookline 

Greenville 

West Whiteland 

Doylestown 

Campello 

Rockland 

Warren 

Bloomington 

Brookville 

Mayville 

Camden Boys' Parlor 

Barkesburg 

Phcenixville 

Coatesville 

Ashbourne 

Jenkintown 

Portland 

Anselma , 

Kane , 

La Mott , 

Edge Hill 

©gontz , 

West Pikeland . . . 
East Buckeye (Elba) 

Caledonia 

Unionville 

Westboro 

Strafford 

Lower Merion Dis't 
Pueblo (District 20) 

Trinidad 

Wamego 

Geneva 

Collegeville 

Morrisville 

Forman 

Whapeton 

d West Chester .... 
e West Pittston .... 

Salem 

Carr 

Howellville 

Presbyterean 

Newcentreville 

Berwyn 

Paoli , 

f Glassboro , 



Total. 



No. of School 



States. 


Hou- 
ses. 


Banks 

(*) 


N Y 


12 


101 


Vt. 


6 


28 


N. Y. 


1 


6 


V V 
JN . I . 


9 


on 
Si 


N. Y. 


12 


59 


N. Y. 


2 


10 


N. Y. 


6 


34 


N. Y. 


1 


5 


N. Y. 


1 


20 


Pa. 


22 


52 


Pa. 


6 


53 


Pa. 


1 


2 


Pa. 


1 


4 


Pa. 


13 


74 


Pa. 


3 


25 


Pa. 


15 


99 


Pa. 


2 


15 


N. Y. 


1 


5 


Neb. 


6 


13 


Mass. 


13 


13 


Ohio. 


2 


20 


Pa. 


4 


4 


Pa. 


1 


8 


Mass. 


1 


10 


Me. 


5 


15 


Pa. 


3 


19 


Ind. 


3 


18 


Pa. 


2 


11 


N. D. 


1 


2 


N. J. 


1 


1 


Pa. 


7 


7 


Pa. 


4 


24 


Pa. 


2 


13 


Pa. 


1 


5 


Pa. 


1 


6 


N. D. 


1 


1 


Pa. 


2 


2 


Pa. 


3 


6 


Pa. 


1 


3 


Pa. 


1 


2 


Pa. 


1 


3 


Pa. 


4 


4 


Kan. 


1 


1 


N. D. 


1 


2 


Pa. 


6 


6 


Mass. 


8 


16 


Pa. 


1 


2 


Pa. 


10 


22 


Col. 


8 


65 


Col. 


4 


1 


Kan. 


1 


8 


N. Y. 


5 


8 


Pa. 


1 




Pa. 


1 


6 


N. D. 


1 


7 


N. D. 


1 


3 


Pa. 


1 


3 


Pa. 


1 


1 


Pa. 


1 


1 


Pa. 


1 


1 


Pa. 


1 


1 


Pa. 


1 


1 


Pa. 


1 


1 


Pa. 




1 


Pa. 


1 


1 


N. J. 


1 


8 




243 


995 



Date of In 
troduction. 



Mar. 16, 1885 
Feb. 1, 1886 
Sept. 30, 188C 



Apr. 
Sept. 



4, 1S87 



Jan. 

Jan. 3, 
Jan. 3, 
Dec. 16, 
Dec. 30, 
Jan. 2, 
Jan. 9, 
Jan. 9, 
Feb. 24, 
Feb. 24, 
Apr. 1, 
Apr. 1, 
Oct. 7, 
Oct. 12, 
Oct. 19, 
Oct. 27, 
Nov. 10, 
Jan. 12, 
Jan. 26, 
Feb. 11, 
Apr. 22, 
Sept. 28, 
Dec. 4, 
Jan. 4, 
Feb. 4, 
Feb. 29, 
Mar. 7, 
Apr. 4, 
May 16, 
May 16, 
May 23, 
Sept. 1, 
Sept. 7, 
Sept. 12, 
Sept. 19, 
Oct. 3, 
Nov. 1, 
Nov. 7, 
Dec. 12, 
Jan. 1, 
Jan. 2, 
Jan. 2, 
Jan. 9, 
Jan. 9, 
Mar. 6, 
Mar. 20, 
Apr. 3, 
Apr. 17, 
June 5, 
Oct. 9, 
Nov. 20, 
Jan. 22, 
Jan. 27, 
Feb. 25, 
Feb. 15, 
Feb. 15, 
Feb. 15, 
Feb. 15, 
Feb. 15, 
Mar. 5, 
Mar. 5, 



3, 1889 



No. of 
Scholars. 



Amount. 



+ 


— - — 


Collect'd. 


5,470 


1,916 


a 45,998.60 


1,480 


995 


1> 


4,967.92 


280 


76 


a 


3,160.54 


2,720 


1,225 


a 22,288.00 


2,907 


681 


b 


7,989.77 


537 


240 


a 


1,684.54 


1 770 
359 


825 
i31 


a 11,250.00 


b 


327.66 


1,695 


259 


b 


2,261.58 


2^469 


605 


a 31,113.57 


2460 
' 60 


1,257 


a 


24,522.49 


6 


b 


129.93 


136 


79 


a 


1,396.17 


2 733 


861 


c 17,334.76 


1199 


642 


b 


6,900.15 


4' 728 
'600 


2,845 


a 27,789.25 


315 


a 


5,371.82 


311 


107 


a 


1,234.44 


750 


194 


a 


7,420.76 
3,089.96 


1,873 


1,015 


b 


1012 


573 




3,012.76 


'2tl 


40 


s 


358.99 


350 


209 


» 


4,441.45 


550 


307 




3,744.55 


700 


423 
600 


t 


969.71 


1 000 




5,517.38 


l'lOO 


653 c 


3,300.63 


554 


150 a 


2,333.00 


130 


63 b 


305.00 


100 


18 b 


1.79 


319 


143 a 


1,089.93 


964 


360 


a 




717 


199 


a 


1,988.09 


175 


87 


a 


790.87 


320 


186 


a 


1,046.64 


116 


30 


b 


110.10 


78 


14 


a 


51.70 


554 


275 


c 


623.43 


97 


57 


a 


222.22 


85 


45 


a 


386.43 


83 


41 


a 


255.27 


123 


18 


b 


89.88 


29 


6 


b 


5.63 


65 


17 


b 


17.24 


20C 


94 




242.75 


716 


516 




1,734 78 


78 


36 




150.00 


1 056 


357 




2,206.39 


l'95C 


675 




3,641.02 


1098 


418 




1,744.90 


'550 


95 




168.13 


1,112 


414 




1,404.86 


80 


25 




137.24 


214 


100 




130.72 


45 


25 




30.49 


201 
66 








21 




56.72 


145 


61 




31.37 


35 


6 




15.42 


45 


14 




9.70 


30 


3 




2.12 


16 


2 




3.20 


22 


7 




1.46 


33 


12 




27.67 


30 


13 




3 35 


365 


143 




66.26 


52,056 


22,055 $272,263.50 



With- 
drawn. 



31,692.69 
1,821.40 
5,273.94 

11,666.84 
6,776.23 

178.77 

7,450.00 
1.75 
1,749.76 
23.403.98 
15,244.20 
90.59 
676.99 
9,967.90 
2,000.00 
15,891.11 
3,129.86 
459.05 
5,325.54 
329.94 
2,246.50 
15.00 
1,720.35 
2,243.17 
327.29 
1,877.06 
957.84 
1,070.82 
75.00 
0.42 
76.41 
1,148.74 
274.09 
370.51 
320.18 
50.00 



54.47 
55.36 
101.10 
53.86 



5. 

4.37 
4.17 
348.08 
6.00 
566.47 
2,400.00 
407.57 
41.20 
137.77 
6.73 
0 72 
24.92 



$156,121.09 



Due De- 
positors. 



$116,142.41 



* A teacher collecting the money in her class constitutes a school bank. t On register. t On 
deposit. a From date of introduction. b Collected during 1893. c Having not received the 
statistics for Chester in time, we give here the figures of last year. d In the model school of the 
State Normal School. The first in the U. S. e In the Trinity Church Industrial School. f Glass- 
boro is the first public school to adopt the system in the State of New Jersey. „ 



RAILWAY MILEAGE OP THE WOULD. 309 



Railway flileage of the World by Countries, 1890. 

(From Census Reports.) 



Countries. 
_ 


Length 
of Line. 
Miles. 


Si j w:ire IV'l lies 

of Territory. 


Lengthof 
Line per 
100 sq. in. 


Mumocr or 
inluibitunts. 


Lengthof 
Line per 

10,000 
Inhahit's. 




OS UCAi 




19 41 


aq K19 nnn 


0 oty 


A llctriu o M fl T-Ti 1 n era **17 lnnlnH^ii* linen i $1 


1ft 4R7 


9ft 1 '/Tift 


6 30 


49 H87 f¥ in 
£/S,Uo i ,UOu 


^ Q1 


C\ \ Itpii"nin nnH I o 1 ti x\t\ 


19 939 


121 436 


16.42 


ou re 4 (inn 


R 17 


\? ii / 1< . 






1 1 fVi 


Qa 91 q ruin 


K OI 




18 728 


O nan Kin 


0.90 


Qft Hi in 1 11 11 1 
yo,ui IU,UUU 


1 95 




C 117 


11/1 Q79 


1 m 


<in 047 nnn 


9 A9 




o,~l !) 


1 1 Qa^ 


28 23 


a nO/i nnn 


K 90 
0.40 




1,00 ( 


1Q 7/19 


Jo. to 


4 7«9 nnn 


o.yo 




1 Q9U 


IK (MO 


19 10 


9 QQ4 nnn 


fi K.7 

o.o< 




6 127 


198 404 


3.09 


17 "u^ nnn 


3 49 




1 Von. 


<i4 <?1 *i 


O- to 


4 Qn 1 ? nnn 


9 Q7 




1 223 


14 784 


8 27 


2 172 nnn 


5 63 




971 


125^604 


077 


1,978,000 


4.91 




4,915 


173,932 


2.83 


4,774,000 


10.30 




327 


18.760 


1.74 


2,096,000 


1.56 




1,580 


49,254 


3 21 


5,376,000 


2.94 




440 


24,974 


1.76 


2,187,000 


2.01 


Turkey in Europe, Bulgaria and Rou- 






1.03 








1,097 


106,034 


7,641,000 


1.44 




68 


425 


16.00 


311,000 


2 19 






S 777 Q3K 


3.62 


^'Sfi ^9fi nnn 


3 84 




163,597 


2,970,000 


5.51 


a 62,947,714 


25.90 




13,322 


3,084,410 


0.43 


4,390,000 


30 35 




115 


42,730 


0.27 


198,000 


5.81 




559 


172,117 


0.32 


2,900,000 


1.93 




5,344 


751,349 


0 71 


11.601,000 


4.61 




182,937 


7,020,606 


2.61 


82,036,714 


22.30 




231 


464,397 


0.05 


4. nnn nnn 


0.58 




1 056 


45'857 


2*30 


1 f i99 nnn 


ft Ql 




441 




q'o7 


2 9qq nnn 


1 Q7 




71 


17 447 


0.41 


fim nnn 


1 1H 
1 ID 




21 


3' 706 


0 30 


raz nnn 

4 OO.UUU 


n 14. 




5 779 


3 218159 


0 18 


11 fin2 firm 


3 96 




5J29 


L076>08 


0^48 


3,808,000 


13 47 




149 


97,697 


0.15 


330,000 


4.52 




470 


72,143 


0.65 


687,000 


6.84 




1,926 


299,536 


0.64 


2,715,000 


7.09 




994 


405,030 


0 25 


2,630.000 


3 78 




106 


515,001 


0.02 


1,190,000 


0 89 




167 


115,646 


0.14 


1,005,000 


1.66 




22 


85,383 


0.03 


278,000 


0.79 




16,552 


7,010,918 


0 24 


36,401,000 


4.55 




15,837 


1,455,066 


1.09 


255,648,000 


0.62 




180 


24,743 


0.73 


2,863,000 


0 63 




890 


214,191 


0.42 


430,000 


20 70 




11 


636,205 




8,000,000 


0 01 




797 


50,836 


1.57 


21,998,000 


0 36 




907 


147,606 


0.61 


39,607,000 


0 23 




124 


1,553,534 


0.01 


381,555,(100 






52 


23,199 


0-22 


2,017,000 


0.26 




18,798 


4,105,380 


0.46 


712,118,000 


3.79 




3,992 


587,184 


0.68 


7,785,000 


5.13 




1,905 


104,220 


1.83 


662,000 


28.78 




2,288 


87,854 


2.60 


1,118,000 


20 47 




2,252 


309,070 


0.73 


1,122,000 


20.07 




1,757 


903,163 


0.19 


324.010 


54.23 




2,003 
375 


668.050 
26,364 


0.31 
1.42 


407,000 
151,0(0 


50 69 
54.83 




497 


975,615 


0.05 


44,000 


112.95 




11,137 


3,074,336 


0.36 


3,828,000 


29.09 




370,281 


25,576,362 


1.45 


1,198,694,714 


3 09 



a Including Indians not taxed. 



210 RAILROAD BUILDING. 









Railroad 


Building. 








Number of m 


iles of railroad in operation in the 


United States during the years end- 


ingDec.31, 1860, 1870, 18 


80, and from 1888 to 1893, inclusive.— From Poor'f 


i Railroad Manual. 


States and 

L Hi K rtl 1U it 1 h.o . 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


New England. 






















472 


786 


1,005 


1,321 34 


1,340.11 


1,377.47 


1,383.26 


1,401.64 


1,515.00 


NewHampshire. 


661 


736 


1,015 


1,079.49 


1,123.68 


1,146.89 


1,144.88 


1,061.33 


1,155.88 




554 


614 


914 


958.55 


960.59 


988.45 


1,001.91 


995.01 


986.54 


Massachusetts . . 


1,264 


1,480 


1,915 


2,074.32 


2,082.85 


2,096.69 


2,100.32 


2,126.69 


2,121.26 


Rhode Island . . . 


108 


136 


210 


214.21 


212.43 


234.43 


223.48 


223.48 


227.46 




601 


742 


923 


1,006.46 


1,010.79 


1,006.64 


1,006.54 


1,006.54 


1,013.32 


Total 


3,660 


4,494 


5,977 


6,654.37 


6,730.45 


6,840.57 


6,860.39 


6,914.69 


7,019.36 


Middle Atlantic. 




















New York 


2,682 


3,928 


5,991 


7,595.54 


7,708.87 


7,745.85 


7,765.22 


8,116.10 


8,110.51 


New Jersey 


560 


1,125 


1,684 


1,980.73 


2,035.52 


2,062.81 


2,132.41 


2,20h91 


2,176.10 


Pennsylvania.... 


2,598 


4,656 


6,191 


8,224.51 


8,421.82 


8,700.58 


8,919.98 


9,159.45 


9,435.56 




127 


197 


275 


314.77 


314.54 


314.95 


320.12 


314.94 


315.44 




j- 386 




1,040 


( 1,183.40 


1,225.19 


1,270.04 


1,269.44 


1,289.44 


1,300.80 


Dis. of Columbia 


671 


( 20.66 


20 66 


20.66 


20.66 


20.66 


20.66 


Total 


6,353 


10,577 


15,181 


19,319.61 


19,726 60 


OA 114 or\ 

20,114.89 


OA A C»t7 oo 

20,427.83 


21,102.50 


21,359.07 


Cent. Northern. 




















Ohio 


2,946 


3,538 


5,792 


7,636.27 


7,792.85 


7,987.99 


8,167.63 


8,351.88 


8,558.74 




779 


1,638 


3,938 


6,499.45 


6,918.40 


7,106.15 


7,187.44 


7,440.95 


7,492.33 


Indiana 


2,163 


3,177 


4.373 


5,890.26 


6,003.76 


6,106.19 


6,135.25 


6,292.12 


6,321.07 


Illinois 


2,790 


4,823 


7,851 


, 9,900 50 


9,964.63 


10,129.65 


10,189.38 


10,439.53 


10,428.19 


Wisconsin 


905 


1,525 


3,155 


5,329.62 


5,477.63 


5,614.95 


5,785.61 


5,927.97 


5,970.07 


Total 


9,583 


14,701 


25,109 


35,256.10 


36,175.27 


36,944.93 


37,465.31 


38,362.45 


38,770.40 


South Atlantic. 




















Virginia 


1,379 


1,486 


1,893 


2,931.22 


3,202.75 


3,367.65 


3,573.64 


3,576.69 


3,590.99 


West Virginia... 


352 


387 


691 


1.294.34 


1,327.89 


1,433.30 


1,547.11 


1,806.19 


1.883.33 


North Carolina.. 


937 


1,178 


1,486 


2,528.58 


2,844.13 


3,128.17 


3,205.46 


3,229.57 


3,353.31 


South Carolina. . 


973 


1,139 


1,427 


2.083.77 


2,129.37 


2,296.65 


2,491.06 


2,545.30 


2,561. 7? 




1,420 


1,845 


2,459 


3,928.42 


4,268.20 


4,592.83 


4,870.25 


4,946.39 


5,083.02 




402 


446 


518 


2,249.78 


2,377.55 


2,489.52 


2,566 87 


2,676.88 


2,840.26 


5,463 


6,481 


8,474 


15,016.11 


16,149.89 


17,308.12 


18,254.39 


19,781.02 


19,312.63 


Gulf & Mis. Val. 




















Tennessee 


534 


1,017 


1,530 


2,584.93 


2,776.88 


2,946.38 


2,962 45 


2,997.23 


3,051 .25 


1,253 


1,492 


1,843 


2,467.64 


2,648.20 


2,798.98 


2,996.20 


3.064.26 


3,091.43 




743 


1,157 


1,843 


2,985.64 


3,145.69 


3,422.20 


3,576.47 


3,595.76 


3,627.89 




862 


990 


1,127 


2,250.92 


2,379.18 


2,4' 0.85 


2,440.39 


2,448.37 


2,459.22 


Louisiana 


335 


450 


652 


1,507.07 


1,654.09 


1,749.95 


1,880.01 


1,967.09 


1,992.84 


Total 


3,727 


5,106 


6,995 


11,796.20 


12,622.04 


13,388.36 


13,855.52 


14,072.71 


14,222.63 


Southwestern. 






















817 


2,000 


3,965 


5,900.89 


5,978.41 


6,142.02 


6,178.45 


6,360.56 


6,464.30 




38 


256 


859 


2,045.67 


2,140.54 


2,213.44 


2,304.95 


2,310.67 


2,369.91 




307 


711 


3.244 


8,210.57 


8,498.31 


8,709.85 


8,812.67 


9 040.73 


9,184 61 






1,501 


3 400 


8,754.83 


8,810.27 


8,900.11 


8,890.87 


8,893.83 


8,931.28 






157 


1,570 


4,038.04 


4,097.37 


4,291.11 


4,441.33 


4,451.52 


4,488.22 






758 
289 


1,321.48 


1,326.28 


1,388.77 


1,423.82 


1,429.57 


1,439.50 


Ind. Territory... 






9<5.17 


1,155.14 


l,<£bU.DO 


1,i4<<4.Uo 


1 Q'-K AO 
1,0 (O.lfct 


1,3*9.14 


Total 


1,162 


4,625 


14,085 


31,246.65 


32,006.32 


32,905.95 


33,324.17 


33,861.90 


34,256.96 


Northwestern. 






















655 


2,683 


5,400 


8,364 59 


8,436.02 


8,416.14 


8,436.51 


8,506.00 


8,513.44 


Minnesota 




1,092 


3,151 


5,375.45 


5,482.34 


5,545 35 


5,670 88 


5,874.08 


5.944 58 






7u5 


1,953 


4,979.51 


5,124.20 


5,407.47 


5,430.49 


5,5 4.28 


5,564.32 


North Dakota. . . 


1 






A AdK A Q 


j 2,055.73 


2,116.49 


2,22^.77 


2,315.24 


2,517.20 


South Dakota.. . 


r— • 


65 




4,40i).4» 


J 2,480.92 


2,610.41 


2,699.92 


2,707.89 


2,792.15 






459 


512 


901.70 


950.50 


1,002.93 


1,048.71 


1,150.13 


1,157.62 






106 


1,803.73 


2,001.19 


2,195.58 


2,290.82 


2,667.87 


2,721.63 




655 


5,004 


12,347 


25,890.47 


25,530.90 


27,249.37 


27,800.10 


28,745.49 


29,210.94 


Pacific. 






















23 


925 


2,195 


4,126.19 


4,202.11 


4,336.45 


4,484.63 


4,623.65 


4,692 39 






159 


508 


1,412.01 


1,413.68 


1,455.53 


1,503.52 


• 1,521.82 


1,527.19 






289 


1,319.02 


1,705.57 


1,998.65 


2,309.23 


2,722.13 


2,837.52 






593 


739 


947.73 


916.18 


923.18 


923.18 


923.23 


923.23 






349 


1,094.83 


1.094.81 


1,094.81 


1,097.57 


1,161.97 


1,161.97 






257 


842 


1,153.12 


1,211.73 


1,265.49 


1,335.66 


1,356.59 


1,369.08 






206 


867.92 


929.09 


946 11 


959.68 


1,073.29 


1.089.99 


Total 


23 


1.934 


5,128 


10,920.82 


11,473 17 


12,020.22 


12,613.47 


13,382.68 


13,601.37 


United States ... 


30.626 


52,922 


98,296 


156,100.33 


161.396.64 


166,817.41 


170,601.18 


175,223.44 


177,753.33 



WALL STREET VOCABULARY. 211 



Wall Street Vocabulary. 

Many of the phrases used in Wall street, as well as the methods of business, are 
enigmas to outsiders. It is astonishing- how many well-informed and acute business 
Intellects cannot grasp a transaction la stocks where a put ora call or a straddle or a 
spread is involved. We mention below many of the terms used on the " Street " : 

M Block." A number of shares, say five thousand, sold or bought in a lump. 

To " buy in." The act of purchasing stock in order to meet a " short " contract, or 
to enable one to return stock which has been borrowed. 

" Carrying " stock. To hold stock with the expectation of selling at an advance. 

" Clique." A combination of operators controlling vast capital in order to advance 
or break down the market. 

" Conversions." Bonds are frequently issued with a provision whereby they can at 
any time be exchanged for equivalent stock. Such securities are called " convertible," 
and the act of substitution is styled " conversion." 

" Corners." When the market is oversold, the shorts, if compelled to deliver, find 
themselves in a " corner." 

" Collaterals." Any kind of Wall street values given as security when money is 
borrowed. 

" Cover." Where stock has been sold short, and the market advances, the seller 
buys where he can in order to protect himself on the day of delivery. This is "covering 
one's shorts." 

** Delivery." When stock is brought to the buyer in exact accordance with the 
rules of the Stock Exchange it is called a " good delivery." When there are irregulari- 
ties, the delivery is pronounced " bad," and the buyer can appeal to the Board. 

A " drop " in a stock is equivalent to a " break," except that it may possibly be due 
to wholly natural causes. 

" Flat." Term used where money or stocks are lent without interest. 

A "flyer" is a small side operation not employing one's whole capital. 

" Gunning " a stock is to use every art to produce a break when it is known that a 
certain house is heavily supplied and would be unable to resist an attack. 

" Holding the market " is to buy sufficient stock to keep the price from declining. 

*• Hypothecating." Putting up " collaterals." 

" Long " in stocks. When a man is carrying stock for a rise. 

The market is "off" when prices have fallen either in a week, a day, or an afternoon. 
To "pass "a dividend is the act of directors when they vote against declaring a 
dividend. 

A " point." A theory or a fact regarding stocks, on which one bases a speculation. 

A " pool." The stock and money contributed by a syndicate to control the price of 
a particular security. 

A man is " short" when he has sold stock which is not yet actually in his possession. 

To " unload " is to sell out a stock which has been carried for some time. 

Arbitrageurs. Bankers buying and selling stocks and bonds in foreign markets, in 
order to benefit by the difference in price between the home and foreign market. 

Cash Transaction. One to be settled for on the day made. 

Ex-Dividend. When the price or quotation of a stock does not include, and the 
stock does not carry to the buyer a recently declared dividend, it is said to be quoted 
or sold " Ex-Dividend." 

Long Interest. When large amounts of stocks are held in the Street, on specula- 
tion, among the active operators and brokers, they constitute the " long interest in the 
market." 

Scrip is embryo stock which has no voting or dividend rights until consolidated 
with sufficient other parts to make a share of stock. 

The Vanderbilt roads are the New York Central, Lake Shore, West Shore, Canada 
Southern, Michigan Central and " Nickel Plate." 

" Goulds " comprise Union Pacific, Western Union Telegraph, Missouri Pacific and 
the Southwestern system of Pacific roads generally. 

"Grangers" include Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, Chicago & Northwestern, 
Chicago & Rock Island, and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 

"PUTS," "CALLS," "SPREADS" AND "STRADDLES." 

A " put " is a contract issued for a specified time wherein the maker agrees to take 
a certain number of shares of a given stock at a price stated in contract. 

For each point, or 1 per cent., that the stock declines below contract price, the buyer 
makes $100 on each hundred shares, the profits accruing the same as if the stock had 
been sold short. The buyer limits his loss to amount paid for contract, the price vary- 
ing according to time to run, character of market, etc. 

A "call" is the reverse of a "put," and entitles the holder to all advance above 
price named in contract. 

A " straddle " is a " put " and " call " combined, made at the market price of stock 
at time contract is eigned. 

A "spread" is of the same nature with this exception: that the "put" is made 
below the market and the " call " above the market, the distance apart being governed 
by the activity of market, time to run, etc. 



212 



FIVE YEAR RANGE IN PRICES OF ACTIVE STOCKS. 



- 



Five Year Range in Prices of Active Stocks. 



Adams Express 

Am. Cotton Oil 

Am. Cotton Oil pref 

Am. Express 

Am. Sugar 

Am. Sugar pref 

Am. Tel. & Cable 

Am. Tobacco 

Am. Tobacco pref 

Ate. Topeka & S. Fe 

Atlantic & Pacific 

Baltimore & Ohio >.... 

Buffalo, Roch. & Pitts 

Canada Southern 

Canadian Pacific 

Central Pacific 

Chesapeake & Ohio 

Chicago & Alton 

Chicago, Burl. & Quincy 

Chicago & East 111 

Chicago & East III. pref 

Chicago Gas Go's 

Chicago, Mil. & St. P 

Chicago, Mil. & St. P. pref 

Chicago & Northwestern 

Chicago & Northwestern pref 

Chicago, R. I. & Pac 

Chi., St. P., Minn. & Omaha 

Chi., St. P., Minn. & Omaha pref 

Cleveland, Cinn., Chi. & St. L 

Cleveland, Cinn., Chi. & St. L. pref.. 

Columbus, Hocking Val. & Tol 

Columbus, Hockins: Val. & Tol. pref. 

Consolidated Gas Co 

Delaware & Hudson Canal 

Delaware, Lackawanna & W 

Denver & Rio Grande 

Denver & Rio Grande pref 

Distilling & Cattle Feeding Co 

Edison Electric 111. Co 

Evansvilie & Terre Haute 

General Electric Co 

Great Northern pref 

Illinois Central 

Iowa Central 

Iowa Central pref 

Lake Erie& Western 

Lake Erie & Western pref 

Lake Shore & Michigan Sou. — 

Louisville & Nashville 

Louisville, N. Albany & Chi 

Manhattan Consolidated 

Michigan Central 

Minneapolis & St. Louis T. R 

Minneapolis & St. Louis T. R. pref . . 

Missouri, Kan. & Tex 

Missouri, Kan. & Tex. pref 

Missouri Pacific 

Mobile & Ohio 

Morris & Essex 

National Lead 

National Lead pref 

National Linseed Oil 

National Starch 

National Starch, 1st pref 

National Starch, 2d pref 

New Jersey Central 

N. Y. Central 



High 
156 



75 
120 



87 



107% 

175 

149% 
21% 
61j^ 
49 

119 

127 



86 
120 
12J4 
33!^ 
19% 
68 

114% 
92% 
54% 

117 

104% 
8 
20 
20% 
31% 
79% 
31 

156% 



128% 
111 



Low, 
140 

10 

27% 
110 



23% 
43% 
92 
15 
42 
67 

26% 

34% 
123 

80 

26% 

70 

32 

44 

99% 

98 
134 

61% 

19 

75 

55 

86 

18% 



14% 

45 

36% 

65 

96 



85 

m 

17 
30% 
44 
101 

gx 

92 
83 
4 

8% 
9% 

16% 

53 

13 
140 



90 

95^ 



1891 



High 
150 

35% 

65 
123 



83 



101 

47>£ 
7 

104 

43% 

64% 

91% 

35 

28 

140% 
110 

73% 
103% 

71% 

123% 
118% 
142% 
90% 
49% 
113% 
74% 
98% 
34M 



Low 
134 

35% 

33% 
113 

57% 

85 

78% 



96% 



84% 

29 

47! 

72% 

29 

34% 
123 

75% 

41% 

83 

34 

50% 
105% 
102% 
130 

o:j: 

21 

77% 

90 

22 



104% 92% 



141 

145% 
21 



111 

129 



124% 
109% 
16 

44% 
24% 
70 

127 

83% 

29% 
109 
109% 
9% 

21% 

20 

29% 

77% 

45 

148% 
30 % 
83% 



122% 
119% 



118% 
1303/ 

13% 

40 
41% 

88 

111% 



72 
90 
6 
20 
12% 
53 
105% 
65% 
18 
95 
87% 



11% 

19% 
54% 
26 

137% 
25 
81% 



105% 

98% 



1892. 



Low. 
143% 

32% 

63% 
116 

78% 

90 

80 
106 



139 
95 
60 

96% 
71% 

75% 

119% 

110% 

139 
75% 
44 

108% 
57 
91% 
27 
G6 
102 
122% 
167% 138% 
15 
45 
44% 
88% 
119% 
104% 
119 
95% 



27? 



1893. 



1894. 



High 
160 

51% 

84 

120% 
134% 
106 
92% 
121 

110% 

36% 
4% 
97% 
37 
58% 
90% 
29% 
26 

145% 

103% 
72% 

105 
945* 
83% 

126 

116% 

146% 
89% 
583% 

121 
60% 



74 

144% 

139 

174 

18% 

57% 

66% 
131 
152 
114% 
144 
104 

11 

37 

25% 

82 

134% 
77% 
27 

174% 
108% 

19^ 

49 

16 

28% 
60 
37 
163 
52% 
95% 
41 

34% 
103% 
103% 
132% 
111% 



Low. 
134 

24 

50 
100 

61% 

66% 

65% 

43 

75 
9% 

54% 

20 

34% 

66% 

16% 

32% 
125% 

69% 

51 

85 

39 

46% 
100 

84% 
128 

51% 

24 

94 

25 

74 

11% 

55 
108 
102% 
127 

48 
30 
98 
86 
5 

12 

32% 

53 
104 

39% 
8% 
100 



18 



16% 
6% 
136 
18 
48 
34% 



High 
154% 

34% 

79% 
116 
114% 
100% 

92% 
107 
110 

16 
1% 

81% 

25 

53% 

73% 

18T 

22 
145 

84% 

55 

97% 

80 

67% 
123% 

110% 

145% 
72% 
41% 

116% 
42 



140 

144% 

174 
VZV 
363/ 
30^ 

104 
68 
45% 

106 
96 
11% 
39% 
19% 
74 

139 
57% 
10J< 

127% 

300% 
27 
41% 
16% 
27 
32% 
22 

160% 
45 
92% 
25 
11 
56 
35 

137% 

10-'% 



Low. 
144 

25% 
63 
109 
755 
79% 
85 
69% 
91% 
3 

Y2 

67 

20 

47 

62 

30% 

16 
130 

70 

50% 

93 

58% 

54% 
116 

97 

135% 
58% 
32% 
105 
31 
78 
15% 
57% 
H6H3 
H9K 
155% 
8 
24 



40 

305 
98% 
89 
6 

23% 
13% 
63 

118% 
40% 
5% 
104 

93 
2 

15 
11% 
18% 
18% 
15% 
148 
22 
67 
14 
6% 
40 
20 
90% 
94% 



* Ten months. 



RAILROAD RECORDS. 



218 



Five Year Range in Prices of Active Stocks — Continued. 



N. Y., L. E. & Western 

N. Y., L. E. & Western pref 

New York & New England 

New York, New Haven & Hartford. 

New York, Ontario & Western 

New York, Susq.& Western new ... 
New Vork, Sus. & Western new pref. 

Norfolk & Western 

Norfolk <fc Western pref.' 

North American Co 

Northern Pacific 

Northern Pacific pref 

Ohio Southern 

Oregon Improvement Co 

Oregon Railway & Navigation 

Pacific Mail 

Peoria, Decatur & Evansville 

Philadelphia & Reading 

Pitts., Cinn., Chi. & St. Louis 

Pitts., Cinn., Chi. & St. Louis pref... 

Pullman Palace Car Co 

Richmond & West Point pref. T. It. . 
Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg. . . 

St. Louis Southwestern 

St. Louis Southwestern pref 

St. Paul& Duluth 

St. Paul & Duluth pref 

St. Paul, Minn. & Manitoba 

Southern Pacific Co 

Tennessee, C. I. & R. R. Co 

Tennessee, C. I. & R. R. Co. pref 

Texas & Pacific 

Toledo, A. A. & North Mich 

Union Pacific 

Union Pacific, Denver & Gulf 

United States Cordage 

United States Cordage pref 

United States Express 

United States Leather 

United States Leather pref 

United States Rubber 

United States Rubber pref 

Wabash 

Wabash pref 

Wells, Fargo & Co. Express 

Western Union Telegraph 

Wheeling & Lake Erie 

Wheeling & Lake Erie pref 

Wisconsin Central Co 



1890. 



High 
29% 

69% 

53*4 
270 

9 
34% 
24% 
66% 
47% 
35% 
86 
24 
54 

108% 

fi* 

48% 

13% 

55 
222 

87% 
120 



38% 
99 
115 



24% 
42% 
68% 



90 



15 
31*6 
150 
87 

79% 



Low. 
16 
46 

28 

244^ 
13 

5% 
21 
13 
48 

7 

16% 
55 
12 
II 

74% 

8* 

26*4 
12 
50 
160 
60% 
95 



19 

78 
90 

22% 



61 



135 
71% 
25% 
63 
14** 



1891 



High 
•'54% 

T i 

271 

23% 

11% 

41% 
18% 
57% 
21% 
30% 
78% 
20% 
33% 
86% 
41% 
24*1 

im 

2»*6 

68% 
196*6 

76*6 
114% 

H*£ 

22 

47 

106** 
115 
44% 



16% 

25 

52% 

24% 



16 

34% 
145 

85% 
39% 
80 
23% 



Low. 

17% 

47% 

31 
224% 

14 
6% 

25 

13 

46% 

11% 

20% 

58% 

14 

15% 

65 

31*4 

UH 

25% 

12% 

48 
172 

43 
1055 
6 

12 

24 

85 
100 

23 



9 1 



16% 
137 
76 
29*4 
67% 
15 



1802. 



High 
34% 
77% 
50 

255 
23% 
20% 
74 
18 
56 
18% 
26% 
72% 

91% 
40% 
22% 
6f 



79 

113% 
11% 
22% 
48% 

108 

116% 
41*4 



14% 
38% 
50*4 
25 



48% 



15% 
33% 
148% 



40*4 
80*4 
21*4 



Low. 
23% 
53 
30% 

224 
17% 
10% 
41% 
9 

37*4 

19 

25 

15 

38 

19 

57% 
184 

31*6 
110 
6 

11*6 

39% 
103 
112 



7 

23 

35% 

15% 



44 



38% 



10 

22% 
140 
82 
19% 

62 



1893. 



High 
26% 
58 
5:-'% 

261 
1!'% 
21% 
73% 
10*4 
39^ 
12 
18% 

r»o% 

49 

21% 

84% 

27% 

18% 

53% 

21% 

62% 

203 
18% 

112% 
7% 
15 
50% 

108 

116% 
35*4 
37% 

103 
11 

40% 
42% 
18% 



70% 



99% 
12% 
26% 

150 

101 
23% 
67*4 
15% 



Low. 

7% 
15 

9% 
192 
11 

8 
31 

5% 
16% 

2*4 

3% 
15*4 
25 

8 
25 

8% 

4 
12 
10 
40 
132 
10 
98% 

3*4 

6 
22 
88 
95 
17% 

10*4 

59 
4% 
5% 

15*4 



40 



17 

50 
5% 
9% 
120 

67% 

10 

31 
4% 



1894 * 



High 
18% 
3934 
15% 
195 
17% 
17% 
48 
9% 
26% 
5% 
6*4 

%m 

18 

19% 

30 

20*4 
6% 

23% 

21*4 

54 
174 

25 
118 
5% 

11 

28 
100 
110 

25 

20*4 

71 
11 
11% 
22% 
6% 
23% 
41 
57 
12 

68% 
45% 
96*4 



128 
92% 
14% 
51% 
9 



Low. 

"J* 
25 

3 
178 
14 
1!3% 
36 

2% 
17% 

2% 

3*4 
12% 
12 

H*6 

10 

13 

2% 
14% 
10% 
41% 
152 
12% 
109% 

3% 

7 

22 
85 
100 
17% 
14% 
62% 
7 

3% 

8 

3 
10 
19 
41 

8% 
52% 
33 
79% 

5% 
12% 



32% 
1% 



Ten months. 



Railroad Records. 



Notable fast runs for long distances: May, 1884, Great Western, England, London to 
Didcot, 53.25 miles, 47 minutes. July, 1885, West Shore, East Buffalo to New York, 432.6 
miles. 9h. 23m. July, 1885, West Shore, East Buffalo to Frankfort, 201.7 miles, 4h. Aug- 
ust, 1888, London, N. W. & Caledonian, London to Edinburgh, 400 miles, 7h. 52m. June*, 
1891, N. Y. Central, New York to Buffalo, 439.52 miles, 8h. 58m. September, 1891, N. Y. 
Central, New York to East Buffalo, 436.32 miles, 7h. 19.5m. November, 1891, Pennsylvania, 
Jersey City to Washington, 227 miles, 4h. 11m. March, 1892, N. Y. Central, Oneida to De 
Witt, 21.37 miles, 17%m. November, 1892, N. Y. Central, Syracuse to Utica, 51.67 miles, 
46 m. November, 1892, N. Y. Central, Chittenango to Schenectady, 116.16 miles, 1 h. 50rn. 
May, 1893, N. Y. Central. Syracuse to Rochester, 8 '.38 miles, Ih, 11m. May, 1893, N. Y. 
Central, Syracuse to East Buffalo, 145.60 miles, 2h. 2im. May, 1893, N. Y. Central, New 
York to Chicago, 964 miles, 19h. 57m. August, 1804, Atlantic Coast Line, Jacksonville, 
Fla., to Washington, D. C, 780 miles, I4h. 40m. November, 1894, Pennsylvania, Jersey 
City to Pittsburg, 442.6 miles, 9h. 38m. 

The fastest mile on record was made by the Empire State Express on the N. Y. Cen- 
tral, May 11, 1893, from Crittenden west in 32 seconds. This record was made with loco- 
motive 999, afterward exhibited at the World's Fair, Chicago. 



214 



STEAMSHIP LINES BETWEEN NEW YORK AND EUROPE. 



Steamship Lines Between New York and Europe. 

Allan State Line.— New York, Londonderry and Glasgow. State Line established 
1872. Sailing : From New York and Glasgow, every Friday ; from Londonderry, Satur- 
day. Funnel -Red, white band, black top. House flag— Red, white and blue, sur- 
mounted by red pennant. 

American LiNE.-New York and Southampton. Established 1892. Sailing: From 
New York, every Wednesday ; from Southampton, every Saturday. Funnel— Black, 
white band, black top. House flag— White, American eagle in blue in center. Night 
signal— Blue light forward and aft, red light on bridge. 

ANCnoR Line.— New York, Londonderry and Glasgow. Established 1852. Sailing : 
From New York, every Saturday ; from Glasgow, every Thursday ; from Londonderry, 
every Friday. Funnel— Black. House flag— White, swallow-tall with red anchor. 
Night signal— Red and white lights alternately. 

Cunard Line.— New York and Liverpool via Queenstown. Established 1840. Sailing : 
From New York, every Saturday; from Liverpool, every Saturday. Funnel— Red, 
with black top. House flag — Red, with lion holding world. Night signal — Blue light, 
two roman candles, six blue balls each. 

French Line.— New York and Havre. Established 1860. Sailing : From New York, 
every Saturday ; from Havre, every Saturday. Funnel— Red, with blacktop. House 
flag— White, red ball in corner and name. Night signal— Blue, white and red lights. 

Hamburg-American Line.— New York and Hamburg, via Southampton. Estab- 
lished 1847. Sailing: From New York, express service for Southampton and Ham 
burg every Thursday, regular service for Hamburg direct every Saturday ; from Ham- 
burg, express service Thursdays, regular service Sundays and Tuesdays ; from South- 
ampton, express service Fridays. Funnel— Express service, yellow; regular service, 
black. House flag— White and blue, diagonally quartered, black anchor and yellow 
shield in center bearing letters H. A. P. A. G. Night signal— Two blue lights in suc- 
cession, changing from blue to white, to red, shown from stern. 

Netherlands-American Line.— New York, Boulogne, Amsterdam and Rotter- 
dam. Established 1874. Sailing: From New York to Rotterdam or Amsterdam via 
Boulogne, Saturdays and Thursdays; from Rotterdam Wednesdays via Boulogne; from 
Amsterdam Saturdays. Funnel— Black, white band with green borders. House flag- 
Green, white and green, N A S M in center. Night signal— Green, white and green lights. 

North German Lloyd.— New York, Southamptom, Bremen and Genoa. Established 
1857. Sailing : From New York for Bremen Tuesdays and Saturdays, for Genoa every 
alternate Saturday; from Bremen Tuesdays and Saturdays; from Genoa every alternate 
Thursday. Funnel— Cream. House flag— White, blue key and anchor crossed, embraced 
by oak-leaf wreath. Night signal— Two blue lights together, changing to red. 

Red Star Line.— New York and Antwerp. Established 1873. Sailing: From New 
York Wednesdays; from Antwerp Saturdays. Funnel— Cream, with red star, black top. 
House flag— White, red star. Night signal— Three red lights, forward, bridge and aft. 

Thingvalla Line.— New York and Copenhagen via Christiansand and Christiania. 
Sailing: From New York, Saturdays, three times a month; from Copenhagen three 
times a month. Funnel— Yellow, white band, 7-pointed blue star each side. House 
flag— White, with 7-pointed blue star. Night signal— White and red Coston light, fol- 
lowed by red and white. 

White Star Line.— New York and Liverpool. Established 1870. Sailing: From 
New York Wednesdays; from Liverpool Wednesdays. Funnel-Cream, with black top. 
House flag— Red swallow-tail, with white star. Night signal— Two green lights together. 

Wilson Line.— New York, London and Hull. Established 1840. Sailing: From 
New York every Saturday ; from London every Saturday ; from Hull every Saturday. 
Funnel— Red, with black top. House flag— White pennant, with red ball in center. 
Night signal— Two red lights, about 60 feet apart. 

FASTEST PASSAGES ON RECORD. 

Westward - Oct. 26, 1894, Queenstown to New York, S. S. Lucania 5d. 7h. 23m. 

Eastward— Aug. 31, 1894, New York to Queenstown, S. S. Campania 5d. lOh. 47m. 

Westward— Aug. 24, 1894, Southampton to New York, S. S. New York.... 6d. 8h. 88m. 
Eastward— Sept. 28,1893, New York to Southa'pton,S.S. Fuerst Bismarck. 6d. lOh. 55m. 

Westward— July 29, 1892, Havre to New York, S. S. La Touraine 6d. 17h. 30m. 

Eastward— June 2, 1893, New York to Havre, S. S. La Touraine 6d. 23h. 4m. 

Eastward— Nov. 25, 1892, New York to Gibraltar, S. S. Fuerst Bismarck. . 7d. 6h. 48m. 

The following steamships have broken the record since 1866 between New York and 
Queenstown, east or west : 1866, Scotia, 8d. 2h. 48m.; 1873, Baltic, 7 20 9; 1875, City of Ber- 
lin, 7 15 48; J876, Germanic, 7 11 37; 1877, Britannic, 7 10 53: 1880, Arizona, 7 7 23; 1882, 
Alaska, 6 18 37; 1884, Oregon, 6 11 9; 1884, America, 6 10 0; 1885, Etruria, 6 5 31; 1887, Urn- 
bria, 6 4 42; 1888, Etruria, 6 1 55 ; 1889, City of Paris, 5 19 18 ; 1891, Majestic. 5 18 8 ; 1891, 
Teutonic, 5 16 31; 1892, Citv of Paris, 5 15 58; 1892, City of Paris, 5 14 24; 1893, Campania, 
5 12 7; 1894, Campania, 5 10 47; 1894, Lucania, 5 8 38, 5 7 48, 5 7 23. 

The approximate distance between New York (Sandy Hook) and the European 
ports may be reckoned as follows: Queenstown, 2,800 miles; Liverpool, 3,100; South- 
ampton, 3.100 ; Havre, 3,200 ; Antwerp, 3 352. 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS. 



816 



Principal Transatlantic Passenger Steamships. 



Name. 



AJeoto 

Aller 

Amerlka 

Amsterdam 

Anchoria 

Augusta Victoria.. 

Aurauia 

Belgenland 

Berlin 

Bohemia 

Bolivia 

Bri Manic 

Buffalo 

Campania* 

Chester 

Circassia 

City of Rome*.. 

Colorado 

Columbia 

Dania 

Devon la 

Egyptian Monarch 

Elbe 

Ems 

Ethiopia 

Etruria 

Friesland* 

Fuerst Bismarck.. 

Fulda 

Furuessia 

Germanic 

Havel 

Hekla 

H. H. Meier 

Island 

Kaiser Wilhelm II. 

Lahn 

La Bourgogne'. 

La Bretagne 

La Champagne 

La Gascogne 

La Normandie 

La Touraine* 

Lucania 

Lydian Monarch . . 

Maasdam 

Majestic * 

Mora\ ia 

New York 

Norge 

Noordland 

Normannia 

Obdam 

Paris 

Persia 

Prussia 

Rhaetia 

Rhynland 

Rotterdam 

Rugla 

Russia 

Saale 

St. Louis 

St. Paul 

Scandia 

Servia 

Spaarndam* 

Spree * 

State of California* 
State of Nebraska. 

Teutonic 

Thingvalla 

Trave 

Umbria 

Veendam 

Waesland 

Werkendam 

Werra 

Westernland 

Wleland 



Line. 



Wilson 

North German Lloyd 

Thingvalla 

Net herlands- American 

Anchor 

Hamburg-American. . . 

Cunard 

Red Star 

American 

Hamburg- American. . . 

Anchor 

White Star 

Wilson 

Cunard 

American 

Anchor 

Anchor 

Wilson 

Hamburg- American. . . 
Hamburg- American. . . 

Anchor 

Wilson 

North German Lloyd.. 
North German Lloyd.. 

Anchor 

Cunard 

Red Star 

Hamburg- American. . . 
North German Lloyd.. 

Anchor 

White Star 

North German Lloyd.. 

Thingvalla 

North German Lloyd.. 

Thingvalla 

North German Lloyd.. 
North German Lloyd.. 

French 

French 

French 

French 

French 

French 

Cunard 

Wilson 

Netherlands- American 

White Star 

Hamburg- American . . . 

American 

Thingvalla 

Red Star 

Hamburg-American 

Netherlands- American 

American 

Hamburg- American .. . 
Hamburg- American . . . 
Ham burg- American. . . 

Red Star 

Netherlands- American 
Hamburg- American. . . 
Hamburg-American. . . 
North German Lloyd.. 

American 

American 

Hamburg- American. . . 

Cunard 

Netherlands- American 
North German Lloyd.. 

Allan State 

Allan State ..■ 

White Star I 

Thingvalla 

North German Lloyd.. 

Cunard 

Netherlands- American 1 

Red Star 

Netherlands- American 
North German Lloyd.. I 

Red Star 

Hamburg- American. . . I 



Commander. 



Marshall 

Cbristoffers. 
Tnomeen .. . 

Stenger 

( iampbell . . . 

Kaempff 

A. McKay . . 

Eh off 

Lewis 

Sohroeder . . 
Baxter 

E. J. Smith . 

Malet 

Hains 

Lewis 

Shanklln 

Young 

Abbott - 

Vogelgesang 
Kunleweln 

Craig 

Irvin 

Von Goessel. 
Reimkasten. 

Wilson 

Walker 

Nickels 

Albers , 

Thalenhorst 

Harris 

McKinstry .. 

Juengst 

Laub 

Moeller .... 

Skjodt 

Stormer 

Helmers 

Le Boeuf .... 

Rupe 

Laurent 

Baudelon . . . 

Poirot 

Santelli .... 
H. McKay . . 

Morgan 

Aid. Potjer . 

Parsell 

Magin 

Jamison 

Knudsen 

Grant 

Barends 

Pousen 

Watkins 

Kopff 

Karlowa 

Ludwig 

Mills 

Roggeveen.. 
Leithauser .. 
Schmidt 

F. Kessler . . 



Built. 



Winkler .... 
Ferguson . . . 

Bonier 

Willigerod.. 

Braes 

Brown 

Cameron 

Bereutzen . . 

Sander 

Button 

Van der Zee. 

Bence 

W. Bakker. . 

Pohle 

Weyer 

Reeslng 



18HG. Glasgow.... 

1872. Belfast 

1879. Belfast 

1874. Bar row 

1889. Stettin 

1883. Glasgow.... 

1878. Barrow .... 
1874. Greenock .. 
1881. Glasgow.... 

1873. Pt. Glasgow 

1874. Belfast . ... 

1885. New-Castle. 
1892. Fairfield.... 
1873. Greenock . . 
I s,s. Harrow .... 

1881. Barrow .... 

1887. Hull 

1889. Birkenhead. 
1889. Stettin 

1877. Barrow 

1880. Dumbarton. 

1881. Glasgow.... 

1884. Glasgow.... 

1873. Glasgow.... 

1885. Fairfield.... 

1889. Glasgow.... 

1891. Stettin 

1883. Glasgow.... 

1880. Barrow .... 

1874. Belfast 

1890. Stettin 

1884. Greenock .. 

1892. New-Castle. 

1882. Copenhagen 

1888. Stettin 

1887. Fairfield.... 

1886. Toulon 

1886. St. Nazaire . 
1886. St. Nazaire . 

1886. Toulon 

1882. Barrow .... 
1890. St. Nazaire . 
1892. Fairfield.... 

1881. Dumbarton. 
1872. Belfast 

1889. Belfast 

1883. Glasgow.... 

1888. Glasgow.... 

1881. Glasgow 

1883. Birkenhead. 

1890. Glasgow.... 

1880. Belfast 

1889. Glasgow.... 

1894. Belfast 

1894. Belfast 

1883. Hamburg... 

1879. Barrow .... 

1878. Belfast 

1882. Stettin 

1889. Birkenhead. 
1886. Glasgow.... 

1894. Philad'lphia 

1895. Philad'lphia 
1889. Stettin .... 

1881. Glasgow.... 

1881. Belfast 

1890. Stettin ..... 

1891. Glasgow.... 

1880. Glasgow.... 
"89. Belfast 

74. Copenhagen 

1886. Glasgow 

" .Fairfield.... 

1872. Belfast 

1867. Glasgow.... 

1881. Belfast 

1882. Glasgow.... 

1883. Birkenhead. 
1874. Glasgow 



ToT length 
nage . Feet 



3,607 
4,964 
3,867 
3,563 
4,169 
7,661 
7,269 
3,692 
5,526 
3,423 
4,050 
5,004 
4,427 
12,95(1 
4,770 
4,272 
8.144 
4 

7,363 
4,379 
4,270 
8,911 
4,510 
5,192 
4,005 
7,718 
7,116 
8,874 
5,124 
5,495 
5,008 
6 

3,258 
5,306 
2,844 
6,990 
5,681 
7,395 
7,112 
7."" 
7,395 
6,283 
8,863 
12,950 
3,98' 
3,707 
9.933 
3. 

10,499 
3,359 
5,312 
8,250 
3,558 
10,499 
8,000 
8,000 
3,553 
3,689 
3,329 
3,467 
4,017 
15,381 
11,000 
11,000 
4,375 
7,392 
4,368 
6,693 
5,500 
3,985 
9,952 
2,524 
5.381 
7,718 
3,707 
4,752 
3,412 
5,109 
5,736 
3,504 



437 
411 

408 
460 
470 
402 
510 
351 
400 
455 
385 
620 
444 
400 
561 
370 



418 

429 

402 

501.6 

470 

520 

435 

445 

455 

462 

333 

421 

324 

450 

448 

508 

508 

508 

508 

459 

536 

620 

360 

420 

582 

360 

580 

340 

400 

520 

411 

580 

445 

445 

351 

402 

390 

357 

374 

439 

544.2 

544.2 

374 

515 

430 

462 

400 

385 

582 

301 

438 

501.6 

420 

435 

410 

435 

440 



Commodore steamers. 



216 



PATENT OFFICE STATISTICS. 



Forest Reservations. 

Under section 34 of the act of March 3,1891, authorizing the President to set aside 
and reserve public lands bearing- forests or covered in part with timber or undergrowth, 
seventeen reservations have been created, with a total estimated area of 17,564,800 acres. 



States and 
Territories 



Alaska , 



Arizona... 
California 



Colorado. 



New Mexico. 
Oregon 



Washington 
Wyoming... 



Name of Reservation. 



Locality. 



Afognak Forest and 
Fish OultureReserve 



Grand Canyon Forest 

Reserve. 
San Gabriel Timber 

Land Reserve. 
Sierra Forest Reserve 



San Bernardino For- 
est Reserve. 

Trabuco Canyon For- 
est Reserve. 

White River Plateau 
TimberLandReserve 

Pike's Peak Timber I 
Land Reserve. \ 

Plum Creek Timber 
Land Reserve. 

The South Platte For- 
est Reserve. 

BattlementMesa For- 
est Reserve. 

The Pecos River For- 
est Reserve. 

Bull RunTimberLand 
Reserve. 

Ashland Forest Re- 
serve. 

Cascade Range Forest 
Reserve. 



The Pacific Forest Re- 
serve. 

YellowstoneNational 
Park Timber Land 
Reserve. 



Afognak Island and its ad 
jacent bays and rocks and 
territorial waters, includ 
ing, among others, the Sea 
Lion rocks and Sea Otter 
Island. (Reserved under 
sections 24 and 14, act of 
March 3, 1891.) 

In Coconino county 



Date of Proc 
lamation 

Creating Res 
ervation. 



In Los Angeles and San 
Bernardino counties. 

In Mono, Mariposa, Fresno 
Tulare, Inyo and Kern 
counties. 

In San Bernardino county. 

In Orange county 



In Routt, Rio Blanco, Gar- 
field and Eagle counties. 

In El Paso county 

In Douglas county 



In Park, Jefferson, Summit 

and Chaffee counties. 
In Garfield, Mesa, Pitkin, 

Delta, Gunnison counties. 
In Santa Fe, San Miguel, 

Rio Arriba, Taos counties. 
In Multnomah, Wasco and 

Clackamas counties. 



Comprising the entire 
mountain range from the 
Columbia River, south, 
nearly to California line. 

In Pierce, Kittitas, Lewis 
and Yakima counties. 

On the south and east of 
the Yellowstone National 
Park. 



Dec. 24, 1892 



Feb. 20, 1893. 



Dec. 20, 1892. 
Feb. 14, 1893.. 

Feb. 25, 1893., 

Feb. 25, 1893.. 

Oct. 16, 1891... 

Feb. 11, 1892., 
March 18, 1892 
June 23, 1892. 

Dec. 9, 1892... 

Dec. 24, 1892 .. 

Jan. 11, 1892.. 

June 17, 1892.. 

Sept. 28, 1893.. 

Sept. 28, 1893.. 



Feb. 20, 1893.. 

Mar. 30,1891. 1 
Sept. 10, 1891 f 



Esti- 
mated 
Area. 
Acres. 



1,851,520 
555,520 
4,096,000 

737,280 
49,920 
1,198,080 

!■ 184,320 
179,200 

683,520 

858,240 

311,010 

142,080 

18,560 

4,492,800 

967,680 
1,239,040 



Patent Office Statistics. 

The net receipts of the Patent Office for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, were 
$1,183,523.18; expenditures $1,053,962 38. The total number of applications filed at the 
Patent Office in fifty-eight years, 1837-94, was 916,582 ; the total number of caveats filed 
during the same period was 94,597 ; number of patents issued, 524,014 ; total receipts of 
office, $30,393,438.31 ; total expenditures, $24,807,422.73. 

BUSINESS OF THE OFFICE FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1893-94. 



Number of applications for letters 
patent 35,952 

Number of applications for design 
patents 1,050 

Number of applications for reissue 
patents , 108 

Number of applications for registra- 
tion of trade marks 1,720 

Number of applications for registra- 
tion of labels 368 



Number of applications for registra- 
tion of prints 8 

Number of caveats filed 2,349 

Total.... 45,936 

Number of patents granted, includ- 
ing reissues and designs 22,546 

Number of trade marks registered... 1,656 

Number of labels registered 

Number of prints registered 2 

Total.... 24,204 



UNITED STATES LIFE SAVING SERVICE. 



217 



Officers on Duty Under the Light-House Establishment. 

MEMBERS OF THE LIGHT-HOUSE ROARD. 

Hon. John G. Carlisle, Secretary of the Treasury and ex officio President of the 
Board, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

Rear- Admiral James A. Greer, U. S. N., chairman, 2010 Hillyer Place, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Mr. Walter S. Franklin, 24 East Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore, Md. 
Prof. Thomas C. Mendenhall, Washington, D. C. 
Col. John M. Wilson, U. S. A., War Department, Washington, D. C. 
Capt. George Dewey. U. S. N., 1730 H street N W., Washington, D. C. 
Maj. Henry M. Adams, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., War Dep't., Washington, D. C. 
Commander George F. F. Wilde, U. 8. N., Naval Secretary, Washington, D. C. 
Capt. Philip M. Price, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., Engineer Secretary, the Rich- 
mond, 17th and H streets, Washington, D. C. 

INSPECTORS. 

1st Dist.— Commander George E. Wingate, U. S. N., Custom House, Portland, Me. 
2d Dist.— Commander Francis M. Green, U. S. N., Post-Office Building, Boston, Mass. 
3d Dist— Capt. Winfleld S. Schley, U. S. N., Tompkinsville, N. Y. 
4th Dist.— Commander George C. Reiter, U. S. N., P.-O. Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
5th Dist.— Commander B. P. Lamberton, U. S. N., Post-Office Building, Baltimore, Md. 
6th Dist.— Commander M. R. S. Mackenzie, U. S. N., Browns' Wharf, Charleston, S. C. 
7th Dist.— Commander William B. Newman, U. S. N., Navy Yard, Pensacola, Fla. 
8th Dist.— Commander Joseph B. Coghlan, U. S. N., Custom-House, New Orleans, La. 
9th Dist.— Commander James H. Dayton, U. S. N„ Room 1308, Chamber of Com- 
merce Building, corner Washington and La Salle streets, Chicago, 111. 

10th Dist— Commander CharlesV Gridley. U.S. N., Post-Office Building, Buffalo, N.Y. 
11th Dist.— Commander William W. Mead, U. S. N., 80 Griswold street, Detroit, Mich. 
12th Dist.— Commander H. E. Nichols, U. S. N., Appraiser's B'ld'g, San Francisco, Cal. 
13th Dist.— Commander Oscar W. Farenholt.U. S.N., Marquam B'ld'g., Portland, Ore. 
14th Dist.— Lieut. Com. Frederick W. Crocker,U. S. N., P.-O. Building, Cincinnati, O. 
15th Dist.— Lieut. Com. A. B. H. Lillie, U. S. N., New Custom House, St. Louis, Mo. 
16th Dist.— Commander Andrew J. Iverson, U. S. N., Custom House, Memphis, Tenn. 

ENGINEERS. 

1st Dist.— Maj. William R. Livermore, U. S. A., Post-Office Building, Boston, Mass. 
2d Dist.— Maj. William R. Livermore, U. S. A., Post-Office Building, Boston, Mass. 
3d Dist.— Maj. David P. Heap, U. S. A., Tompkinsville, Staten Island, N. Y. 
4th Dist— Maj. Charles W. Raymond, U. S. A., Post-Office Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
5th Dist.— Capt. Eric Bergland, U. S. A., Post-Office Building, Baltimore, Md. 
6th Dist.— Capt. Eric Bergland, U. S. A., Post-Office Building, Baltimore, Md., and 
Southern Wharf, Charleston, S. C. 

7th Dist.— Maj. James B. Quinn, U. S. A., 63 Carondeiet street, New Orleans, La. 
8th Dist.— Maj. James B. Quinn, U. S. A., 63 Carondeiet street, New Orleans, La. 
9th Dist.— Maj. Milton B. Adams, U. S. A., 18 Bagley avenue, Detroit, Mich. 
10th Dist.— Lieut. Col. Jared A. Smith, U. S. A., 185 Euclid avenue, Cleveland, O. 
Hth Dist.— Maj. Milton B. Adams, U. S. A., 18 Bagley avenue, Detroit, Mich. 
12th Dist.— Maj. William H. Heuer, U. S. A., Flood Building, San Francisco, Cal. 
13th Dist— Maj. James C. Post, U. S. A., 73 Fourth street, Portland, Ore. 
14th Dist.— Lieut. Col. Amos Stickney, U. S. A., Custom House, Cincinnati, O. 
15th Dist.— Lieut. Col. Charles R. Suter, U. S. A., 1515 Lucas place, St. Louis, Mo. 
16th Dist.— Lieut. Col. Charles R. Suter, U. S. A., 1515 Lucas place, St. Louis, Mo. 



United States Life-Saving Service. 



At the close of the fiscal year 1892-93 the life-saving establishment embraced 243 sta- 
tions, 182 being on the Atlantic coast, 48 on the Great lakes, 12 on the Pacific coast, and - 
1 at the fails of Ohio, Louisville, Ky. 





Year Ending 
June 30, 1893. 


Since Introduc- 
tion of Life- 
Saving Service. 




581 

$8,251,110 
6,570,850 
1.680,260 
3,893 
29 
663 
1,659 
88 


7,031 
$112,961,429 
85,392.307 
27,569,122 
56,818 
656 
10,563 
27,647 


Number shipwrecked persons succored at stations. 
Number of vessels totally lost on the U. S. coasts.. 



318 WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF ACCIDENT 



What to do in case of Accident. 



For apoplexy, raise the head and body ; for fainting, lay the person flat. 
If an artery is cut, compress it above the wound. Blood from an artery is red ; that 
from the veins dark. 

If choked, get down on all fours and cough. 

For slight burns, hold the wound in cold water a short time ; if the skin is destroy- 
ed, cover with linseed oil. 

Always send for a physician when a serious accident of any kind occurs, but treat 
as directed until his arrival. 

Scalds and Burns.— Exclude the air from the injured part, using- 'for this purpose 
sheets of wadding, fine wool, carded cotton, baking soda, violet powder, magnesia or 
chalk. Olive oil and white of egg, olive or linseed oil plain or mixed with chalk or 
whiting, are common remedies. The principal object is to exclude the air from the 
burn or scald in the quickest and least painful way. 

Body in Flames.— Lay the person on the floor and throw rug, table cover, or other 
large cloth over him and roll him on the floor. 

Drowning.— 1. Handle the body gently. 2. Carry the body face downward, with 
head slightly raised. 3. Send for medical assistance, and in the mean time treat as 
follows. 4. Remove clothing, rub the body dry, wrap it in hot blankets and place in a 
warm bed. 5. Apply hot water bottles or hot bricks to the armpits, between the thighs 
and to the soles of the feet. 6. Rub the body with the hands enclosed in warm, dry 
woolen socks. 7. To restore breathing, alternately compress and expand the lower ribs 
about twenty times a minute. Raising and lowering the arms from the sides up above 
the head will also stimulate the action of the lungs. 8. Hold the tongue forward, close 
the nostrils, press the "Adam's apple" back so as to close the entrance to stomach, 
breathe into the mouth of the patient, compress the chest to expel the air, and repeat 
the operation. 9. Continue the above treatment, gently and persistently, until medical 
assistance arrives. Don't give up ! Patients have been saved afte,r hours of patient, 
continuous effort. 

Lightning or Sunstroke. — Loosen the clothing, place the patient in shady place 
and apply cold water to the head. Keep the head slightly elevated. 

Hanging.— Loosen the rope and proceed as for drowning, taking the additional 
precaution of bleeding the patient by opening the temporal artery or jugular vein. 
Apply several leeches to the temples. 

Mad Dog or Snake Bite.— Tie a cord tightly above the wound. Give brandy, 
whiskey or other stimulants. Suck the wound, cauterize it with caustic or white-hot 
iron, or cut out adjoining parts with a knife. Act quickly. 

Dirt or Cinders in the Eye.— Nothing is better than flax seed. Place a few 
grains in the outer corner of the eye. 

Escape from a Burning Building.— Crawl on the floor, the clearest air is the low- 
est in the room. Cover the head with a wet woolen wrap, in which holes may bo cut for 
the eyes. Keep your wits. 

Suffocation from Inhaling Gas.— Get the patient into fresh air as quickly as 
possible, place him in a reclining position and keep him warm. Give twenty drops of 
ammonia in a glass of water at frequent intervals and two to four drops of nux vomica 
every hour or two for five or six hours. 

Hysterics, Fainting, Etc.— Loosen the patient's clothes, bathe the temples with 
eau-de-Cologne or water, open the window and admit plenty of fresh air, dash cold 
water in the face, apply hot bricks to the feet. Don't get excited, as this is liable to 
have a bad effect on the patient. 

Bleeding from the Nose.— Place a plug of lint in the nostrils ; if this fails to stop 
the bleeding, apply a cold lotion to the forehead ; raise the head and place both arms 
over it so that it will rest on the hands; moisten the lint plug slightly, dip it in some 
powdered gum arabic and alum and place in the nose. Apply heat to the feet. In 
obstinate cases the sudden shock of a cold key, or cold water poured down the spine, 
will sometimes instantly stop the bleeding. 

Hemorrhages.— When a hemorrhage is caused by an artery being torn or divided, 
it may be known by the blood issuing from the wound in jerks and being bright scarlet 
in color. The blood from a vein is darker and flows continously. To arrest bleeding 
from a vein apply compress and bandage. To check arterial bleeding, tie a piece of 
strong tape loosely over the arm or leg, pass a stick of wood ( part of a broom handle 
will do ) under it and twist the stick round and round until the tape compresses the 
arm sufficiently to stop bleeding. A compress made by wrapping a cent in several folds 
of lint or linen should be first placed under the tape and over the artery. Always place 
the ligature betAveen the wound and the heart. 

Choking.— If a fishbone is lodged in the throat insert the forefinger, press on the 
root of the tongue, so as to induce vomiting; if this fails, swallow a large piece of soft 
bread or potato ; in obstinate cases take a teaspoon! ul of mustard in warm water, 
as an emetic. 



SOME WONDERS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 2W 



Poisons and their Antidotes. 

Always send for a physician. Save all fluids vomited, and articles of food and dish- 
es used by the patient before taken ill. As a rule give emetics after poisons that cause 
sleepiness and ravins 1 . The stomach pump should only be used by skillful hands. Don't 
give tartar emetic ; it is exceedingly depressive. 

Acids are antidotes for alkalies and vice versa. 

ARSENIC— Give 20 grains sulphate of zinc in a little warm water to produce vomit- 
ing, or a large tablespoonful of mustard in warm water. Meanwhile procure some 
hydrated sesquioxide of iron and grive a tablespoonful of it with water every five or ten 
minutes until six doses are taken. Dialyzed iron is also efficient. 

Aqua Ammonia, or Hartshorn, if taken undiluted is a violent poison. Give 
Vinegar, instantly, mixed with a little water; this acts by neutralization. Vegetable 
oils, in large quantities, furnish the next best antidote, the ammonia acting upon them 
to form Soap. 

Aconite.— Give an emetic of mustard or sulphate of zinc, instantly, then give 
stimulants, whiskey, brandy, gin or rum, etc. 

Acid -Nitric, Muriatic, or Sulphuric— If either of these be swallowed, not a 
moment is to be lost. The best remedy is to fill the patient full of calcined magnesia 
stirred up in water, to the consistency of very thin paste; or, give half an ounce of soap 
shavings in a pint of water. If neither are at hand give chalk or whiting, in water, or 
even pound fine some of the white plastering from the wall and give in water. 

Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stamonium, and Conium, are all narcotics, and the 
treatment is the same as for opium ; especially the strong coffee. 

Cantharides (Spanish Flies).— Give large doses of sweet oil, sugar and water, or 
milk. To relieve the strangury and scalding of urine which it occasions, give camphor, 
10 to 15 drop doses in water. 

Corrosive Sublimate, (Bed bug poison).— Mix up quickly the whites of a dozen eggs 
with a quart of cold water; give a cupful of the mixture every two minutes till the 
stomach can hold no more. If you have not eggs enough use what you have and make 
up the deficiency with milk. Wheat flour, mixed with water, is good. 

Charcoal Gas, Sulphuretted Hydrogen, or Carbonic Acid Gas.— Use cold 
shower bath and give aconite in drop doses, in a spoonful of water. The effects of coal 
gas are best antidoted by copious draughts of vinegar and water. 

Oxalic Acid.— Give magnesia in water as quickly as possible. When not to be had, 
use chalk, lime or saleratus. Soap suds or alkalies are of no use with this Acid. 

Opium, Morphine and Laudanum.— Use the stomach pump, if possible ; if not, a 
powerful emetic, as sulphate of zinc ; or, give the mustard emetic and tickle the palate. 
If drowsiness comes on, take the patient into the open air, dash water into the face, by 
all means keep him walking. If once allowed to fall asleep it may be impossible to arouse 
him. Strong coffee, taken hot, antidotes after the stomach has been emptied. 

Prussic Acid.— This is the deadliest of all known poisons. One drop of the pure 
acid will cause instantaneous death. If any of its products be taken and the result is 
not immediately fatal, resort to the cold shower bath, inhalation of diluted aqua am- 
monia vapor and give solution of carbonate of potash, 20 grains to a glass of water, or 
ammonia diluted with six times the bulk of water, freely. 

Sugar op Lead, (Acetate of Lead).— Give a ground mustard emetic \ or, 20 grains 
sulphate of zinc in a glass of water ; afterwards, large dose of epsom salts. 

strychnine or Nux Vomica, are rapid and deadly poisons, generally proving fatal, 
in spite of treatment. If emetics are given and the stomach emptied quickly enough, 
and if the patient is not attacked with convulsions within two hours, he will generally 
be safe. An abundance of sweet milk is recommended, also strong coffee, as for 
opium poisoning. 

Strong Lye.— Sometimes swallowed by children. The remedy is vinegar, or oil, the 
former by converting the lye into acetate of potash, the latter by forming soap ; neither 
of which materially injures the stomach. 

Verdigris.— This most frequently poisons by its formation upon copper vessels 
used in cooking. Give an emetic instantly, and then two teaspoonfuls of carbonate of 
soda, in a tumbler full of water and repeat in ten minutes. Whites of eggs in water 
are also proper. 



Some Wonders of the Human Body. 

There are upward of two million openings in the skin, which are the outlets of an 
equal number of sweat glands. The blood which passes through the heart every minute 
is equal to the whole quantity in the body. The f uncapacity of the lungs is about three 
hundred and twenty cubic inches. The capacity of the stomach is about five pints. 
There are more than five hundred separate muscles in the body. The heart weighs from 
eight to twelve ounces. It beats about one hundred thousand times in twenty-four 
hours. Each perspiratory duct is one-quarter of an inch long, and the length of the 
whole about nine miles. The average man takes about one ton of solid and liquid 
nourishment annually. About three hundred and seventy-five hogsheads of air are in- 
haled and exhaled by a man every hour of his life. 



320 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. 



United States military Academy at West Point. 

Established by Act of Congress in 1802. 

Each Congressional District and Territory— also the District of Columbia— is entitled 
to have one cadet at the Academy, the cadet to be named by the Congiessman. There 
are also ten appointments at large, specially conferred by the President. Appoint- 
ments are usually made one year in advance of date of admission, and may be made 
either after competitive examination or given direct, at the option of the Congress- 
man. The Representative may nominate a legally qualified second candidate, to be 
designated the alternate. Tne alternate will receive from the War Department a letter 
of appointment, and will be examined with regular appointee, and if duly qualified will 
be admitted to Academy in event of failure of principal to pass prescribed examinations. 
Appointees must be between 17 and 22 years, free from any infirmity which may render 
them unfit for military service, and able to pass a careful examination in reading, writ* 
ing, orthography, arithmetic, grammar, geography and history of the United States. 

Academic duties begin September 1 and continue until June 1. Examinations are 
held in each January and June, and cadets found proficient in studies and correct in 
conduct are given the particular standing in their class to which their merits entitle 
them, while those cadets deficient in either conduct or studies are discharged. Cadets 
are allowed but one leave of absence during the four years' course, and this is granted 
at the expiration of the first two years. The pay of a cadet is $540 per year, and, with 
proper economy, is sufficient for his support. The number of students at the Academy 
is usually about three hundred. Upon graduating, cadets are commissioned as second 
lieutenants in the United States Army. 



United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. 

Founded in 1845, by Hon. George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy. 

There are allowed at the Academy one naval cadet for each member or delegate of 
the United States House of Representatives, one for the District of Columbia and ten 
at large. The appointment of cadets at large and for the District of Columbia is made 
by the President. The Secretary of the Navy, as soon after March 5 in each year as 
possible, must notify in writing each member and delegate of the House of Represent- 
atives of any vacancy that may exist in his district. The nomination of a candidate is 
made on the recommendation of the member or delegate, by the Secretary. Candidates 
must be actual residents of the districts from which they are nominated. 

The course of Naval cadets is six years, the last two of which are spent at sea. Can- 
didates at the time of their examination must be not under 15 or over 20 years of age, 
and physically sound, well formed, and of robust condition. They enter the Academy 
immediately after passing the prescribed examinations, and are required to sign articles 
binding themselves to serve in the U. S. Navy eight years (including time of probation 
at the Naval Academy) , unless sooner discharged. The pay of a naval cadet is $500 a year. 

Appointments to fill all vacancies that occur during the year in the lower grades of 
the Line and Engineer Corps of the Navy, and of the Marine Corps, are made from the 
naval cadets, graduates of the year, at the conclusion of their six years' course, in the 
order of merit as determined by the Academic Board of the Naval Academy. At least 
ten appointments from such candidates are made each year. Surplus graduates who do 
not receive such appointments are given a certificate of graduation, an honorable dis- 
charge, and one year's sea pay. 



Library of Congress. 

Commenced in 1800 : destroyed when the Capitol was burned in 1814. Afterwards 
Congress bought the library of ex-President Jefferson, about 7,000 volumes. The collec- 
tion in 1851 numbered 55,000 volumes, when by fire it was reduced to 20,000 volumes. In 
1852 Congress appropriated $75,000 to replenish the collection. The accumulation of 
books has been going- on uninterruptedly ever since, by purchase, by copyright addi- 
tions and by exchanges. The library of the Smithsonian Institute has been deposited in 
the Library of Congress. Dr. Joseph M. Toner gave to it in 1882 his large private library, 
numbering 27,000 volumes and many pamphlets. In 1870 the copyright books were 
transferred from the Patent Office to the Library of Congress, and all copyrights issued 
in the United States are now recorded in the office of the Librarian of Congress. The 
whole library numbers about three-quarters of a million volumes. 

The library occupies the entire western projection of the Capitol. A new building 
for the library is in course of erection and will be completed in 1896. Its dimensions are 
464 by 332 feet, covering three and a half acres of ground, with four immense courts. 
There are three floors— a basement level with the ground, a first story 19 feet high and a 
second story 29 feet high. The walls are 69 feet high and the dome 195 feet from the 
ground. The order of architecture is Italian Renaissance. The library is free to the 
public, but only members of Congress and about thirty specified Government officials 
can take books away. The library is open daily (except Sundays) while Congress is in 
session, from 9 a.m. to the hour of adjournment, and during the recess of Congress 
from 9 A. m. to 4 p. M. Ains worth R. Spoffbrd is librarian. 



THE REPUBLICS OF THE WORM). 



321 



The Republics of the World. 

Andorra, on tho southern slope of the Pyrenees, nominally subject to France, but 
practically an independent republic, the government being vested in 24 consuls elected 
by the people. It has been independent since the year 790. 

Argentine Republic, the confederation of the Rio de La Plata, consisting of 14 
provinces. It became independent in 1816. 

Athens, capital of Attica.— At the death of Codrus in the eleventh century B. C, 
the Athenians banished royalty. It was governed by archons for 1,000 years, after 
Which it fell under the power of the Romans and other invaders, 

Bolivia was formerly a part of Peru, but declared its independence in 1824. It is 
governed by three legislative chambers— one elected for four years, one for eight years, 
ami one for life, which together elect a president for life. 

Brazil, United States of, became a republic in 1889. 

Chili declared its independence of Spain in 1810, and achieved it in 1817. The execu- - 
live power is vested in a president, a council of state, and live cabinet ministers. 

Cisalpine Republic, North Italy, formed from the Cispadane and Transpadane 
Republics by the French in 1797. It was remodeled and named the Italian Republic, with 
Napoleon Bonaparte president, 1802, and in 1805 was merged into the kingdom of Italy. 

Colombia, United States of, formerly New Granada, a confederation formed in 1861, 
of nine States— Panama, Santander, Cauca, Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Antioquia, Tolima, 
Bolivar and Magdalena. 

Costa Rica, Central America, separated from the Mexican confederation in 1823. 

Cracow, the ancient capital of Poland, became a republic in 1815, but fell into the 
hands of Russia in 1831. 

Ecuador, a South American republic, founded in 1831. Its government is vested in a 
president, four cabinet officers, and two houses of congress chosen by popular suffrage. 

England was a republic from 1649 to 1660. 

Florence, capital of Tuscany, became a republic in 1198, and so continued until 1530. 

France first became a republic in 1792, which lasted till 1804, when monarchy was 
restored. It was again a republic. 1848 to 1852; the present republic was formed in 1870. 

Geneva declared itself a republic in 1512, and joined the Swiss cantons in 1584. 

Genoa became a free commercial State about the year 1,000, and with a few inter- 
ruptions was a republic for nearly seven centuries. 

Guatemala, Central America, formerly a part of the Mexican Confederation, 
declared its independence in 1821. 

Hawaii.— Queen Liliuokalani was deposed January 16, 1893, and a provisional gov- 
ernment was formed. The republic was formally proclaimed July 4, 1894. 

Havti, a West Indian island, became a republic in 1801, which lasted three years. It 
was again declared a republic in 1848. 

Honduras, in Central America, has been a republic since 1823, when it separated 
from the Mexican Confederation. 

Liberia, a negro republic on the west coast of Africa, was founded by an American 
Colonization Society, established in 1816 by Henry Clay. It became independent in 1847. 

Mexico, United States of, threw off the Spanish yoke in 1822, and in 1824 established 
a federal republic somewhat similar to that of the United States. 

Nicaragua, Central America, separated from the Mexican Confederation in 1821. 

Paraguay, a South American republic, declared itself independent of Spain in 1810. 

Peru achieved its independence of Spain in 1825. It is governed by a president, a 
Senate, and a House of Representatives. 

Rome became a republic on the expulsion of the Tarquins 509 B. C, and so contin- 
ued until 27 B. C, when Octavius became emperor. 

San Domingo became independent of Spain in 1844; from 1861 to 1865 it was again in- 
corporated with the Spanish monarchy, after which Spain relinquished all control of it. 

San Marino, a republic in Central Italy. Its origin is ascribed to St. Marin us, a 
hermit, who lived there in the fifth century. Its independence was lost for a short time 
—to Caesar Borgia, 1503, and to the Pope, 1739 ; confirmed by Pope Pius VII. in 1817. 

San Salvador, Central America, separated from the Mexican confederation in 1821. 

Spain declared itself a republic in 1873, but monarchy was soon afterward restored. 

Sparta, an ancient republic of Greece.preserved a republican government, with some 
interruptions, until it fell into the hands of the Romans in 146 B.Cwith the rest of Greece. 

Switzerland in 1291 formed the confederation or republic which still exists. 

Texas gained its independence of Mexico in 1836, and was annexed to the United 
States ten years later. 

The Transvaal Republic, in South America, was founded in 1858 by the Boers. 

The United States of America became a great and independent republic in 1776. 

Uruguay became a republic in 1825. It is governed by a president, a ministry of 
four cabinet officers, and a Senate and House of Representatives. 

Venice, founded about the fifth century, toward the middle of the sixth century 
became a republic, which continued until its extinction by Bonaparte in 1797. 

Venezuela, United States of, declared its independence of Spain in 1811, became 
separated from Colombia, and adopted a new constitution in 1829. 

Yucatan became independent of Spain in 1821 ; three years later became united to 
Mexico ; was independent from 1840 to 1843, and again from 1846 to 1852 ; since the latter 
date it has belonged to Mexico. 



222 



UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 



Statistics of Universities and Colleges for 1892=93. 



(Prepared for this Almanac by the Statistician of the United States Bureau of 

Education.) 



States and Territories. 


Num- 


Total 
Num- 


Total 
Number 


Total In- 


Libraries' 


Value of 
Scientific 


Value of 


ber of 


ber of 


Students, 


come in 


Bound 


Apparatus 


Grounds 


1892-93. 


tut ' ns 


Instruc- 
tors. 


all Depart- 
ments. 


1892-93. 


Volumes. 


and 
Libraries. 


and 
Buildings. 




JV. Atlantic Div. 


















3 


50 


668 


$102,207 


91,803 


$114,397 


$678,936 




1 


50 


458 


96,000 


73,500 


100,000 


250,000 




2 


OO 


4 GO 

*yy 


83 ^91 
OO, O/i i 


fiK AC- 1 

oo,*o 1 


1QC AllO 

ioo,uuu 


4K0 oon 




9 


ooo 


f\ 78Q 

o, toy 


1 404 003 
l,*U*,UUO 


A43 Ann 


1,000, (COO 


7 0ft9 rtfiA 




1 


58 


549 


132,529 


80 000 


n.38 200 


1 250 of 1ft. 




3 






726 458 


275 000 


7ft7 ^00 


4 H40 000 




66 


966 


11 014 


9 19Q9fi4 


678 195 


2 307 41K 

rfV,OU4 .*10 


11 8">Q ^8? 




5 


140 


1 802 


9^3 870 


137 926 


565 800 


1 Q80 00ft 




31 


743 


Q 07ft 


Q33 74^ 
yoo, i *o 


41 ^138 

*10,lO0 


111ft A4A 

1,110,04:0 


8 099 737 


S. Atlantic Div. 


















1 


13 


90 


21,488 


6,007 


35,000 


80,000 




10 


201 


2,184 


358,070 


144,520 


<co0, 1 00 


1 ^£J9 AAA 

l,7o,i,00U 


4 


9Q1 


o la 


99ft ^>V7 
i0<CO,DOl 


09 789 


1 -Vl OOO 


9 900 f](¥l 


North Carolina 


8 


lot 


1 759 


97Q 88 r » 

*V( 57, OOO 


137 ono 

lOl ,uuu 


344 Q(|ft 
0**,57UU 


1 6Q4 OOftv 


4 


38 


fii3 
o 10 


102 712 


9 446 


20 200 


34 f\ 00ft 


11 


1 A/1 
104- 


9 300 


147 9^9 

1** ,«)|4 


A4 QOft 
0*,WUO 


1 1 3001 1 


1110 00ft 




9 


10.7 


1 713 
JL < lO 


131 803 
lol,OVo 


KQ 9ftA 


8 mo 


r 7ft OOO' 
1 (O UlAF 




8 


1 OA 
lUO 


9 f>49 


1 1 4 Q37 

lI*,yO( 


4-\ 8(10 


ino oaa 
iuy,uoo 


1 1 oft 7^rt 
1, 100, lii\J 


A 
% 


43 


572 


25 401 


7 900 


10 000 


261 00ft 


ij. \jKillll til UIV. 


















13 


157 


3,602 


137,185 


50,713 


64,000 


1,072,000 


23 


424 


6,159 


374,^98 


130,344 


279 556 


3,140,0*0 




7 


aa 
o» 


l,~oo 


109 114 
1U<4,11* 


97 ftOO 

/ii,OUU 


98 350 


'i'04 500 




5 


58 


QUA 

Woo 


Aft 397 
00,94 I 


9?i OO/I 
(49,UOU 


67 300 


4kk noi^ 

100, ouu 


9 


213 


3 inn 


OA d 91ft. 
/i*0,<i4U 


1 1 a ao/i 

110, OUU 


103 ft83 
1UO, OOO 


1 4J-i7 9 VI 


11 


165 


o,oJo 


165.998 


917 4*i& 


79 QOO 


1,1i40,UUU 


5 


46 


1111 


97 vjo 


9 200 


12,500 






1 


6 


1 91 

l<si 


K Aft7 


ftOO 


300 


4^i (100 


N. Central Div. 


















38 


CKA 
OOO 


19 8*i4 


QAO K4K 
000,0*1:0 


390 837 

0*vU,00 • 


877 389 


6 133 304 


15 


334 




A-iQ OZ& 


180 Q<10 

iou,yuu 


447 144 
fit J ,14* 


9 33.^ 304 
<4, 000,00* 


28 


809 


11 546 


1,037,253 


434,584 


572,893 


5,996,700 


12 


312 


6,434 


528 581 


172,734 


671,306 


1,792,415 


10 


192 


3,148 


now ciyc 

387,575 


1 0 1 OOA 

101, yoo 


9AQ KflO 


9 1 CO O.AO 

loy.oou 


12 


97Q 


3 ^31 
O,0Ol 


9Q3 41 1 
4yO,*ll 


72 525 


183 378 
ioo,ot 0 


9 8^.3 932 


24 
29 


446 


7,594 


Q77 K(\K 

61 (,5U0 


1 9ft 1 ri 1 


913 fiHO 


9 970 'ill 
<v,„ / U,o4 1 


&9A 

oo* 


7 ^7ft 
1 ,0(0 


535 934 


146 503 


186 000 

JOU.17VU 


3 Q31 70ft 


4 


44 


517 


52*950 


7^740 


37,500 


290.000 


6 


85 


1,130 


54,695 


11,525 


22,025 


372.650 


9 


219 


o kao. 


91/1 Iftft 

<il*,*00 




903 4H0 


1 Q88 ASH 

i,yoo,oou 


17 


6(1 


r naA 


999 UQ8 
6M.V»0 


79 900 


9QQ CMIO 


1 ft09 OftO 
1, ou*s, uuu 


Western Div. 


















1 


8 


84 


7,500 


i onn 


7 OOO 


KA OAO 

OU,UUU 


1 


14 


108 


59,174 


2,650 


2,500 


100,000 


4 


152 


1,095 


122,830 


22.500 


62,800 


786,300 


1 
1 


7 

10 


108 

38 


12,500 
30,190 


500 


750 
26.475 


35,000 
66,700 


TT+nY\ .... 


1 


17 


368 


46,543 


10,500 


30,000 


280,000 


1 


17 


186 


59,000 


3,468 


36,100 


81,350 


1 


6 


135 


49,513 


1,585 


4,498 


40,000 


5 
6 


40 
123 


630 
1,112 


44,900 
82,011 


10,232 
17,730 


15,300 
22,600 


529,000 
455.000 


14 


385 


4,228 


679,553 


138,450 


629,600 


7,583,900 




451 


10,247 


140,053 


14,601,034 


5,319,602 


13,532,419 


95,545,681 



STATISTICS OF HCBLIC SCHOOLS. 



228 



Statistics of Public Schools in the United States for 1892-93. 



(Prepared for this Almanac by the Statistician of the United States Bureau of 

Education.) 



States and Territories. 


Whole Num- 
ber Pupils 
Enrolled. 


Average 
Daily Attend- 
ance. 


Whole Num- 
ber Teachers . 


A verity* ' 
Number of 
Days Schools 
Were Kept. 


Total Ex- 
penditures. 


N. Atlantic Div. 















136,868 


c 90,393 


b 7,686 


&123 


b $1,393 833 




61,703 


42,889 


3,125 


130.2 


866,777 




ab 65,314 


b 45,057 


b 4,351 


b 138 


b 738,058 




391,745 


290,801 


11,233 


173 


9,663.907 




53,695 


35,969 


1,520 


188 


1,150,925) 




133,237 


86,255 


c 3,766 


182.74 


2,376.635 




1,083,228 


683,097 


32,476 


183.5 


19,161,684 




249,588 


151,273 


4,868 


190 


3,834,103 




1,053,438 


722,196 


25,963 


162 


16,410,977 


S. Atlantic Div. 














b 33,174 


be 22,693 


b840 


be 160 


cd 275,000 




199,402 


108,611 


4,209 


184 


2,247,111 




39,764 


30,067 


895 


175 


853,808 




348,471 


194,143 


7,932 


120 


1,798,158 




b 200,789 


b 128,044 


b 5,747 


b 110 


b 1,408,065 




356,958 


214,779 


7,031 


62 6 


790.320 




223,150 


162,300 


4,535 


74.2 


483,180 




415,647 


245,378 


8.819 


100 


1,631,221 




b 93,780 


62,238 


2,678 


c 105 


"J, CO 17 k)00 

b 537,2oo 


S. Central Div. 














c 455,000 


C 261,700 


c 8,562 


c 107 


c 2,385,000 




463,461 


330,978 


8,812 


86 


1,647,799 




d 301,615 


d 182,467 


e 6,808 


d 73.5 


cd 890,000 




334,923 


194,993 


7,497 


87 


1,192,844 




155,470 


107,370 


3,244 


105 


992,000 




553,271 


364,835 


11,906 


107.4 


— q *V>C AA( I 

C o,92o,000 




264,576 


C 147,766 


6,314 


73 


1,109,09<5 




26,339 


15,811 


b 472 


be 90 


b 71,755 


























N. Central Div. 














806,496 


570,056 


25,512 


165.3 


12,180^94 




517 459 


371 298 


13 557 


133 






826'.085 


605]818 


24^240 


155.41 


14,296,375 




455,598 


C 306,162 


16,305 


156 


6,062 647 


372,192 


C 231,942 


12,450 


d 158.6 


4,678,689 




b 300,333 


173.786 


8,940 


b 155 2 


4,692,891 




513,614 


324,217 


28,301 


156 


ty c cr 1 < DO 

7,551,483 




612,455 


437,693 


13,936 


119.3 


5,705,110 




b 37 916 


b 21,413 


b 2,238 


b 117 


b 803,253 




b 74 070 


b 45,870 


b 4,128 


b 100.7 


b 1,380,727 




260,336 


159,704 


9,354 


130 


4,243,638 




389,597 


246,571 


12,070 


129.5 


4,250,000 


Western Div. 














23,o50 


15,144 


763 


b 148 


657,800 




9,933 


c 6,360 


424 


c 139.4 


194,662 




77,089 


b 47 946 


2 895 


170 


2 424 343 




2U690 


14 J 58 


'547 


113.3 


'182,559 




11,320 


6,921 


283 


195 


216,779 




55,471 


37,239 


1,014 


bl53 


1,313,319 




7,514 


5.192 


277 


b 154.4 


210,689 




22,510 


17,137 


650 


b86.4 


b 232,278 




83.979 


54,680 


3,086 


101.5 


1,914,959 




78,258 


55,848 


3,577 


107 


1,221,615 




232,501 


157,673 


6,136 


160 2 


5,709,687 




13,484,572 


8,819,931 


381,972 


132.54 


163,568,444 



a Number of pupils live to t wenty years of age. b In 1891-92. e Approximately, 
din 1889-90. e In 1890-91. 



334 



COLLEGE COLORS. 



College 

Adrian College Lavender and white 

Alabama Poly. College. White, blue, yellow 

Alfred College Royal purple & gold 

Allegheny College Cadet blue, old gold 

Amherst College Purple and white. 

Antioch College Red and blue. 

Barnard College Blue and white. 

Bates College Garnet. 

Beloit College Old gold. 

Bethany Col. (W. Va.) .Green and white. 
Bethany Col. (Kansas). Blue and yellow. 

Boston University Scarlet and white. 

Bowdoin College White. 

Brown University .... Brown and white. 

Bryn Mawr College Yellow and white. 

Bucknell University ..Orange and blue. 

Butler University Blue and white. 

Carleton College Maize. 

Central University (la) Red, white and blue 
Central Univ. (Ky.) — Cream and crimson. 

Colby University Pearl gray. 

College City of N. Y.. .Lavender. 

Colorado College Black and yellow. 

Columbia College Blue and white. 

Columbian University. Orange and blue. 

Cornell College Purple. 

Cornell University Cornelian and white 

CumberlandUniversityGreen, white, blue. 
Dartmouth College — Green. 
De Pauw University... Old gold. 
Des Moines College .... Yellow. 

Dickinson College Red and white. 

Earlham College Cream and yellow. 

Emory and Henry Col. Blue and orange. 
Franklin and Marshall . Blue and white. 

Franklin College Blue and old gold. 

Georgetown Col. (D.C.). Blue and gray. 
Georgetown Col. (Ky.).Pink, bronze green. 

Hamilton College Rose pink. 

Hamline University. . .Gray and red. 
Hampden-Sidney Col.. Silver gray, garnet. 
Hampton Institute — Pink and light blue. 

Hanover College Blue and scarlet. 

Harvard University . . .Crimson. 
Heidelberg University.Old gold and blue. 
Hillsdale College ......Navy blue, white. 

Hiram College Bright red, sky blue 

Howard University — Red, white and blue 

Illinois College White and blue. 

Illinois Wesleyan Col. .Steelgray.navyblue 
Indiana University — Crimson and cream. 

Iowa College Scarlet and black. 

Iowa State College Gold, silver, black. 

Iowa State University.Old gold. 
Johns Hopkins Univ. ..Black and blue. 
KansasWesleyan Univ.White and lavender 
Kentucky University.. Orange and blue. 

Kenyon College Mauve. 

Knox College Old gold and purple. 

Lafayette College Maroon and white. 

Lehigh University Brown and white. 

Leland StanfordJr.Un.Cardinal. 

Lincoln University Violet and white. 

Lombard University... Crimson and cream. 

Macalister College Blue and gold. 

McKendree College Royal purple. 

Manhattan College Blue and white. 

Marietta College ... - . .United States flag. 
Mercer University... '..Buff. 

Miami University Red and white. 

Muhlenberg College . .Cardinal and steel. 



Colors. 

Nevada State Unir ..•.Blue and silver. 

Northwestern Univ Purple and gold. 

Notre Dame College. . .Blue and old gold. 

Oberlin College Crimson and gold. 

Ohio State University. Red and gray. 
Ohio Wesleyan College.Scarlet and jet. 

Oxford College Yellow and blue. 

Pennsylvania College. Orange and blue. 
Pennsylvania StateCol.Na vyblue and white 
Portland Univ. (Ore.) Old gold, purple. 

Princeton College Orange and black. 

Purdue University ....Old gold and black. 

Racine College Royal purple. 

Randolph-Macon Col.. Black and orange. 
Richmond College — Garnet and cream. 

Ripon College Crimson. 

Rutgers College Scarlet. 

Seton Hall College Blue and white. 

Shurtleff College Scarlet and orange. 

Smith College White. 

St. Francis Xavier Col. Blue and maroon. 
St. John's College ....Orange and black. 
St. Louis University.. Orange, white, blue 
Swarthmore College. . .Garnet. 
Syracuse University .. .Orange. 
Trinity Col (Hartford). Dark blue, old gold. 
Trinity College (N. C.).Navy blue. 

Tufts College Brown and blue. 

Tulane University Blue and olive. 

Union College Garnet. 

University of Alabama.Crimson and white. 

Univ. of California Blue and gold. 

University of Chicago.Orange. 
Univ. of City of N. Y. .Violet. 

Univ. of Colorado Gold and silver. 

University of Denver.. Red and yellow. 
University of Georgia. Red and black. 
University of Illinois.. Black and gold. 
University of Kansas.. Crimson. 
Universityof Michigan. Maize and blue. 
Univ. of Minnesota — Oldgoldandmaroon 
Universityof Missouri. Gold and black. 

Univ. of Nashville Crimson and orange 

Univ. of Nebraska Scarlet and cream. 

Univ. of N. Carolina. . .White and blue. 
Univ. of Notre Dame. . Blue and gold. 
Univ. of the Pacific... Orange. 
Univ. of Pennsylvania.Red and blue. 

Univ. of Rochester Orange. 

Univ. of S.Carolina Tea green, card, red 

Univ. of South Dakota. Vermilion. 
Univ. of Tennessee — Orange and white. 
University of Texas.. .White and old gold. 
University ofVermont.Straw, dark green. 
University of Virginia.Navy blue, orange. 
Univ. of Washington.. Purple and gold. 
Univ. of Wisconsin — Crimson. 
University of Wooster.Old gold and black. 
U. S. MilitaryAcademy.Black and gray. 
U. S. Naval Academy.. Navy blue, old gold 
Vanderbilt University .Black and old gold. 

Vassar College Kose and gray. 

Wabash College Scarlet. 

Wash.andJeffersonCol.Ked and black. 
Wash, and Lee Univ.. .Blue. 

Washington Univ Crimson and green. 

Wellesley College Blue. 

Wesleyan University.. Cardinal and black. 
William and Mary Col. Orange and white. 

Williams College Royal purple. 

Yale University Dark blue. 



LARGEST CITIES OF THE WOULD. 



Population of the Largest Cities in the World 



Cities. 



London 

Paris 

New York 

Canton 

Berlin 

Chicago 

Tokio, Japan.. . 

Vienna 

Philadelphia .... 
St. Petersburg-. 

Pekin 

Brooklyn* 

Constantinople. 

Calcutta ■ 

Brooklyn 

Bombay 

Rio de Janeiro.. 

Moscow 

Glasgow 

Hamburg 

Buenos Ayres... 

Liverpool 

Buda-Pesth 

Manchester 

Melbourne 

Warsaw 

Brussels 

Osaka, Japan 

Madrid 

Naples 

St. Louis 

Madras 

Boston 

Rome 

Baltimore 

Birmingham .... 

Amsterdam 

Lyons 

Milan 

Marseilles 

Sydney 

Shanghai 

Cairo 

Leeds 

Leipsic 

Munich 

Breslau 

Mexico City — 

Sheffield 

Odessa 

Copenhagen 

San Francisco... 

Cincinnati 

Kioto, Japan — 

Cologne 

Buffalo 

Dresden 

Lucknow 

Barcelona 

Edinburgh 

Cleveland 

Belfast 

Bordeaux 

Seoul, Corea — 

Stockholm 

Lisbon 



1891 
1891 
1892 



1890 
1892 
1890 
18H0 
1892 
1889 



1892 
1885 
1891 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1888 
1891 
1890 



1891 

1892 
1892 



1887 
1881 



1891 



1890 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1890 
1891